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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 466 matches for " Maki Hozawa "
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Evaluation of Asthma Symptoms to Assess Asthma Control Status in a Primary Care Setting: An Exploratory Analysis of Pooled Data from Three Trials  [PDF]
Soichiro Hozawa, Michikazu Terada, Maki Hozawa
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2018.82003
Background: Primary care physicians in Japan see many patients in a given day; consequently, they find it challenging to devote sufficient time for detailed clinical consultation and evaluation of asthma control status. The aim of this study was to investigate asthma symptoms that reveal the presence of inadequately controlled asthma. Methods: A pooled analysis of baseline data from 100 patients with asthma treated with inhaled corticosteroid(s) (ICS) alone or ICS/long-acting beta-agonist who participated in three previous clinical trials was performed. Asthma control status and asthmatic symptoms were determined using a five-item Asthma Control Questionnaire, and whether asthmatic symptoms reflect clinical markers was investigated. Results: Nocturnal awakening owing to asthmatic symptoms was observed only in the uncontrolled asthma group. Patient-reported wheezing was not observed in the group with well-controlled asthma, but was observed in all patients in the uncontrolled asthma group. Virtually all patients, irrespective of asthma control status, reported symptoms in the morning, limitation of normal daily activities, and shortness of breath. Conclusions: The presence of nocturnal awakening due to asthma and wheezing likely reflected uncontrolled asthma. These results will lead to re-recognition that clinical interview, querying nocturnal awakening from asthma and wheezing is a simple and useful approach to assess asthma control status in a primary care setting.
Properties of Time-Varying Causality Tests in the Presence of Multivariate Stochastic Volatility  [PDF]
Daiki Maki
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2016.65064
Abstract: This paper compares the statistical properties of time-varying causality tests when errors of variables have multivariate stochastic volatility (SV). The time-varying causal-ity tests in this paper are based on a logistic smooth transition autoregressive model. The compared time-varying causality tests include asymptotic tests, heteroskedasticity-robust tests, and tests using wild bootstrap. Our simulation results show that asymptotic tests and heteroskedasticity-robust counterparts have size distortions under multivariate SV, whereas tests using wild bootstrap have better size properties regardless of type of error. In particular, the time-varying causality test with first-order Taylor approximation using wild bootstrap has better statistical properties.
Angiotensinogen Expression Is Enhanced in the Progression of Glomerular Disease  [PDF]
Maki Urushihara, Hiroyuki Kobori
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2011.24064
Abstract: Intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation plays a critical role in the development and progression of renal injury. In the kidney, all of the RAS components are present and intrarenal angiotensin II (Ang II) is formed by multiple independent mechanisms. Angiotensinogen (AGT) is the only known substrate for renin that is a rate-limiting enzyme of the RAS. Recently, enhanced intrarenal AGT levels have been shown to reflect the intrarenal RAS status in hypertension, chronic glomerular disease and diabetic nephropathy. In this review, we focus on AGT expression of the diseased glomeruli in the progression of glomerular disease. An anti-glomerular basement membrane nephritis rat model developed progressive proteinuria and glomerular crescent formation, accompanied by increased macrophage infiltration and glomerular expression of AGT and Ang II. The addition of Ang II type 1 receptor blocker to CC-chemokine recaptor 2 antagonist markedly attenuated the induction of macrophage infiltration, AGT and Ang II, and reduced glomerular crescent formation. Next, the levels of glomerular AGT expression and marker of reactive oxygen species in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) obese rats were higher than those in ZDF lean rats. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced an increase in the AGT expression in primary rat mesangial cells. Furthermore, the H2O2-induced upregulation of AGT was inhibited by a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase and a c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitor. These data suggest the potential contribution of enhanced AGT expression in glomeruli to the intrarenal RAS activation for the development of glomerular disease.
Trends in age distribution of participants in a self-covered and a public expense-covered health check-up programs in Japan  [PDF]
Maki Ogawa, Atsushi Imai
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.49088
Abstract: Objective: In Japan, there are unique facilities (namely Ningen Dock) of health check-up, where asymptomatic participants undergo a medical examination at their own expense. The earlier occurrence of cervical cancer and the concern on screening prompted us compare to the age distribution in the self-covered system with that of free physical check-up programs at public expense. Methods: We analyzed medical records of Japanese women, who underwent gynecological examinations at self-covered expense and at public expense between for the periods 2002-2011 and 2005-2009, respectively, restricting examinee’s age group. Results: For self-covered system, approximately 80% of the overall examinee population was occupied with three age groups 30-39, 40-49 and 50-59. The participants was extremely fewer in the over 60 years age group accounting for 10%, compared to those for the public expense-covered system, the over 60 years age group being 25%. Participant under the age of 30 years seemed to increase in chronological order in both systems. Conclusion: The level of knowledge on sexually transmitted infections may contribute to screening promotion for the younger women, while the elderly over 60 years’ attitudes toward screening may be mainly related to social-economic status and/or public expense support.
