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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 192268 matches for " Malcolm D. Schug "
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Ancient Skeletal Evidence for Leprosy in India (2000 B.C.)
Gwen Robbins, V. Mushrif Tripathy, V. N. Misra, R. K. Mohanty, V. S. Shinde, Kelsey M. Gray, Malcolm D. Schug
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0005669
Abstract: Background Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae that affects almost 250,000 people worldwide. The timing of first infection, geographic origin, and pattern of transmission of the disease are still under investigation. Comparative genomics research has suggested M. leprae evolved either in East Africa or South Asia during the Late Pleistocene before spreading to Europe and the rest of the World. The earliest widely accepted evidence for leprosy is in Asian texts dated to 600 B.C. Methodology/Principal Findings We report an analysis of pathological conditions in skeletal remains from the second millennium B.C. in India. A middle aged adult male skeleton demonstrates pathological changes in the rhinomaxillary region, degenerative joint disease, infectious involvement of the tibia (periostitis), and injury to the peripheral skeleton. The presence and patterning of lesions was subject to a process of differential diagnosis for leprosy including treponemal disease, leishmaniasis, tuberculosis, osteomyelitis, and non-specific infection. Conclusions/Significance Results indicate that lepromatous leprosy was present in India by 2000 B.C. This evidence represents the oldest documented skeletal evidence for the disease. Our results indicate that Vedic burial traditions in cases of leprosy were present in northwest India prior to the first millennium B.C. Our results also support translations of early Vedic scriptures as the first textual reference to leprosy. The presence of leprosy in skeletal material dated to the post-urban phase of the Indus Age suggests that if M. leprae evolved in Africa, the disease migrated to India before the Late Holocene, possibly during the third millennium B.C. at a time when there was substantial interaction among the Indus Civilization, Mesopotamia, and Egypt. This evidence should be impetus to look for additional skeletal and molecular evidence of leprosy in India and Africa to confirm the African origin of the disease.
Multiplierless Implementation of Rotators and FFTs
Macleod Malcolm D
EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing , 2005,
Abstract: Complex rotators are used in many important signal processing applications, including Cooley-Tukey and split-radix FFT algorithms. This paper presents methods for designing multiplierless implementations of fixed-point rotators and FFTs, in which multiplications are replaced by additions, subtractions, and shifts. These methods minimise the adder-cost (the number of additions and subtractions), while achieving a specified level of accuracy. FFT designs based on multiplierless rotators are compared with designs based on the multiplierless implementation of DFT matrix multiplication. These techniques make possible VLSI implementations of rotators and FFTs which could achieve very high speed and/or power efficiency. The methods can be used to provide any chosen accuracy; examples are presented for 12 to 26 bit accuracy. On average, rotators are shown to be implementable using 10, 12, or 15 adders to achieve accuracies of 12, 16, or 20 bits, respectively.
Non-Excisional Face and Neck Tightening Using a Novel Subdermal Radiofrequency Thermo-Coaugulative Device  [PDF]
D. H. Ahn, R. S. Mulholland, Diane Duncan, Malcolm Paul
Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications (JCDSA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jcdsa.2011.14021
Abstract: 42 patients with broad age and ethnic demographics where treated with a novel, non-excisional, minimally invasive device to coagulate a very thin layer of sub-dermal septo-fascial fat, denature the deep reticular dermis and tighten the skin and sub-dermal matrix of connective tissue. The detailed treatment protocol and results are presented. Patients were observed for up to 6 month following the procedure. No major side effects were observed. The aesthetic outcome of this non-excisional procedure includes improvement of the position and shape of the cheek, lower lid-cheek junction, jawline and neck. The overall aesthetic results deliver a noticeable and impressive tightening of the soft-tissue and may be compared with a conservative, small excisional procedure. The authors propose this versatile device and treatment as a non-excisional, moderate facial rejuvenation procedure on its own, or as an adjunct to open procedures performed simultaneously, or as a simplified treatment for secondary skin laxity in combination with a lift procedure.
Fractional Ablative Radio-Frequency Resurfacing in Asian and Caucasian Skin: A Novel Method for Deep Radiofrequency Fractional Skin Rejuvenation  [PDF]
R. Stephen Mulholland, D. H. Ahn, Michael Kreindel, Malcolm Paul
Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications (JCDSA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jcdsa.2012.23029
Abstract: This paper reports the clinical experience of a multi-center, multiple physician trial with a novel fractional radiofrequency ablative skin resurfacing and rejuvenation device (Fractora, Invasix, Israel) deployed on both Caucasian skin types I - III and Asian skin type IV. Histological study demonstrated deep ablation and collagen restructuring in the papillary and reticular dermis. The Fractora device combines the more “cone shaped” ablation seen with CO2 and Erbium lasers with a deep non-ablative heating pattern, seen with other bipolar RF fractional needle resurfacing devices. Ablation, coagulation zones and healing dynamics are analyzed for different energy settings. Two different treatment protocols are suggested: one for light skin and then one for darker skin with a higher risk of post-inflammatory hypperpigmentation. Treatment results show improvement in skin texture, pores, wrinkles and skin dyschromia.
