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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1101 matches for " Mansour Mohamadzadeh "
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Dendritic cells: In the forefront of immunopathogenesis and vaccine development – A review
Mohamadzadeh Mansour,Luftig Ronald
Journal of Immune Based Therapies and Vaccines , 2004,
Abstract: Dendritic cellls (DCs) comprise an essential component of the immune system. These cells, as antigen presenting cells (APCs) to na ve T cells, are crucial in the initiation of antigen specific immune responses. In the past years, several DC subsets have been identified in different organs which exert different effects in order to elicit adaptive immune responses. Thus, identification of such DC subsets has led to a better understanding of their distribution and function in the body. In this review, several key properties of the immunobiology, immunopathogenesis and vaccine strategies using DCs will be discussed.
Identification of proteases employed by dendritic cells in the processing of protein purified derivative (PPD)
Mohamadzadeh Mansour,Mohamadzadeh Hamid,Brammer Melissa,Sestak Karol
Journal of Immune Based Therapies and Vaccines , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1476-8518-2-8
Abstract: Dendritic cells (DC) are known to present exogenous protein Ag effectively to T cells. In this study we sought to identify the proteases that DC employ during antigen processing. The murine epidermal-derived DC line Xs52, when pulsed with PPD, optimally activated the PPD-reactive Th1 clone LNC.2F1 as well as the Th2 clone LNC.4k1, and this activation was completely blocked by chloroquine pretreatment. These results validate the capacity of XS52 DC to digest PPD into immunogenic peptides inducing antigen specific T cell immune responses. XS52 DC, as well as splenic DC and DCs derived from bone marrow degraded standard substrates for cathepsins B, C, D/E, H, J, and L, tryptase, and chymases, indicating that DC express a variety of protease activities. Treatment of XS52 DC with pepstatin A, an inhibitor of aspartic acid proteases, completely abrogated their capacity to present native PPD, but not trypsin-digested PPD fragments to Th1 and Th2 cell clones. Pepstatin A also inhibited cathepsin D/E activity selectively among the XS52 DC-associated protease activities. On the other hand, inhibitors of serine proteases (dichloroisocoumarin, DCI) or of cystein proteases (E-64) did not impair XS52 DC presentation of PPD, nor did they inhibit cathepsin D/E activity. Finally, all tested DC populations (XS52 DC, splenic DC, and bone marrow-derived DC) constitutively expressed cathepsin D mRNA. These results suggest that DC primarily employ cathepsin D (and perhaps E) to digest PPD into antigenic peptides.
Induction of intestinal pro-inflammatory immune responses by lipoteichoic acid
Mojgan Zadeh, Mohammad W Khan, Yong Goh, Kurt Selle, Jennifer L Owen, Todd Klaenhammer, Mansour Mohamadzadeh
Journal of Inflammation , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1476-9255-9-7
Abstract: To better understand the molecular mechanisms utilized by the intestinal microbiota and their gene products to induce or subvert inflammation, specifically the effect(s) of altered surface layer protein expression on the LTA-mediated pro-inflammatory response, the Lactobacillus acidophilus surface layer protein (Slp) genes encoding SlpB and SlpX were deleted resulting in a SlpB- and SlpX- mutant that continued to express SlpA (assigned as NCK2031).Our data show profound activation of dendritic cells by NCK2031, wild-type L. acidophilus (NCK56), and purified Staphylococcus aureus-LTA. In contrary to the LTA-deficient strain NCK2025, the LTA-expressing strains NCK2031 and NCK56, as well as S. aureus-LTA, induce pro-inflammatory innate and T cell immune responses in vivo. Additionally, neither NCK2031 nor S. aureus-LTA supplemented in drinking water protected mice from DSS-colitis, but instead, induced significant intestinal inflammation resulting in severe colitis and tissue destruction.These findings suggest that directed alteration of two of the L. acidophilus NCFM-Slps