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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 388 matches for " Mamadou Simina Dramé "
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Intra-Seasonal and Annual Variation of Aerosols and Their Radiative Impact in the Sahelian Zone of Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Bado Nébon, Mamadou Simina Dramé, Saidou Moustapha Sall, Korgo Bruno, Demba Ndao Niang, Kieno P. Florent, Bathiebo Dieudonné Joseph
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2019.91004
Abstract: This paper deals with the characterization of aerosols in the Sahelian zone, particularly in Burkina Faso based on MODIS observations and in situ measurements of the AERONET network on the Ouagadougou site (12.2°N, 1.4°W). Thus, a seasonal spatial distribution of aerosols made over the period from 2001 to 2016 gives a very great variability of aerosols in Burkina Faso, whose maxima are encountered in Spring, characterized by winds from the North East. This seasonality of aerosols is also shown by the annual cycles of optical, radiative and microphysical parameters measured by AERONET between 1999 and 2006. Moreover, an analysis of these parameters shows the prevalence of mineral dusts characterized by low values of the Angstrom coefficient (α440-870 < 0.5) associated with the maxima of AOT with high intensity in March. These dusts are confirmed by their scattering nature (SSA > 0.9) and the cooling noticed in the bottom of atmosphere (BOA) and at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). Also, the climatology of the volume size distribution of aerosols shows a very great variability of particles in terms of size influenced by the thin and coarse pattern where most sizes are between 1 and 10 μm.
Intra-Seasonal Variability of Aerosols and Their Radiative Impacts on Sahel Climate during the Period 2000-2010 Using AERONET Data  [PDF]
Mamadou Simina Drame, Moctar Camara, Amadou T. Gaye
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2013.41A024
Abstract:

This paper presents a study using in situ measurements (AERONET data) to characterize the intra-seasonal variability of aerosols and their shortwave radiative impacts on Sahel (11\"\"N - 18\"\"N and 20\"\"W - 15\"\"E) climate using a long time series (2000 to 2010) from AERONET data. We first used the MISR aerosol optical depth (AOD) averaged between 2000 and 2010 to identify dust maxima regions. They are mainly located over Eastern Mauritania-Northern Mali and Eastern Niger-Western Tchad (near the Bodele depression). Moreover the aerosol loading is stronger during the spring (MAM) and particularly during the summer (JJA). The analysis of AERONET data at 4 Sahelian stations (Dakar, Agoufou, Banizoumbou and Ouagadougou) shows that Sahel is under dust influence all year long. The dust season is mainly located between March and October, with two peaks of AOD recorded in March and June; while the maximum of biomass burning activity is recorded in winter (December to February). The radiative forcing of aerosols on the Sahelian climate results mainly in a cooling as well as at the surface than at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) but the forcing is stronger at the surface and particularly during the summer (JJA) and spring (MAM) periods. Although there is not a sharp difference between DJF and SON periods from a station to another one when considering the aerosol loading (AOD), the radiative forcing is stronger at the surface and weaker at the TOA during DJF for most stations. The analysis of the force effectiveness (ratio between AOD and the radiative forcing) suggests that the BOA radiative forcing is mainly influenced by the nature of aerosols.



