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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2018 matches for " Maize "
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The use of maize tassel as an agricultural by-product to ameliorate heavy metals in contaminated groundwater
Dzifa Dadzie,Albert K. Quainoo,Samuel Obiri
Research in Biotechnology , 2011,
Abstract: The presence of heavy metals in drinking water usually tends to pose some adverseeffects to the consumers. It is in the light of this that maize tassel which is usually anagricultural by product was used to remove mercury arsenic, manganese and lead fromcontaminated water. Maize tassel was milled into fine powder. A laboratory simulatedcontamination of the above mentioned metals was prepared to a concentration of 2.000 mg/L.Groundwater contaminated samples were also obtained and run through 20.0g of thepowdered maize tassel at specific time steps of 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes respectively. Thewater that drained out of the tassel was then analyzed for the amount of metals remaining init using Shimadzu Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer model AA6300. Theconcentrations of arsenic, manganese lead and mercury in the laboratory simulated solutionafter it had passed through the maize tassel for a period of 60 minutes was 0.001 mg/L, 0.005mg/L, 0.203 mg/L and 0.020 mg/L respectively. The concentrations of arsenic, manganese, leadand mercury in the contaminated groundwater after passing through the tassel was 0.0005mg/L, 0.0021 mg/L, 0.050 mg/L and 0.025 mg/L respectively.
Physical Features of Some Selected Nigerian Maize Cultivars  [PDF]
Awoyinka Olayinka Anthony
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.59149

A morphological characteristic feature of one hundred Nigerian maize cultivars was established. This repository sought a baseline upon which Nigerian maize cultivars could be classified based on kernel morphology, germinating properties such as shoots length and percent of growth. Out of all the maize cultivars, forty eight were classified as Dent maize, five were found to be Pop maize, thirteen were Waxy maize and six were also classified as Sweet maize while fourteen were found to be Floury and Flint maize respectively. The information would serve as reference for the selection of appropriate Nigerian maize cultivars for specific use in food processing and allied industries.

Brazilian Maize Landraces Silks as Source of Lutein: An Important Carotenoid in the Prevention of Age-Related Macular Degeneration  [PDF]
Shirley Kuhnen, Paulo Fernando Dias, Juliana Bernardi Ogliari, Marcelo Maraschin
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.311210
Abstract: The carotenoid composition of the silk tissue of Zea mays (L.) has not been investigated despite its large occurrence in maize grains. For the purpose of evaluating maize silk as a source of carotenoids, samples from eight landraces developed and cultivated in Southern Brazil were assayed. The silk samples were harvested from individual plants through the fourth and seventh day after they emerged, frozen in liquid N2, and lyophilized. The carotenoids were extracted with a MeOH/toluene solution (1:1, v/v), 30 min, and saponified (15% KOH, 12 h, 40℃). The RP-HPLC-UV-visible analysis revealed lutein as the main carotenoid (88.75%) in maize silks, with a wide range of contents (dry weight), i.e. 39.11 ?g?g-1 (Palha Roxa 18) to 176.12 ?g?g-1 (Língua de Papagaio) among the studied genotypes. Smaller amounts of trans-β-carotene, α-carotene, and zeaxanthin were also detected. The results revealed that in parallel to the claimed high genetic variability of maize landraces, a quite variable carotenoidic composition of silk tissue seems to occur in the germoplasm cultivated in Southern Brazil. Taking into account the usage of lutein for the prevention of several pathologies, especially the age related macular degeneration, some maize landraces (e.g. Língua de Papagaio and Rosado) might be interesting sources of a lutein-rich extract that could add value to an underutilized biomass.
Response of Fodder Maize to Various Levels of Nitrogen and Phosphorus  [PDF]
Aziz Khan, Fazal Munsif, Kashif Akhtar, Muhammad Zahir Afridi, Zahoor  , Zahoor Ahmad, Shah Fahad, Rizwan Ullah, Faheem Ahmed Khan, Mairaj Din
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.515246

Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P) are of the most important and complex nutrients for the crop plants in particular for grain yield and quality. The field trials were laid out in randomized complete block design having three replications. Research trial plots were located at Agricultural Research Farm of Agricultural University Peshawar (Ameer Mohammad Khan Campus Mardan) during kharif season in 2012 to investigate the response of maize variety (Jalal) to three phosphorus rates (60, 90 and 120 kg·ha-1) and four nitrogen rates (90, 120, 150, 180 kg·ha-1) for agronomical traits. These traits investigated included number of plant per m2 (NP m2), plant height (PH), number of leaves plant-1 (NLP), leaf area plant-1·cm2 (LAP), fresh weight of plants kg·ha-1 (FW) and dry weight of plant kg·ha-1 (DW), were investigated. Results of the study showed that application of N @ 180 and P @ 120 kg·ha-1 significantly increased fodder yield of maize. The linear increase in biomass yield clearly indicated that N was a limiting nutrient factor and that N demand along with P has a positive response. At higher application rates, N fertilizer significantly

