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Awareness of Lung Cancer Symptoms and Risk Factors in General Population  [PDF]
Hanna Maria Hanson, Mait Raag, Merje Adrat, Tanel Laisaar
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2017.71001
Abstract: Introduction: Lung cancer is often diagnosed in a late stage, which might be related to lack of risk factors and symptoms awareness. Aim of this study was to evaluate these factors. Methods: A survey was conducted to assess the awareness of lung cancer risk factors and symptoms. Kruskal-Wallis, Fisher and chi-square tests were used to compare the groups. Results: Altogether 403 participants (108 male; median age 29 (range 13 to 74) years; 98 smokers, 90 ex-smokers and 212 non-smokers) completed the survey (321 filled in online questionnaire, 82 were interviewed face-to-face). Three per cent of the respondents were unable to name any lung cancer risk factor, 36% named one and 61% named two or more. Smoking was mentioned most commonly, others far less often. When presented with a list of lung cancer risk factors, 99.7% of respondents recognised two or more; most commonly smoking (99%) and second-hand smoking (95%). Concerning symptoms, 17% were unable to name any, 21% named one and 62% named two or more. Prolonged cough was mentioned most often (59%), followed by dyspnea (45%) and chest pain (30%). When presented with a list, 99% of respondents recognised two or more symptoms; most often prolonged cough (86%), weakness (85%) and chest pain (82%). There were no statistical differences in lung cancer symptom, risk factor or prognosis awareness among smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers. There were some differences related to age, sex, education and type of used questionnaire. Conclusions: Awareness of lung cancer risks and symptoms is moderate in general population without major differences between smokers and non-smokers.
Metsa katvuse ja liituse hindamine lennukilt laserskanneriga
Mait Lang
Forestry Studies / Metsanduslikud Uurimused , 2010, DOI: 10.2478/v10132-011-0079-5
Abstract: Many of the forest definitions include a criterion based on the share of ground covered by tree crowns. However, the lack of a clear definition for the share and mixing of the terms is common in laws and documentation causing the variables canopy cover (K) and crown cower (L) to be used loosely (Jennings et al., 1999). Different methods exist to estimate K and L (Korhonen et al., 2006). Airborne lidar data are now widely used for estimation of forest inventory variables via regression methods (N sset, 2004; N sset et al., 2004; Suvanto & Maltamo, 2010), leaf area index, LAI (Ria o et al., 2004; Morsdorf et al., 2006) and are an attractive source to estimate canopy cover and crown cover. Tests were carried out in mature Scots pine, Norway spruce and Silver birch stands (Table 1) which are used also for RAMI experiment (RAMI, 2010) in J rvselja, Estonia, to study the options for estimating canopy cover from airborne lidar data. Lidar data were collected with Leica ALS50-II on 30th July 2009 at 500 meter over ground. The scanner beam divergence at 1/e2 energy criterion was 0,22 mrad. Scan angle ranged up to 11 degrees and with two perpendicular flights the final point density on the ground was 20 p m-2 (Kuusk et al., 2009c). Lidar data were processed with FUSION/LDV (McGaughey, 2010) to extract data from sample plot area, create digital terrain model and to calcluate return height statistics. Canopy cover was estimated from lidar data by using all returns (Eq 1), using first returns only (Eq 2) or using single returns (Eq 3). For crown cover estimate the ratio of all returns to first returns D, was calculated (Eq 4). Reference height z was varied in the range 0.2 m ≤ z ≤ 10.0 m. Results were compared to the canopy cover estimates (Kc) calculated from the Cajanus tube (Rautiainen et al., 2005) readings from the ground corresponding to the z = 1.3 m (Table 2). Lidar return distributions by height (Figure 1) were different in studied stands. N sset (2004) recommended to use the height distribution information of return counts in regression models for predicting forest inventory variables. Cover estimates from lidar data depended significantly on the estimator (K1, Kk, Ky) and stand structure (Figure 2). The value of all lidar based estimators decreased with increasing reference height z (Figure 2). Compared to Kc K1(1.3) was positively biased (3-10%) in all stands. However, only in the birch stand the K1(1.3) estimate was outside the confidence intervals of Kc (Table 2, Figure 2). The single return (Ky) and all return (Kk) based canopy cover estimates depended more on the stand structure compared to K1. In the Scots pine stand K1(1.3) gave most similar canopy cover estimate to the ground estimate Kc whereas Ky(1.3) and Kk(1.3) underestimated Kc significantly (>15%). The pine stand structure was rather simple - only one layer of pine trees having minor overlaps between crowns. Therefore the Cajanus tube based estimates of canopy cover Kc, crown cover Lc