Luminous Lyman Break Galaxies at z>5 and the Source of Reionization
Matthew D. Lehnert,Malcolm Bremer
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/376729
Abstract: We have discovered six galaxies with spectroscopically confirmed redshifts of 4.81.5 in the field, this photometric cut designed to select galaxies at z>4.8. The line fluxes range between 0.2 to 2.5 x 10^-17 ergs cm^-2 s^-1 indicating luminosities of around 10^42-43 ergs s^-1 for Ly-alpha and their high emission line equivalent widths suggest very young ages (<10^8 yrs). A further line-emitting object with no detectable continuum was serendipitously detected by spectroscopy. If this line is Ly-alpha then it is from a source at z=6.6, making this the most distant galaxy known. However, the redshift cannot be considered secure as it is based on a single line. No broad emission line objects (quasars) were detected. The 13 sources at I_AB<26.2 are less than that expected if the luminosity function of dropout galaxies remained unchanged between z=3 and z=6, although the deficit is not highly significant given possible cosmic variance. The UV luminosity density from galaxies brighter than our flux limit is considerably less than that necessary to keep the volume probed by our field at ~5.3 ionized. These galaxies are observed within several hundred Myr of the end of the epoch of reionization (z=6-7), with little time for the luminosity function to evolve. This, and the lack of detected quasars, imply that the bulk of the UV flux that reionized the universe came from faint galaxies with M_(1700 ang)>-21.
Is radical prostatectomy the best option for localized prostate cancer? Current opinion and research
Mike D Shelley, Malcolm D Mason
Open Access Surgery , 2010, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OAS.S11122
Abstract: radical prostatectomy the best option for localized prostate cancer? Current opinion and research Review (4416) Total Article Views Authors: Mike D Shelley, Malcolm D Mason Published Date July 2010 Volume 2010:3 Pages 47 - 58 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OAS.S11122 Mike D Shelley1, Malcolm D Mason2 1Head of Cochrane Urological Cancers Unit, Research Department, Velindre NHS Trust, Cardiff, UK; 2Cancer Research Wales Professor of Clinical Oncology, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Velindre NHS Trust, Cardiff, UK Abstract: Open radical prostatectomy is an effective treatment for prostate cancer with a 5-year biochemical recurrence-free survival rate of about 90% for localized disease. For men with organ confined disease, the 10 year disease-specific survival rate approximates 95% following retropubic prostatectomy. Attempts to improve survival rates by combining androgen deprivation therapy with radical prostatectomy have been unsuccessful. Erectile dysfunction and urinary incontinence are common complications following open radical prostatectomy. In an attempt to reduce morbidity, laparoscopic approaches have been developed with reported 8-year cancer control rates of about 70%. Robotic laparoscopic approaches yield a trifecta rate of achieving continence, potency and being prostate-specific antigen recurrence-free at 2 years of 74%. Comparative studies do not provide evidence that one surgical approach is superior. Few randomized trials have compared surgery with the other primary therapies for prostate cancer. A Scandinavian randomized study has reported that the metastatic rate and overall mortality are significantly better with surgery compared to watchful waiting. However, there are no published data from randomized trials comparing surgery with radiotherapy (external beam or brachytherapy), active surveillance or minimally invasive procedures. There are ongoing randomized trials comparing surgery with radiotherapy, brachytherapy, and active surveillance, but until these are published, there is no conclusive evidence that surgery is the best primary option for localized or locally advanced prostate cancer.
Is radical prostatectomy the best option for localized prostate cancer? Current opinion and research
Mike D Shelley,Malcolm D Mason
Open Access Surgery , 2010,
Abstract: Mike D Shelley1, Malcolm D Mason21Head of Cochrane Urological Cancers Unit, Research Department, Velindre NHS Trust, Cardiff, UK; 2Cancer Research Wales Professor of Clinical Oncology, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Velindre NHS Trust, Cardiff, UKAbstract: Open radical prostatectomy is an effective treatment for prostate cancer with a 5-year biochemical recurrence-free survival rate of about 90% for localized disease. For men with organ confined disease, the 10 year disease-specific survival rate approximates 95% following retropubic prostatectomy. Attempts to improve survival rates by combining androgen deprivation therapy with radical prostatectomy have been unsuccessful. Erectile dysfunction and urinary incontinence are common complications following open radical prostatectomy. In an attempt to reduce morbidity, laparoscopic approaches have been developed with reported 8-year cancer control rates of about 70%. Robotic laparoscopic approaches yield a trifecta rate of achieving continence, potency and being prostate-specific antigen recurrence-free at 2 years of 74%. Comparative studies do not provide evidence that one surgical approach is superior. Few randomized trials have compared surgery with the other primary therapies for prostate cancer. A Scandinavian randomized study has reported that the metastatic rate and overall mortality are significantly better with surgery compared to watchful waiting. However, there are no published data from randomized trials comparing surgery with radiotherapy (external beam or brachytherapy), active surveillance or minimally invasive procedures. There are ongoing randomized trials comparing surgery with radiotherapy, brachytherapy, and active surveillance, but until these are published, there is no conclusive evidence that surgery is the best primary option for localized or locally advanced prostate cancer.Keywords: prostatectomy, laparoscopic prostatectomy, radiotherapy, watchful waiting, active surveillance
Analytical Evaluation of Omega 3 Fatty Acids Imbedded in Hydrophobic Starch in the Rumen  [PDF]
Malcolm Ballard
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2018.84032
Abstract: Two experiments were conducted to assess the value of hydrophobic starch as a method to encapsulate a supplement consisting of refined fish oil intended for use as a feed supplement for ruminant animals. In Study 1, the product was incubated in vitro for 24 hours. The entire media was analyzed to determine fatty acid composition. In Study 2, the test material was incubated for 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 24 hours in order to determine rate of loss of dry matter, as well as the fatty acid profile of the dry matter remaining at 24 hours. Results from Study 1 indicated that 61.1 % of the eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5) and 75.3% docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6) were still intact after the 24 hour incubation period. In Study 2, 39.1% of the test material was solubilized in the 24 hour period. However, the losses in C20:5 and C22:6 fatty acids were less (25.32% and 27.90% respectively) indicating that the majority of the test product was protected against biohydrogenation. It was concluded that hydrophobic starch can be used to ruminally protected fish oil and to deliver C20:5 and C22:6 fatty acids past the rumen.
