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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 461949 matches for " Mamaru A. Moges "
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Low Flow Trends and Frequency Analysis in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Kidist Assefa, Mamaru A. Moges
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2018.102011
Abstract: Low flow analysis provides crucial information for the planning and design water resource development, risk assessment and environmental flow management. Understanding the low flow regimes and evaluating the magnitudes for incorporating in water resources management is vital for the countries like Ethiopia where demand for water is increasing. However, there were hardly enough studies in understanding the trends of low flow and frequency analysis. Therefore, this study focuses on evaluation of the trends in low flows and regional low flow analysis in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia. In order to carry out the study, 15 river sub-basins in the Blue Nile Basin were selected based on the long term data availability and presence of quality of data. The 3-day sustained low flow (3d-slf), the 7-day sustained low flow (7d-slf) and the 14-day sustained low flow (14d-slf) models were used to extract the data from the daily time series stream data obtained from MoWIE. Trends in low flow were analyzed separately by using Mann-Kendall (MK) trend test. Low flow frequency analysis was used to estimate the long term low flow quantiles. In addition, regional analysis for estimating the quantiles for ungaged catchments was also developed based on the regional growth curve and catchment characteristic of drainage basins. The results indicated that 3d-slf, 7d-slf and 14d-slf models of low flow series indicated no significant difference for each station at 95% CI. Out of the 15 selected stations, 12 of stations have indicated decreasing; two stations indicated increasing and remaining one station with no trend. Mainly decreasing trend was associated with the land cover and climate change which results in increasing runoff and evapotranspiration respectively. Weibull distribution—GEV and LGN was found best fit based on the L-Moment Ratio Diagram (L-MRD). Hence quantile estimations have indicated diminishing magnitudes of low flow quintiles for 2 - 500 years return periods. Regional low frequency analysis has provided a very good relationship between discharge and catchment characteristics with an R2 of 0.72. Where area (A) and rainfall (R) followed by slope were found sensitive to compute in developing the regional region equations between mean low flows and the physiographic data. This study indicated that there needs to be a new water management scenario and adaptation mechanism of climate change and land use land cover dynamics for utilizing water resource in the Blue Nile Basin.
Applicability of Galway River Flow Forecasting and Modeling System (GFFMS) for Lake Tana Basin, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Tesfaye A. Dessalegn, Mamaru A. Moges, Dessalegn C. Dagnew, Assegidew Gashaw
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2017.912084
Abstract: Flow forecasting is used in activities requiring stream flow data such as irrigation development, water supply, and flood control and hydropower development. Real time flow forecasting with special interest to flooding is one of the most important applications of hydrology for decision making in water resources. In order to meet flood and flow forecasts using hydrological models may be used and subsequently be updated in accordance with residuals. Therefore in this study, different flood forecasting methods are evaluated for their potential of stream flow forecasting using Galway River Flow Forecasting and Modeling System (GFFMS) in Lake Tana basin, upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia. The areal rainfall and temperature data was used for the model input. Three forecast updating methods, i.e., autoregressive (AR), linear transfer function (LTF) and neuron network updating (NNU) methods were compared for stream flow forecasting, at one to six days lead time. The most sensitive parameters were fine-tuned first and modeled for a calibration period of 1994-2004 for three selected watersheds of the Tana basin. The results indicate that with the exception of the simple linear model, an acceptable result could be obtained using models embedded in the software. Artificial neural network model performed well for Gilgel Abay (NSE = 0.87) and Gumara (NSE = 0.9) watersheds but for Megech watershed, SMAR model (NSE = 0.78) gave a better forecast result. In capturing the peak flows LTF and NNU in forecast updating mode performed better for Gilgel Abay and Megech watersheds, respectively. The results of this study implied that GFFMS can be used as a useful tool to forecast peak stream flows for flood early warning in the upper Blue Nile basin.