“The First Buddhist Priest on the Baltic Coast”: Karlis Tennison and the Introduction of Buddhism in Estonia
Mait Talts
Folklore : Electronic Journal of Folklore , 2008,
Abstract: Karlis Tennison(s) is an essential, although controversial figure inthe history of Buddhism in Estonia and Latvia. He was, without doubt, the first to disseminate Buddhism in the Baltic countries and also one of the earliest disseminators of Buddhism in Eastern Europe. Karl August T nisson, born in 1883 near P ltsamaa, Estonia, later repeatedly changed his biography (for example, transformed from an Estonian to a Latvian and simultaneously became ten years older). The article focuses on the development of his ideas. All his books and other publications, which are modest in volume and usually self-published, were issued between 1909–1916 and 1925–1930. The development of his views can be divided into three main periods: the pre-Buddhist period (before 1911); the ‘theosophical Buddhist’ period (1911–1916) and the period of ego-Buddhism or neopaganism (1925–1930). Around 1910–1911 Tennison ultimately converts to Buddhism. As he did not identify with any particular school, we may call him an ‘abstract’ Buddhist. In 1925 Tennison published a book in Latvian and from 1928 to 1930 three books in Estonian. In the publications of this period, Tennison retreats from the principles of Buddhism and allots more space to the glorification of his own personality and to criticism of Christianity, which was typical of neopaganism popular in Europe at the period. One of the most peculiar ideas in Tennison’s books is that of the Pan-Baltonian Empire. In that period Tennison also began to disseminate his view that Estonians’, Latvians’ and Lithuanians’ pre-Christian beliefs were somewhat similar to the religious and philosophical systems of India in the Vedic period, which, in the present-day world, are represented in their purest form in Buddhism.In 1930, Tennison, accompanied by Friedrich V. Lustig, left the Baltics and a year later also Europe, settling for the period 1932–1949 in the Kingdom of Siam. After leaving the Baltics, Tennison did not publish his texts as separate books, although during the last period of his life, in the 1950s and early 1960s while living in Burma, he is known to have been writing his so-called Buddhist Catechism, which remained unfinished.
Spin Foam Models for Quantum Gravity and semi-classical limit
Maité Dupuis
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: The spinfoam framework is a proposal for a regularized path integral for quantum gravity. Spinfoams define quantum space-time structures describing the evolution in time of the spin network states for quantum geometry derived from Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG). The construction of this covariant approach is based on the formulation of General Relativity as a topological theory plus the so-called simplicity constraints which introduce local degrees of freedom. The simplicity constraints are essential in turning the non-physical topological theory into 4d gravity. In this PhD manuscript, an original way to impose the simplicity constraints in 4d Euclidean gravity using harmonic oscillators is proposed and new coherent states, solutions of the constraints, are given. Moreover, a consistent spinfoam model for quantum gravity has to be connected to LQG and must have the right semi-classical limit. An explicit map between the spin network states of LQG and the boundary states of spinfoam models is given connecting the canonical and the covariant approaches. Finally, new techniques to compute semiclassical asymptotic expressions for the transition amplitudes of 3d quantum gravity and to extract semi-classical information from a spinfoam model are introduced. Explicit computations based on approximation methods and on the use of recurrence relations on spinfoam amplitudes have been performed. The results are relevant to derive quantum corrections to the dynamics of the gravitational field.
