Abstract:
We prospectively studied 191 patients with SLE, comparing those with (n = 57) and without (n = 134) CNS syndrome. CNS syndromes were characterized using the American College of Rheumatology case definitions.Any abnormal MRI signals were more frequently observed in subjects in the CNS group (n = 25) than in the non-CNS group (n = 32) [relative risk (RR), 1.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1-2.7; p = 0.016] and the positive and negative predictive values for the diagnosis of CNS syndrome were 42% and 76%, respectively. Large abnormal MRI signals (？ ≥ 10 mm) were seen only in the CNS group (n = 7; RR, 3.7; CI, 2.9-4.7; p = 0.0002), whereas small abnormal MRI signals (？ < 10 mm) were seen in both groups with no statistical difference. Large signals always paralleled clinical outcome (p = 0.029), whereas small signals did not (p = 1.000).Abnormal MRI signals, which showed statistical associations with CNS syndrome, had insufficient diagnostic values. A large MRI signal was, however, useful as a diagnostic and surrogate marker for CNS syndrome of SLE, although it was less common.Central nervous system (CNS) lupus is a serious and potentially life-threatening manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), occurring in 37-95% of cases, and is associated with an increased risk of death [1]. Despite its frequency and severity, the lack of a diagnostic gold standard makes it challenging to differentiate primary CNS lupus from secondary neuropsychiatric (NP) manifestations unrelated to SLE at their onsets [1-3]. The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) has developed a standardized nomenclature system that provides case definitions for 19 NP syndromes associated with SLE, including reporting standards and recommendations for laboratory and imaging tests [2]. Although this standardized nomenclature has helped to clarify a complicated situation, its usefulness as a clinical diagnostic criterion remains to be determined.While neurological or psychological examinations are

Abstract:
Can ongoing fMRI BOLD signals predict fluctuations in swiftness of a person’s response to sporadic cognitive demands? This is an important issue because it clarifies whether intrinsic brain dynamics, for which spatio-temporal patterns are expressed as temporally coherent networks (TCNs), have effects not only on sensory or motor processes, but also on cognitive processes. Predictivity has been affirmed, although to a limited extent. Expecting a predictive effect on executive performance for a wider range of TCNs constituting the cingulo-opercular, fronto-parietal, and default mode networks, we conducted an fMRI study using a version of the color–word Stroop task that was specifically designed to put a higher load on executive control, with the aim of making its fluctuations more detectable. We explored the relationships between the fluctuations in ongoing pre-trial activity in TCNs and the task response time (RT). The results revealed the existence of TCNs in which fluctuations in activity several seconds before the onset of the trial predicted RT fluctuations for the subsequent trial. These TCNs were distributed in the cingulo-opercular and fronto-parietal networks, as well as in perceptual and motor networks. Our results suggest that intrinsic brain dynamics in these networks constitute “cognitive readiness,” which plays an active role especially in situations where information for anticipatory attention control is unavailable. Fluctuations in these networks lead to fluctuations in executive control performance.

Abstract:
In cohomological field theory we can obtain topological invariants as correlation functions of BRS cohomology classes. A proper understanding of BRS cohomology which gives non-trivial results requires the equivariant cohomology theory. Both topological Yang-Mills theory and topological string theory are typical examples of this fact. After reviewing the role of the equivariant cohomology in topological Yang-Mills theory, we show in purely algebraic framework how the $U(1)$ equivariant cohomology in topological string theory gives the gravitational descendants. The free energy gives a generating function of topological correlation functions and leads us to consider a deformation family of cohomological field theories. In topological strings such a family is controlled by the theory of integrable system. This is most easily seen in the Landau-Ginzburg approach by looking at the contact term interactions between topological observables.

Abstract:
As a supersymmetric extension of the Randall-Sundrum model, we consider a 5-dimensional Horava-Witten type theory, and derive its low energy effective action. The model we consider is a two-brane system with a bulk scalar field satisfying the BPS condition. We solve the bulk equations of motion using a gradient expansion method, and substitute the solution into the original action to get the 4-dimensional effective action. The resultant effective theory can be casted into the form of Einstein gravity coupled with two scalar fields, one arising from the radion, the degree of freedom of the inter-brane distance, and the other from the bulk scalar field. We also clarify the relation between our analysis and the moduli approximation.