Water Quality Assessment by Measuring and Using Landsat 7 ETM+ Images for the Current and Previous Trend Perspective: Lake Tana Ethiopia  [PDF]
Mamaru A. Moges, Petra Schmitter, Seifu A. Tilahun, Essays K. Ayana, Atikilt A. Ketema, Temsgen E. Nigussie, Tammo S. Steenhuis
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2017.912099
Abstract: Recently there are signs of water quality impairment in Lake Tana, the largest fresh water in Ethiopia. The lake is the growth corridor of the government and supports millions of livelihood around. In order to sustain the benefit and maintain the ecosystem of the lake, the lake health has to be kept safe. Therefore monitoring and evaluation of the water quality of lake is very vital. This study focuses on current and previous trends water quality of the lake through measurements and Landsat Images near entry of Gumera River. Statistical analysis of the physical (Turbidity and STD and biological (Cha-a,) and chemical (DPC) water quality parameters were done. Linear and non-linear regression models between water quality parameter and reflectance of Landsat 7 ETM+ images were fitted based on band combinations. Pervious trend in turbidity was analyzed based on the regression models. The results showed that reflectance and turbidity satisfactorily result with an R2 ranging from 0.61 - 0.68. Form 1999-2014 the turbidity of the lake has indicated an increasing trend. Delta development near the entry of Gumera River has been enlarged by 48% because of an increase sediment inflow. The sign in the decreasing water quality of the lake was attributed to the non-point source sediment and nutrient inflow to the lake with high erosion rate from the watersheds. Measures to reduce the non-point source sediment and nutrient inflow by targeting the source areas (hot spots) in the agricultural watersheds need to be priority for stakeholders working on the soil and water conservation. Moreover, reducing the recession agriculture around the lake and wetland management could be crucial for improving lake water quality.
Assessment of the Impact of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam on the Performance of the High Aswan Dam  [PDF]
Asegdew G. Mulat, Semu A. Moges
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.66057

A Large scale hydropower dam known as Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) is under construction on the Blue Nile River just upstream of the Ethiopian-Sudan border in Ethiopia. The GERD has an active storage capacity of more than 60,000 Mm3 and is anticipated to produce 6000 MW of hydropower energy. The aim of this study was to assess the potential impact of the dam on the performance of the High Aswan Dam (HAD) during filling and operation phases using a simulation model using Mike Basin river basin simulation model. The results indicate the planned 6 years filling period is sufficient to fill the reservoir with little impact on the current irrigation water demands from HAD in Egypt without additional management investment. There will be about 12% and 7% of reduction of annual energy output from High Aswan Dam during the filling and after filling stage of GERD respectively. Cumulative Energy production from the two dams will increase significantly Water loss at HAD due to evaporation will decreases by 22%. Overall performance of HAD during and after filling of the GERD remains at a reliability level of 96%. The study advises to utilize the results cautiously as it is based on only one historical realization of the many possible scenarios that may evolve in the future.

Zoonosis Due to Bruella suis with Special Reference to Infection in Dogs (Carnivores): A Brief Review  [PDF]
Moges Woldemeskel
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2013.33034

Brucella suis (B. suis) is the major cause of porcine brucellosis. Zoonosis due to B. suis infection associated with transmission by various animal species is reported. Recently an increase in brucellosis associated with feral swine transmitted B. suis infection in humans and hunting dogs is emerging. Reports on B. suis infection in carnivores including dogs is scant. This report gives a brief review of B. suis zoonosis with particular reference to B. suis infection in dogs (carnivores).