Mean and Interannual Variability of Maize and Soybean in Brazil under Global Warming Conditions  [PDF]
Flávio Justino, Evandro Chaves Oliveira, Rafael de ávila Rodrigues, Paulo Henrique Lopes Gon?alves, Paulo Jorge Oliveira Ponte Souza, Frode Stordal, José Marengo, Thieres G. da Silva, Rafael Coll Delgado, Douglas da Silva Lindemann, Luiz Claudio Costa
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2013.24024

Brazil is responsible for 27% of the world production of soybeans and 7% of maize. Mato Grosso and Para states in Brazil are among the largest producer. The viability to the cultivation of maize (Zea mays) and soybeans (Glycine max), for future climate scenarios (2070-2100, GHG) is evaluated based on crop modeling (DSSAT) forced by observational data and regional climate simulations (HadRM3). The results demonstrated that a substantial reduction in the yield in particular for maize may be expected for the end of the 21st century. Distinct results are found for soybeans. By applying the A2 climate changes scenario, soybean yield rises by up top 60% assuming optimum soil treatment and no water stress. However, by analyzing the inter-annual variability of crop yields for both maize and soybean, could be demonstrated larger year-to-year fluctuations under greenhouse warming conditions as compared to current conditions, leading to very low productivity by the end of the 21st century. Therefore, these Brazilian states do not appear to be economically suitable for a future cultivation of maize and soybeans. Improved adaptation measures and soil management may however partially alleviate the negative climate change effect.

Modelling Weather and Climate Related Fire Risk in Africa  [PDF]
Flávio Justino, F. Stordal, A. Clement, E. Coppola, A. Setzer, D. Brumatti
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2013.24022

Based on regional climate model simulations conducted with RegCM3 and NCEP Reanalyses, the impact of anomalous climate forcing on environmental vulnerability to wildfire occurrence in Africa is analyzed by applying the Potential Fire Index (PFI). Three different model-based vegetation distributions were analyzed for a present day simulation (1980-2000) and for the end of the twenty-first century (2080-2100). It was demonstrated that under current climate and vegetation conditions the PFI is able to reproduce the principal fire risk areas which are concentrated in the Sahelian region from December to March, and in subtropical Africa from July to October. Predicted future changes in vegetation lead to substantial modifications in magnitude of the PFI, particularly for the southern and subtropical region of Africa. The impact of climate changes other than through vegetation, was found to induce more moderate changes in the fire risk, and increase the area vulnerable to fire occurrence in particular in sub-Saharan. The PFI reproduces areas with high fire activity, indicating that this index is a useful tool for forecasting fire occurrence worldwide, because it is based on regionally dependent vegetation and climate factors.

Morphological and Phenological Attributes of Maize Affected by Different Tillage Practices and Varied Sowing Methods  [PDF]
Shakeel A. Anjum, Ehsanullah  , Umair Ashraf, Mohsin Tanveer, Rafi Qamar, Imran Khan
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.511180

To check the performance of maize under different tillage practices and varied sowing methods, an experiment was conducted at Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. The experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with split plot arrangement with three replications. Different tillage practices viz, conventional tillage, minimum tillage and deep tillage were kept in main plots while sowing methods viz, flat sowing, ridge sowing and bed sowing were allocated to subplots. The maize hybrid “Pioneer-32T16” was sown on 24th February, 2012. Data pertaining to morphological and phenological attributes of maize showed that tillage practices and sowing methods had a significant effect on Germination count·m-2 (7.8), leaf area per plant (5010 cm2), leaf area index (4.87), crop growth rate (20.69 g·m-2·d-1), plant height (213.04 cm), number of leaves per plant (11.89), days to 50% tasseling (72.44) and days to 50% silking (73.77). Economically, maize sown on ridges under deep tillage gave maximum net income of Rs. 85162 ha-1 while minimum net income of Rs. 56984 ha-1 was found where flat sowing was adopted under minimum tillage system and also more BCR of 1.70 was recorded in ridge sown maize under deep tillage.