Comparative Interactions of Anesthetic Alkylphenols with Lipid Membranes  [PDF]
Hironori Tsuchiya, Maki Mizogami
Open Journal of Anesthesiology (OJAnes) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojanes.2014.412044
Abstract: Objective: While substituted phenols have a variety of pharmacological activity, the mechanism underlying their anesthetic effects remains uncertain especially about the critical target. We characterized the lipid membrane-interacting properties of different phenols by comparing with general anesthetic propofol and local anesthetics. Based on the results, we also studied the pharmacological effects possibly associated with their membrane interactivities. Methods: 1,6-Diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene-labeled lipid bilayer membranes were prepared with 1,2-dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine as model membranes and with different phospholipids and cholesterol to mimic neuronal membranes. These membrane preparations were treated with phenols and anesthetics at 1 - 200 μM, followed by measuring the fluorescence polarization to determine the membrane interactivities to change membrane fluidity. Antioxidant effects were fluorometrically determined using diphenyl-1-pyrenylphosphine-incorporated liposomes which were treated with 10 - 100 μM phenols, and then peroxidized with 10 μM peroxynitrite. Results: Several phenols interacted with the model membranes and the neuronal mimetic membranes to increase their fluidity at 1 - 10 μM as well as lidocaine and bupivacaine did at 50 - 200 μM. Their comparative potencies were propofol > thymol > isothymol > guaiacol > phenol > eugenol, and bupivacaine > lidocaine, consistent with the rank order of neuro-activity. These phenols inhibited membrane lipid peroxidation at 10 and 100 μM with the potencies correlating to their membrane interactivities. Conclusion: The structure-specific membrane interaction is at least in part responsible for the pharmacology of anesthetic alkylphenols. Membrane-interacting antioxidant alkylphenols may be protective against the peroxynitrite-relating ischemia/reperfusion injury.
Contact Urticaria Syndrome from Tofu  [PDF]
Maki Kitakawa, Tokio Nakada
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2016.56038
Abstract: A-52-year-old woman ate dinner after preening roses in her garden. Immediately, she developed oralaryngeal malaise and pruritic rash. Nasal obstruction and increase of cutaneous lesions were seen although she took betamethasone, 2 mg, orally. Physical examination revealed geographic wheal on trunk and extremities, and no overt mucosal lesions. History demonstrated that she had developed such reactions four times before: three of the four were seen shortly after eating soybean. Tofu was examined by prick-by-prick testing, and prick testing was performed with a petal, a piece of stem and rose leaf, positive and negative control. Positive reactions to tofu (wheal, 5 × 7 mm) and positive control (wheal 5 × 5 mm) and negative ones to others were noted. Although sensitization to soybean seemed to antedate pollen allergy on the basis of interview, oral allergy syndrome could be complicated because of various pollens-specific IgE. Since soy-bean specific IgE was class 2, such titer was not an effective predictor of clinical severity. This case should be classified into stage 3 of contact urticaria syndrome (CUS). Since CUS can be fatal, we must be careful in management for such patients.
Gendered Characteristics of Female Learners’ Conversational Japanese
Maki Yoshida
New Voices : A Journal for Emerging Scholars of Japanese Studies in Australia and New Zealand , 2011,
Abstract: This study examines gendered characteristics in four female Japanese language learners’ discourse practices in a communicative setting, where they interact with native Japanese speaking friends in a JFL context. Focusing on the relationship between gender ideologies and discourse practices, I explore the extent to which learners are aware of gender ideologies in the Japanese community and how these ideologies are influential in their discourse practices in the particular setting. In addition, how native speakers of Japanese evaluate gender-differentiated features produced by the learners during the interaction is investigated.Qualitatively-approached, this study revealed that each learner possesses a unique character in their utterances and perceptions, reflecting their individual awareness of gender ideologies and their negotiation of language use against the backdrop of social expectations. At the same time, a lack of such awareness emerged as an issue which kept them from fully and actively engaging in exploring their subjectivities. In addition, this study pointed out that native Japanese speakers utilised gender ideologies as the basis for their judgements on learners’ gendered features in their interaction.
Proceedings of 15th conference on Elastic and Diffractive scattering (EDS Blois 2013)
Tuula Maki
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: This volume represents the proceedings of the 15th conference on Elastic and Diffractive scattering, EDS Blois 2013. The conference was held in Saariselka, Finland on September 9th-13th, 2013.
Seifert matrices of Brunnian links
Maki Nagura
Mathematics , 2006,
Abstract: We show some properties of a Seifert matrix of an $n$-component Brunnian link. In particular, we give a necessary and sufficient condition for a matrix to be a Seifert matrix of a 2-component Brunnian link up to S-equivalence.
Randomized controlled trial for an effect of catechin-enriched green tea consumption on adiponectin and cardiovascular disease risk factors
Toshimasa Sone,Shinichi Kuriyama,Naoki Nakaya,Atsushi Hozawa
Food & Nutrition Research , 2011, DOI: 10.3402/fnr.v55i0.8326
Abstract: Previous observational studies have indicated that green tea (GT) consumption is associated with reduced mortality from cerebral infarction but not with mortality from cerebral hemorrhage. Therefore, we hypothesized that GT exerts a direct antiatherosclerotic effect without any effect on hypertension. To investigate this hypothesis, we focused on adiponectin that seems to be among the several key players in atherosclerosis.The objective of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to assess whether the consumption of catechin-enriched GT affects serum adiponectin levels and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among apparently healthy subjects.A total of 51 individuals participated in the study. Eligible participants were randomly assigned into GT consumption groups with either high catechin (400 mg/day) or low catechin (100 mg/day). The study participants were asked to stop GT consumption for 2 weeks (washout period), following which they were to start drinking the provided GT beverages everyday for 9 weeks. The outcome measures were changes in the adiponectin levels and CVD risk factors (body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, fasting plasma glucose, as well as aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, uric acid, and high-sensitive C-reactive protein).After intervention for 9 weeks, we found no significant difference between the high- and low catechin group with respect to changes in the serum adiponectin level: 0.35 μg/ml (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.74). Also, no significant difference was observed between the high- and low catechin groups with respect to changes in any of the measured CVD risk factors.This RCT showed no significant difference between the high- and low catechin groups with respect to changes in the serum adiponectin level and any CVD risk factors.
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