Determinates of Regain in Body Mass Index among Malnourished Aids Patients on Therapeutic Food in Amhara National Regional State, Northwest Ethiopia: A Retrospective Cohort Study  [PDF]
Molla Gedefaw, Moges Tariku
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2015.52016
Abstract: Although its utilization is greatly disputed, ready-to-use therapeutic food has been started as clinical nutrition care and treatment for malnourished adult AIDS patients since 2011 in Amhara National Regional State. However, factors determining the intended outcome (weight gain) have not been properly investigated. The main objective of the study was to assess improvement in body mass index and to identify its determinant factors. A retrospective cohort study design was conducted. Cluster sampling was employed to select health facilities in which the service was provided in the region. Of the 44 health facilities, nine were selected using lottery method, and all patients receiving the care in these health institutions were included in the study. Using tailored structured checklist, data were collected, organized and cleaned. Using paired T-test existence of difference between the mean of body mass index at admission and at 3rd visit was measured. Finally analysis of association between some selected independent variables with the outcome variable was done using logistic regression model at 95% CI and p < 0.05. Of 431 study participants, 175 (40.6%) study participants’ body mass index was improved (≥18.5 kg/m2). Paired T-test revealed that there was a statistically significant difference between mean of body mass index at admission and at the 3rd visit. Good ready-to-use therapeutic food treatment adherence (AOR 11.145; 95% CI 6.556, 18.946), moderate acute malnutrition at admission (AOR 6.71; 95% CI 2.618, 17.195), good ART adherence (AOR 2.136; 95% CI, 1.269, 3.595) and being male (AOR 1.73; 95% CI 1.052, 2.850) have a statistically significant contribution for body mass index improvement. The study identifies factors that determine gain in body mass index among AIDS patients on ready-to-use therapeutic food. However, although the study revealed a statistically significant difference between body mass index during enrolment, and after three months, we disagreed with the right and left utilization of imported food because of lack of sustainability, and aid dependency. We rather recommend interventions that encourage households to produce food with similar outcomes from locally available food staff.
Contributing Factors to Long Working Hours: Case Study of Waiters in Dire Dawa Administration  [PDF]
Gizachew Girma, Tadesse Moges
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2015.63017
Abstract: The need to create and maintain industrial peace, in one hand, protect the fragile interest of workers on the other side to boost economic development have been critical issues which have attained significant consideration from states. To that end, they introduced at international and national levels different set of legislations regulating employment relations. Among other things, working time limit has meticulously been introduced to safeguard the rights of workers, who are generally with the lesser bargaining power, and make the labor more productive. Ethiopia has accepted this notion of delimitating working hours, and adopted legislations. However, it has become a public secret that such rules have not been maintained in practice and that the enforcement mechanism appeared meager. Though researches have been made in different part of the world; in Ethiopia, particularly in Dire Dawa, the factors contributing for long working hours have not been addressed. There are, however, indicators that particularly waiters are working for longer hours than what the law stipulates. In a town dubbed as industrial corner, this factor should not be left unconsidered if the aspired objective of the labour regulation is really to be met. This research, hence, took the first step in studying the existence of this violation, and investigating the contributing factors. The data were collected through structured questionnaires and interviews, and samples were taken using stratified systematic sampling method. Data were analyzed through quantitative (descriptive analysis and logistic regression model) and qualitative techniques. Then, job insecurity, lack of legal awareness, culture of the work, salary, tips, dependents, and level of education have been found out to be contributing factors, and their level of significance has also been established. It has also revealed that the absence of strong enforcement mechanisms contributed for the apparent non-adherence to the rules so delimiting working hours.
Increasing Detection and Confirmation of Tuberculosis in Children in Southern Ethiopia: Pooled Samples Tested Using Microscopy and Xpert  [PDF]
Daniel G. Datiko, Mulualem A. Gadena, Mubarek A. Yassin, Kefyalew T. Garie, Moges D. Ormago, Luis E. Cuevas
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2018.63020
Abstract: Background: Childhood tuberculosis accounts for about 10% of estimated TB cases in the world. Despite advances in diagnostics, childhood TB remains a challenge. We evaluated pooling method and testing with GeneXpert MTB/RIF in southern Ethiopia. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study in presumptive TB children < 15 years. Structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic and clinical data. Two sputum or gastric aspirate sample were collected and examined by ZN and Xpert MTB/RIF for 1st, 2nd and pooled samples. Results: Of 340 presumptive TB cases enrolled, 96 and 244 children submitted gastric aspirate and sputum samples respectively. Of 1020 samples collected (282 gastric aspirate and 738 sputum samples), 38 (3.7%) were positive by Xpert (10 (3.5%) from gastric aspirate and 28 (3.8%) from sputum sample). Similarly, 8 (1.2%) of sputum samples were positive by ZN but none from gastric aspirate. Of 244 children who submitted sputum samples, 3 (1.2%) were bacteriologically positive compared to 12 (4.9%) by Xpert. Of 96 children who submitted gastric aspirate samples, none were positive by ZN while 5 (5.2%) were positive by Xpert. Of bacteriologically confirmed TB cases 0.9% was by ZN and 4.7% by Xpert, an increase of 3.8%. Pooled testing increased positivity by 0.3% for ZN and 1.5% by Xpert compared to the 1st sample. Conclusions: Xpert MTB/RIF testing increases yield compared to ZN testing for gastric aspirate samples. The same-day approach and pooling samples improves efficient use of cartridge, reduce the number of visits for seeking diagnosis and save resources.