Physiological and Biochemical Effects of 24-Epibrassinolide on Heat-Stress Adaptation in Maize (Zea mays L.)  [PDF]
Pranjal Yadava, Jyoti Kaushal, Anuradha Gautam, Hemangini Parmar, Ishwar Singh
Natural Science (NS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2016.84020
Abstract: Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a family of about 70 structurally related polyhydroxy steroidal phytohormones that regulate a number of physiological processes in plants. Among these, brassinolide (BL), 28-homobrassinolide (28-homoBL) and 24-epibrassinolide (24-EpiBL) are more common. The present study aims at studying the usefulness of 24-epiBL in ameliorating the impacts of heat-stress in maize along with its role in regulating cellular antioxidant defense system. Maize hybrid PMH 3 was grown in pots in a green house maintained at 14 hours day (25℃)/10hours night (17). A solution of 24-epiBL (1 μM) was applied externally at V4 stage. Leaf tissues were sampled from both treated and control plants. Subsequently, both the groups of pots were placed in plant growth chamber maintained at high temperature (48; RH 50%). Plants were sampled for biochemical analysis after 3, 6, 9, 24 and 48 hours of high temperature exposure. Exogenous application of 24-EpiBL arrested protein degradation and enhanced cell membrane stability, as compared to the control. The biochemical activities of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POX) were found to be dynamically and variably modulated post 24-epiBL treatment. Thus, the study supports the role of BRs as anti-stress agents.
Calibration and Validation of Decision Support System for Agro-Technology Transfer Model for Simulating Growth and Yield of Maize in Bangladesh  [PDF]
F. Ahmed, Apurba K. Choudhury, S. Akhter, M. A. Aziz, Jatish C. Biswas, M. Maniruzzaman, M. Main Uddin Miah, M. M. Rahman, M. A. H. S. Jahan, Imrul Mosaddek Ahmed, R. Sen, S. Ishtiaque, A. F. M. Tariqul Islam, M. M. Haque, M. Belal Hossain, Naveen Kalra, M. Hafijur Rahman
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2017.87113
Abstract: Maize is an emerging important crop in Bangladesh because of its high yield potential and economic profitability compared to rice and wheat crops. There is a need to understand the growth and yield behavior of this crop in varying production environments of Bangladesh. Crop model such as Decision Support System For Agro-technology Transfer (DSSAT) version 4.6 (DSSAT hereafter) can be utilized cost effectively to study the performances of maize under different production environments. It needs to calibrate and validate DSSAT model for commonly cultivated maize cultivars in Bangladesh and subsequently take the model to various applications, including inputs and agronomic management options and climate change that impacts analyses. So, the present study was undertaken to firstly calibrate DSSAT model for popular four hybrid maize cultivars (BARI Hybrid Maize-7, BARI Hybrid Maize-9, Pioneer 30B07 and NK-40). Subsequently, it proceeded with the validation with independent field data sets for evaluating their growth performances. The genetic coefficients for these cultivars were evaluated by using Genotype coefficient calculator (GENCALC) and Generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) module of DSSAT on the basis of first season experiment. The performance of the model was satisfactory and within the significant limits. After calibration, the model was tested for its performance through validation procedure by using second season data. The model performed satisfactorily through phenology, biomass, leaf area index (LAI) and grain yield. Phenology, as estimated through days to flower initiation and maturity, was in good agreement, although simulated results were slightly over predicted compared to observed values but within the statistical significance limit...when compared with observed values at specific growth stages of the crop. The final yield values (10.12 to 10.59 t·ha-1
Phenotyping of Hybrid Maize (Zea mays L.) at Seedling Stage under Drought Condition  [PDF]
Shirin Aktar, Nilima Hossain, Mohammad Golam Azam, Masum Billah, Priya Lal Biswas, Mohammad Abdul Latif, Motiar Rohman, Shamim Ara Bagum, Mohammad Shalim Uddin
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2018.911156
Abstract: Drought is envisaged as the greatest demolishing natural impacts throughout the world since it has observed extensive place of agronomical land sterile almost the world. It’s the significant crop output-limiting producer, and elaborated learning of its result on plant enhancement dictation is diametrical. At present, drought tolerant hybrid maize has been trying to induce Bangladesh especially drought affected zone to identify the drought endurance maize genotypes. Consequently, a feasible pot study of 49 hybrid maize genotypes were directed to determine an adequate drought level to promote aliment and promotion of maize plant below the water stress conditions with treatment (control and drought) and three replications. The data were received after 35 days of sowing using appropriate procedures. Specially, the stomata were collected by the white transparent nail polish from the lower part of leaves. Descriptive statistic of the all traits like percentage of SPAD, leaf rolling (LR), maximum root length (MRL), maximum shoot length (MSL), root dry matter (RDM), shoot dry matter (SDM), length of
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