A phase II, open-label, multicentre study to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of an adjuvanted prepandemic (H5N1) influenza vaccine in healthy Japanese adults
Hideaki Nagai, Hideyuki Ikematsu, Kazuyoshi Tenjinbaru, Atsushi Maeda, Mamadou Dramé, Fran?ois P Roman
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-10-338
Abstract: This open-label, single-group study was conducted at two centres in Japan in healthy Japanese males and females aged 20-64 years (n = 100). Subjects received two doses of vaccine, containing 3.75 μg haemagglutinin of the A/Indonesia/5/2005-like IBCDC-RG2 Clade 2.1 (H5N1) strain adjuvanted with AS03A, 21 days apart. The primary endpoint evaluated the humoral immune response in terms of H5N1 haemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titres against the vaccine strain (Clade 2.1) 21 days after the second dose. Ninety five percent confidence intervals for geometric mean titres, seroprotection, seroconversion and seropositivity rates were calculated. Secondary and exploratory endpoints included the assessment of the humoral response in terms of neutralising antibody titres, the response against additional H5N1 strains (Clade 1 and Clade 2.2), as well as the evaluation of safety and reactogenicity.Robust immune responses were elicited after two doses of the prepandemic influenza vaccine adjuvanted with AS03A. Overall, vaccine HI seroconversion rates and seroprotection rates were 91% 21 days after the second vaccination. This fulfilled all regulatory acceptance criteria for the vaccine-homologous HI antibody level. A substantial cross-reactive humoral immune response was also observed against the virus strains A/turkey/Turkey/1/2005 (Clade 2.2) and A/Vietnam/1194/2004 (Clade 1) after the second vaccine administration. A marked post-vaccination response in terms of neutralising antibody titres was demonstrated and persistence of the immune response was observed 6 months after the first dose. The vaccine was generally well tolerated and there were no serious adverse events reported.The H5N1 candidate vaccine adjuvanted with AS03A elicited a strong and persistent immune response against the vaccine strain A/Indonesia/5/2005 in Japanese adults. Vaccination with this formulation demonstrated a clinically acceptable reactogenicity profile and did not raise any safety concerns in
Broad Clade 2 Cross-Reactive Immunity Induced by an Adjuvanted Clade 1 rH5N1 Pandemic Influenza Vaccine
Isabel Leroux-Roels, Roger Bernhard, Pascal Gérard, Mamadou Dramé, Emmanuel Hanon, Geert Leroux-Roels
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0001665
Abstract: Background The availability of H5N1 vaccines that can elicit a broad cross-protective immunity against different currently circulating clade 2 H5N1 viruses is a pre-requisite for the development of a successful pre-pandemic vaccination strategy. In this regard, it has recently been shown that adjuvantation of a recombinant clade 1 H5N1 inactivated split-virion vaccine with an oil-in-water emulsion-based adjuvant system also promoted cross-immunity against a recent clade 2 H5N1 isolate (A/Indonesia/5/2005, subclade 2.1). Here we further analyse the cross-protective potential of the vaccine against two other recent clade 2 isolates (A/turkey/Turkey/1/2005 and A/Anhui/1/2005 which are, as defined by WHO, representatives of subclades 2.2 and 2.3 respectively). Methods and Findings Two doses of the recombinant A/Vietnam/1194/2004 (H5N1, clade 1) vaccine were administered 21 days apart to volunteers aged 18–60 years. We studied the cross-clade immunogenicity of the lowest antigen dose (3.8 μg haemagglutinin) given with (N = 20) or without adjuvant (N = 20). Immune responses were assessed at 21 days following the first and second vaccine doses and at 6 months following first vaccination. Vaccination with two doses of 3.8 μg of the adjuvanted vaccine induced four-fold neutralising seroconversion rates in 85% of subjects against A/turkey/Turkey/1/2005 (subclade 2.2) and 75% of subjects against A/Anhui/1/2005 (subclade 2.3) recombinant strains. There was no response induced against these strains in the non-adjuvanted group. At 6 months following vaccination, 70% and 60% of subjects retained neutralising antibodies against the recombinant subclade 2.2 and 2.3 strains, respectively and 40% of subjects retained antibodies against the recombinant subclade 2.1 A/Indonesia/5/2005 strain. Conclusions In addition to antigen dose-sparing, adjuvantation of inactivated split H5N1 vaccine promotes broad and persistent cross-clade immunity which is a pre-requisite for a pre-pandemic vaccine. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00309634
State of the Art: Solution Concepts for Coalitional Games
Simina Branzei
Brain. Broad Research in Artificial Intelligence and Neuroscience , 2010,
Abstract: This paper investigates solution concepts for coalitional games. Several solution concepts are characterized, such as the core, Shapley value, bargaining set, stable set, nucleolus, and kernel. We look at recent developments of succinct representations of coalitional games, such as weighted voting games, coalitional resource games, cooperative boolean games, and marginal contribution nets. Existing solution concepts have prohibitive complexity requirements even for very simple classes of games. We discuss an agenda for finding an equilibrium solution concept that is as appealing as the core, but that is tractable and guaranteed to exist.
Les enjeux socio-économiques autour de l'agroforesterie villageoise à Aguié (Niger)
Dramé Yayé, A.,Berti, F.