Prevalence and Determinants of Khat (Catha edulis) Chewing among High School Students in Eastern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study
Ayalu A. Reda, Asmamaw Moges, Sibhatu Biadgilign, Berhanu Y. Wondmagegn
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033946
Abstract: Background Use of psychoactive drugs such as khat leaves (Catha edulis) alter moods and emotional state and lead to adverse effects on the health and social life of users. Ethiopia is a major producer and exporter of khat in east Africa and the majority of the khat comes from the eastern part of the country, however, no studies have been conducted to investigate the habit in this area. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence and predictors of khat chewing among high school students in Harar, eastern Ethiopia. Methodology The study was conducted among 1,890 secondary school students in Harar town in April 2010. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were performed to examine the prevalence and predictors of khat chewing. Result The overall prevalence of khat chewing among the sample was 24.2% (95% CI 22.2%–26.2%). About 28.5% of females and 71.5% of males had chewed khat. Older age (OR 1.31; 95% CI 1.16–1.49), male gender (OR 2.10; 95% CI 1.50–2.93), Muslim religion (OR 1.88; 95% CI 1.17–3.04), having friends who chewed khat (OR 7.93; 95% CI 5.40–11.64), and availability of someone with a similar habit in the family (OR 1.50; 95% CI 1.07–2.11) were found to be independent predictors of chewing. Conclusion A significant proportion of students chew khat. The use of khat is significantly associated with age, gender, Muslim religion, peer influence and habit of family and other relatives among students. Measures such as educational campaigns need to be instituted to create awareness among school adolescents and their parents in order to reduce the prevalence of the habit and its adverse social and health consequences.
Determinants of cigarette smoking among school adolescents in eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study
Ayalu A Reda, Asmamaw Moges, Berhanu Yazew, Sibhatu Biadgilign
Harm Reduction Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7517-9-39
Abstract: To assess the prevalence of cigarette use and its determinant factors among high school students in eastern Ethiopia.A cross-sectional study was conducted using structured self-administered questionnaires among 1,721 school adolescents in Harar town, eastern Ethiopia. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to examine associations.The analysis revealed that prevalence of ever cigarette smoking was 12.2% (95% CI 10.8% - 13.9%). Reasons mentioned for smoking cigarettes were for enjoyment (113, 52.8%), for trial (92, 42.9%), and for other reasons (9, 4.3%). The main predictors of cigarette smoking were sex (OR 4.32; 95% CI 2.59-7.22), age (OR 1.20; 95% CI 1.05-1.38) and having friends who smoke (OR 8.14; 95% CI 5.19-12.70). Living with people who smoke cigarettes was not significantly associated with smoking among adolescents (OR 1.25; 95% CI 0.81-1.92).This study concluded that high proportion of school adolescents in Harar town smoked cigarettes. Sex, age and peer influence were identified as important determinants of smoking. There is a need for early cost-effective interventions and education campaigns that target secondary school students.Smoking is currently considered one of the greatest problems in public health worldwide, and it is one of the most preventable causes of death. Globally, the use and sale of substances such as alcohol and tobacco is causing substantial levels of health problems [1]. The World Health Organization (WHO) attributes more than 4 million deaths a year to tobacco and this figure is expected to increase to 10 million deaths a year by 2020. Moreover, it is now a growing public health challenge in the developing world [2]. According to WHO estimates, approximately 47% of men and 12% of women smoke cigarettes worldwide in 2010 [3]. Citing the death of 5 million individuals worldwide every year due to smoking-related diseases, the WHO states that smoking should be considered a pandemic [3]. In the United State
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