A Clinical and Histological Study of Radiofrequency-Assisted Liposuction (RFAL) Mediated Skin Tightening and Cellulite Improvement
——RFAL for Skin Tightening
 [PDF]

Marc Divaris, Sylvie Boisnic, Marie-Christine Branchet, Malcolm D. Paul
Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications (JCDSA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jcdsa.2011.12006
Abstract: Background: A novel Radiofrequency-Assisted Liposuction (RFAL) technology was evaluated clinically. Parallel original histological studies were conducted to substantiate the technology’s efficacy in skin tightening, and cellulite improvement. Methods: BodyTiteTM system, utilizing the RFAL technology, was used for treating patients on abdomen, hips, flanks and arms. Clinical results were measured on 53 patients up to 6 months follow-up. Histological and biochemical studies were conducted on 10 donors by using a unique GREDECO model of skin fragments cultured under survival conditions. Fragments from RFAL treated and control areas were examined immediately and after 10 days in culture, representing long-term results. Skin fragments from patients with cellulite were also examined. Results: Gradual improvement in circumference reduction (3.9 - 4.9 cm) and linear contraction (8% - 38%) was observed until the third month. These results stabilized at 6 months. No adverse events were recorded. Results were graded as excellent by most patients, including the satisfaction from minimal pain, bleeding, and downtime. Histological analysis of skin fragments immediately following RFAL treatment showed hypodermal coagulation of fat and blood vessels, and structural changes in dermal fibers. After 20 days in culture, fibroblast fibers metabolism was stimulated. Histological changes following cellulite treatment were also noted. Conclusions: The novel RFAL technology offers immediate skin tightening effect that is stable over time. The histological results correlated with the clinical observations of circumference reduction and skin tightening, as expressed by tissue fibers modulation. Moreover, RFAL offers an effective treatment for cellulite by formation of a thick collagen band at the dermal-hypodermal junction.
1, 2, 3: Counting the fingers on a chicken wing
Martin D Carkett, Malcolm PO Logan
Genome Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2011-12-10-130
Abstract: The forelimbs and hindlimbs of vertebrates are serially homologous structures. Bird limbs differ from many other vertebrates in that they have only three digits in the forelimb (wing), but four digits in the hindlimb (leg). This pattern has emerged through a process of digit loss during evolution. While the morphological digit identities of the hindlimb are widely accepted as digits I to IV, corresponding to digits I to IV of the ancestral pentadactyl (five digit) limb (Figure 1), such definitive identities have yet to be designated to the digits of the wing. The precise identities of these digits have been the focus of a long-standing and ardent debate amongst paleontologists and embryologists, since they underpin the mechanism by which the bird wing has evolved from the theropod dinosaur lineage; however, a recent article by Wagner et al. [1] has shed light on this conundrum.Paleontological evidence demonstrates the progressive loss of the two most posterior digits, V and IV, in theropods, implying digits I to III from the ancestral hand remain in the avian wing. However, embryological evidence identifies the digits as II to IV, since the most posterior digit of the wing is the first to condense (the first visible digit) and forms in alignment with the primary axis of cartilage condensation [2]; this digit is consistent with digit IV in the ancestral hand, which is a pattern retained in the mouse.In order to settle this debate, Wagner et al. [1] utilized contemporary RNA-seq techniques to uncover a gene expression 'signature' of digit identity taking the rationale that morphological digit identity is ultimately determined by gene expression profiles, which are unique to each digit.Specifically, the group sequenced the transcriptomes of the digit primordia of the forming wing and leg dissected from chicks at two different stages (HH28/29 and HH31). To establish a neutral digit annotation, the anterior-most digit was designated digit A and, in sequence, the more pos
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