did not ameliorate LTA-induced pro-inflammatory signals and subsequent colitis.The intestinal immune system must co-exist with resident commensal microorganisms while maintaining the ability to defend against potential microbial challenge. This immune tolerance is a highly regulated process comprised of a myriad of biological checkpoints necessary to maintain homeostasis between the host and the gut microbiota [1]. In instances of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), this tolerance between immune cells and intestinal bacteria is disrupted; however, causes of this tolerance breakdown have not yet been determined [2,3]. Although the etiology of IBD is still unknown, exaggerated inflammation induced by activated innate immune cells via their interaction with the microbiota and their gene products, as well as infiltrating CD4+ IFNγ+ T cells, likely play key roles in uncontrolled inflammation and tissue dest
Colonic Immune Stimulation by Targeted Oral Vaccine
Mahesh Kathania, Mojgan Zadeh, Yaíma L. Lightfoot, Robert M. Roman, Bikash Sahay, Jeffrey R. Abbott, Mansour Mohamadzadeh
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0055143
Abstract: Background Currently, sufficient data exist to support the use of lactobacilli as candidates for the development of new oral targeted vaccines. To this end, we have previously shown that Lactobacillus gasseri expressing the protective antigen (PA) component of anthrax toxin genetically fused to a dendritic cell (DC)-binding peptide (DCpep) induced efficacious humoral and T cell-mediated immune responses against Bacillus anthracis Sterne challenge. Methodology/Principal Finding In the present study, we investigated the effects of a dose dependent treatment of mice with L. gasseri expressing the PA-DCpep fusion protein on intestinal and systemic immune responses and confirmed its safety. Treatment of mice with different doses of L. gasseri expressing PA-DCpep stimulated colonic immune responses, resulting in the activation of innate immune cells, including dendritic cells, which induced robust Th1, Th17, CD4+Foxp3+ and CD8+Foxp3+ T cell immune responses. Notably, high doses of L. gasseri expressing PA-DCpep (1012 CFU) were not toxic to the mice. Treatment of mice with L. gasseri expressing PA-DCpep triggered phenotypic maturation and the release of proinflammatory cytokines by dendritic cells and macrophages. Moreover, treatment of mice with L. gasseri expressing PA-DCpep enhanced antibody immune responses, including IgA, IgG1, IgG2b, IgG2c and IgG3. L. gasseri expressing PA-DCpep also increased the gene expression of numerous pattern recognition receptors, including Toll-like receptors, C-type lectin receptors and NOD-like receptors. Conclusion/Significance These findings suggest that L. gasseri expressing PA-DCpep has substantial immunopotentiating properties, as it can induce humoral and T cell-mediated immune responses upon oral administration and may be used as a safe oral vaccine against anthrax challenge.
Colonic Immune Suppression, Barrier Dysfunction, and Dysbiosis by Gastrointestinal Bacillus anthracis Infection
Yaíma L. Lightfoot, Tao Yang, Bikash Sahay, Mojgan Zadeh, Sam X. Cheng, Gary P. Wang, Jennifer L. Owen, Mansour Mohamadzadeh
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100532
Abstract: Gastrointestinal (GI) anthrax results from the ingestion of Bacillus anthracis. Herein, we investigated the pathogenesis of GI anthrax in animals orally infected with toxigenic non-encapsulated B. anthracis Sterne strain (pXO1+ pXO2?) spores that resulted in rapid animal death. B. anthracis Sterne induced significant breakdown of intestinal barrier function and led to gut dysbiosis, resulting in systemic dissemination of not only B. anthracis, but also of commensals. Disease progression significantly correlated with the deterioration of innate and T cell functions. Our studies provide critical immunologic and physiologic insights into the pathogenesis of GI anthrax infection, whereupon cleavage of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in immune cells may play a central role in promoting dysfunctional immune responses against this deadly pathogen.