Monitoring the effect of upwelling on the chlorophyll a distribution in the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea) using remote sensing and in situ data
Rivo Uiboupin,Jaan Laanemets,Liis Sipelgas,Laura Raag
Oceanologia , 2012,
Abstract: The spatio-temporal variability of chlorophyl a (Chl a) caused by a sequence of upwelling events in the Gulf of Finland in July-August 2006 was studied using remote sensing data and field measurements. Spatial distributions of sea surface temperature (SST) and Chl a concentration were examined using MODIS and MERIS data respectively. The MERIS data were processed with an algorithm developed by the Free University of Berlin (FUB) for case 2 waters. Evaluation of MERIS Chl a versus in situ Chl a showed good correlation (r2 = 0.67), but the concentration was underestimated. The linear regression for a 2 h window was applied to calibrate MERIS Chl a. The spatio-temporal variability exhibited the clear influence of upwelling events and related filaments on Chl a distribution in the western and central Gulf. The lowest Chl a concentrations were recorded in the upwelled water, especially at the upwelling centres, and the highest concentrations (13 mg m-3) were observed about two weeks after the upwelling peak along the northern coast. The areas along the northern coast of upwelled water (4879 km2) on the SST map, and increased Chl a (5526 km2) two weeks later, were roughly coincident. The effect of upwelling events was weak in the eastern part of the Gulf, where Chl a concentration was relatively consistent throughout this period.
The dating of Pheidon in antiquity
K?iv, Mait
Studia Humaniora Tartuensia , 2000,
Abstract: The date of the Argive tyrant Pheidon has been generally discussed without asking about what was the reason of different ancients datings. The failure to understand it has led to rather voluntary selection among the dates as well as unwarranted constructions. The present paper is an attempt to give a complex explanation of all the dates put forward by the ancients, except the statement of Herodotos that placed Pheidon to the early 6th century BC. It is suggested that all other dates were based on two synchronisations. First, Pheidon was considered roughly as a contemporary of the end of Corinthian kingship, the foundation of Syracuse, the outbreak of the first Messenian war and the epic poet Eumelos. This synchronisation was based on the story about the death of Corinthian Aktaion and on the account of Ephoros, who had dated some of these instances, including Pheidon, to the 10th generation from the Herakleid invasion. It was the reason of the date in Pausanias (Ol. 8 in 748 BC). And second, Pheidon was synchronised with Spartan lawgiver Lykourgos. On this assumption were based the datings in Theopompos, Marmor Parium, Eusebios and Isidorus.
The origins, development and reliability of the ancient tradition about the formation of Spartan constitution
K?iv, Mait
Studia Humaniora Tartuensia , 2000,
Democratisation of Greek society during the Archaic Era?
K?iv, Mait
Studia Humaniora Tartuensia , 2002,
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to ask critical questions about the widespread conception of the universal democratisation of the Greek society during the archaic and classical periods, leading from the Dark Age monarchies via archaic aristocracies to the establishment of the classical Greek democracy. The concept is based on the opinion of Aristotle, and on the combination of the evidence from the Homeric epics, the poems of Hesiod, archaic poetry and what is known about the late archaic and classical Greek city states, mostly on the example of Athens. Crucial for it are the assumptions that Homeric epics predate the Hesiodic poems and the lyric poetry, and that they give a reliable depiction of the poet's contemporary society, which allows to consider the 'Homeric kingship' as a normal social phenomenon of the Dark Age and to view everything known from the other sources as a result of further development. If we question these assumptions about Homeric epics, neither of which can be considered as certain, the whole conception will be seriously weakened. The other evidence we have - the half-legendary stories about the archaic era and the information we possess about the archaic legislation - does not depict any clear trend in the social development. It is therefore asked in this paper, if it would not be more reasonable to view the Dark Age and archaic communities as preserving a social balance between the nobility and the commoners by giving the initiative to the elite, but still preserving the participation of the fighting commoners in the governmental affairs. In such case there would be no reason to assume a general development from monarchies to aristocracies and from aristocracies to the more democratic forms of government during this period.
Vallejo Maité,Reyes Pedro A.
Salud Pública de México , 2003,
Müürsepp, Peeter; Talts, Mait
Acta Baltica Historiae et Philosophiae Scientiarum , 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11590/abhps.2013.1.00
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