Abstract:
We investigate the effect of entanglement between two causally separated open charts in de Sitter space on the spectrum of vacuum fluctuations. We consider a free massive scalar field, and construct the reduced density matrix by tracing out the vacuum state for one of the open charts, as recently derived by Maldacena and Pimentel. We formulate the mean-square vacuum fluctuations by using the reduced density matrix and show that the scale invariant spectrum of massless scalar field is realized on small scales. On the other hand, we find that the quantum entanglement affects the shape of the spectrum on large scales comparable to or greater than the curvature radius.

Abstract:
We present an analytic treatment near the phase transition for the critical temperature of (3+1)-dimensional holographic superconductors in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity with backreaction. We find that the backreaction makes the critical temperature of the superconductor decrease and condensation harder. This is consistent with previous numerical results.

Abstract:
We discuss instantons in dimensions higher than four. A generalized self-dual or anti-self-dual instanton equation in n-dimensions can be defined in terms of a closed (n-4) form $\Omega$ and it was recently employed as a topological gauge fixing condition in higher dimensional generalizations of cohomological Yang-Mills theory. When $\Omega$ is a calibration which is naturally introduced on the manifold of special holomony, we argue that higher dimensional instanton may be locally characterized as a family of four dimensional instantons over a supersymmetric (n-4) cycle $\Sigma$ with respect to the calibration $\Omega$. This is an instanton configuration on the total space of the normal bundle $N(\Sigma)$ of the submanifold $\Sigma$ and regarded as a natural generalization of point-like instanton in four dimensions that plays a distinguished role in a compactification of instanton moduli space.

Abstract:
Background Advanced glycation end product (AGE) accumulation is thought to be a measure of cumulative metabolic stress that has been reported to independently predict cardiovascular disease in diabetes and renal failure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between AGE accumulation, measured as skin autofluorescence, and the progression of renal disease in pre-dialysis patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods Skin autofluorescence was measured noninvasively with an autofluorescence reader at baseline in 449 pre-dialysis patients with CKD. The primary end point was defined as a doubling of serum creatinine and/or need for dialysis. Results Thirty-three patients were lost to follow-up. Forty six patients reached the primary end point during the follow-up period (Median 39 months). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a significantly higher risk of development of the primary end points in patients with skin autofluorescence levels above the optimal cut-off level of 2.31 arbitrary units, derived by receiver operator curve analysis. Cox regression analysis revealed that skin autofluorescence was an independent predictor of the primary end point, even after adjustment for age, gender, smoking history, diabetes, estimated glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria (adjusted hazard ratio 2.58, P = 0.004). Conclusions Tissue accumulation of AGEs, measured as skin autofluorescence, is a strong and independent predictor of progression of CKD. Skin autofluorescence may be useful for risk stratification in this group of patients; further studies should clarify whether AGE accumulation could be one of the therapeutic targets to improve the prognosis of CKD.

Abstract:
The classification on the orbits of some Liénard perturbation system with several parameters, which is relation to the example in [1] or [2], is discussed. The conditions for the parameters in order that the system has a unique limit cycle, homoclinic orbits, canards or the unique equilibrium point is globally asymptotic stable are given. The methods in our previous papers are used for the proofs.

Dynamics is studied
for one-dimensional single-lane traffic flow by means of an extended optimal-velocity
model with continuously varied bottleneck strength for nonlinear roads. Two phases
exist in this model such as free flow and wide moving jam states in the systems
having relatively small values of the bottleneck strength parameter. In
addition to the two phases, locally congested phaseappears as the strength becomes prominent. Jam formation occurs
with the similar mechanism to the boomerang effect as well as the pinch one
in it. Wide scattering of the flow-density relation in fundamental diagram is
found in the congested phase.