Tropicultura , 2008,
Abstract: Issues around Village Agroforestry in Aguié (Niger). In the framework of a partnership between the Abdou Moumouni University of Niamey (Niger), The Catholic University of Louvain (Belgium), The Gembloux Agricultural University (Belgium), The University of Liege (Belgium), The asbl ENDA Intermondes and the PPILDA Project, former PDRAA of Aguié (Niger), studies were conducted in 2003 and 2004 in two villages (Dan Saga and Guidan Bakoye) in Aguié, located in the Region of Maradi (Middle South of Niger). These studies were requested by farmers, and aimed at precising the feasibility and conditions for creating a rural wood market. They consisted in the evaluation of the assisted natural regeneration obtained through the protection of tree shoots in the fields. Dan Saga and Guidan Bakoye villages are typical Combretum glutinosum and Piliostigma reticulatum areas where farmers from all social categories practised the assisted natural regeneration, leading to densities of more than 100 trees per hectare in the fields. These densities increase with the increasing distance from the villages. The weekly amount of offered firewood (about 10 to 50 bundles of 25 kg each) and timber in the local market could generate more than CFA 1 million income. However, the lack of local purchasers makes it difficult to sell more than the third of the wood production. This is what seems to be another reason for creating a wood market network. This network would be a grouping of villages not always belonging to the same administrative entity, but organized around common social and economical development concerns. The PPILDA Projet calls such a network a "Between-Villages Network". The management of the natural regeneration of tree species in the fields has favoured the emergence of various actors whose conflicting interests destabilized the pre-existing social structures. The only way to adapt to these social mutations is to establish an incentive agroforestry policy, to define the new actors' role and to make an important investment in the capacity building of these actors.
Conjugate Gradient Method to Solve Fluid Structure Interaction Problem  [PDF]
Mamadou Diop, Ibrahima Mbaye
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/am.2017.84036
Abstract: In this paper, we propose a method to solve coupled problem. Our computational method is mainly based on conjugate gradient algorithm. We use finite difference method for the structure and finite element method for the fluid. Conjugate gradient method gives suitable numerical results according to some papers.
THE ROMANIAN LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK ON IMMIGRATION 1
Simina T?N?SESC
Transylvanian Review of Administrative Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: This paper critically discusses the legalframework pertaining to the status of foreigners andmigration and highlights several of the challengesrelated to adapting the existing legislation to therequirements imposed by the adhesion to theEuropean Union and the need to incorporate theacquis into the national legislation.Statistics seem to demonstrate that emigrationrather then immigration is (still) characteristic fornowadays Romania. This situation is likely tochange in the near future. However, one cannotput too much emphasis on the importance of theaccession of Romania to EU with regard to theexternal border of the Community. The defenceof borders and the predominance of “security”over the protection of human rights, particularlythose affecting nationals of third countries2, wereinspiring not only the policies of the EuropeanCommission3or regulations of the EuropeanCouncil4, but also the Romanian legislation. Thefollowing presentation attempts to demonstratethe high degree of harmonisation of the Romanianlegislative framework with EU relevant acquis.
Research Quality, Fairness, and Authorship Order
Margareta Ackerman,Simina Branzei
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: The order in which authors are listed on an academic paper determines the credit that each receives on a co-authored publication, influencing hiring, tenure and promotions. Two of the prevalent author ordering schemes are alphabetical, which involves listing authors in lexicographical order of their last names, implying that all contributed equally, and by contribution, where authors are listed in decreasing order of their contribution to the paper. We perform a game theoretic analysis of the impact of author ordering schemes, uncovering two considerable advantages of alphabetical ordering: it leads to improved research quality, and it is the more fair of the two approaches in the worst case. On the other hand, contribution-based ordering results in a denser collaboration network and a greater number of publications than is achieved using alphabetical author ordering. Furthermore, authors can overcome some of the limitations of contribution-based ordering by performing rotations, alternating who is the first author on joint papers. This often allows authors to achieve optimal research quality and perfect fairness under any given contribution scheme; however, this is obtained at the expense of truthfulness.
TREATMENT OF NATIONALS BY THEIR KIN STATE – THE ROMANIAN CASE
Simina Elena T?N?SESCU
Transylvanian Review of Administrative Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: Treatment of nationals by their kin state deals with what legal science amuses itself to call “concepts à géometrie variable” or even “non-identifiable objects” (Horchani, 2003, pp. 189). To the date there is no broadly accepted definition of the concept of nationalities or national minorities and, in order to identify a kin-state, one needs to clarify the concept of nation, which remains a challenge even in postmodern era (Toperwien, 2001, pp. 44, 187-189). Postmodern writings have criticized modern definitions of the concept of nation as relying too heavily on objective criteria and neglecting a possible more subjective approach. Also, globalization might necessitate a new concept of nation. No attempt to provide formal definitions will be attempted in this article, but some explanations regarding the use of words and concepts are deemed necessary before sketching some features of history in order to venture understanding the treatment that the state reserves to Romanians living abroad.
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