Spatial Modeling of Residential Crowding in Alexandria Governorate, Egypt: A Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) Technique  [PDF]
Shawky Mansour
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2015.74029
Abstract: Despite growing research for residential crowding effects on housing market and public health perspectives, relatively little attention has been paid to explore and model spatial patterns of residential crowding over space. This paper focuses upon analyzing the spatial relationships between residential crowding and socio-demographic variables in Alexandria neighborhoods, Egypt. Global and local geo-statistical techniques were employed within GIS-based platform to identify spatialvariations of residential crowding determinates. The global ordinary least squares (OLS) modelassumes homogeneity of relationships between response variable and explanatory variablesacross the study area. Consequently, it fails to account for heterogeneity of spatial relationships. Local model known as a geographically weighted regression (GWR) was also employed using the sameresponse variable and explanatory variables to capture spatial non-stationary of residentialcrowding. A comparison of the outputs of both models indicated that OLS explained 74 percent ofresidential crowding variations while GWR model explained 79 percent. The GWR improvedstrength of the model and provided a better goodness of fit than OLS. In addition, the findings of this analysis revealed that residential crowding was significantly associated with different structural measures particularly social characteristics of household such as higher education and illiteracy. Similarly, population size of neighborhood and number of dwelling rooms were found to have direct impacts on residential crowding rate. The spatial relationship of these measures distinctly varies over the study area.
Temperature Effects on the Equation of State and Symmetry Energy: A Critique  [PDF]
Hesham Mansour
Open Journal of Microphysics (OJM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojm.2018.84004
Abstract:
The investigation of strongly interacting systems ranges from matter inside atomic nuclei to matter under extreme conditions in astrophysics. These systems require the introduction of nuclear forces and a systematic many-body approach to solve the strong interaction particles. Understanding the behavior of infinite nuclear matter provides a path to predict the properties of neutron stars and gives insights to astrophysical phenomena. Three-nucleon forces have to be considered when studying nuclear systems, because their impact is necessary to reproduce properties of nuclei and to correctly obtain the neutron drip line. Moreover, they are needed to predict the empirical saturation properties of infinite nuclear matter. The self-consistent Green’s Function approach paves the way for an improved Ab initio analysis of nuclear matter, thereby providing the basis for the equation of state of neutron stars and supernova explosions.
On the Preon Model  [PDF]
Hesham Mansour
Open Journal of Microphysics (OJM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojm.2019.92002
Abstract:
One of the fundamental questions is that “what the matter is composed of?” In 1897, atoms are known as the basic building blocks of matter. In the year 1911, Ernest Rutherford demonstrated that when alpha particles are scattered on a thin gold foil that the atom is composed of mostly empty space with a dense core at its center which is called the nucleus. Thereafter, protons and neutrons were discovered. In 1956, McAllister and Hofstadter published experimental results of elastic scattering of the electrons from a hydrogen target which revealed that the proton has an internal structure. In 1964, Gell-Mann (and independently) Zweig proposed that nucleons are composed of point-like particles which are called quarks. These quarks are postulated to have spin-1/2, fractional electric charge. Combinations of different flavors of quarks yield protons and neutrons which belong to the type of particles called baryons (built up from three quarks) and mesons as (quark and an antiquark). These two groups of particles are categorized as hadrons. The quarks showed further decay properties which suggested that they have a substructure.
Crossed Testicular Ectopia: A Case Report
Behzad Feizzadeh Kerigh,Mohamadali Mohamadzadeh Rezaei
Urology Journal , 2005,
Abstract:
The Survey of Knowledge of Dentists in Correct Prescription Radiography in Isfahan City
M - Mehdizadeh,Z Mohamadzadeh,M Shirban
Journal of Isfahan Dental School , 2005,
Abstract: As uses of X-ray increases for diagnostic purposes, the necessity for dentists to have adequate knowledge about prescribing radiographs also increases. This will cause correct diagnosis and reduces the radiation to the patient. The aim of this cross sectional study was to evaluate the knowledge of dentists from Isfahan about prescribing radiographs.For this research a question form was designed and filled by 230 dentists, which were chosen randomly.T-test analysis was used. The results showed that the dentists' knowledge about prescribing panoramic and periapical and bitewing radiographs was good, about occlusal and about growth and development assessment was moderate and about in highrisk and normal patients and periodontal caries patient and CT and MRI was poor.There was no difference between knowledge of female and male dentists.There was no difference between knowledge of general dentists, residents and specialists about prescription panoramic, periapical, bitewing, growth and development assessment and caries, but the knowledge of residents was better than general dentists about prescription occlusal radiographs. About CT andMRI the knowledge of specialists and residents were higher than general dentists. About prescription radiography for periodontal patient knowledge of specialists were higher than general dentists and residents.Key words. Dentists, Correct prescription, Radiography
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