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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3683 matches for " Mahfuzar Rahman "
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Arsenic and hypertension in Bangladesh
Rahman Mahfuzar
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2002,
Abstract:
Knowledge and Awareness about HIV/AIDS among Garments Workers in Gazipur District, Bangladesh
Nazrul Islam Mondal,Mosharaf Hossain,Mahfuzar Rahman
The Social Sciences , 2013,
Abstract: The aim of this study is to identify the socio-demographic correlation of knowledge and awareness about HIV/AIDS among the garments workers in Gazipur district, Bangladesh. For this a total number of 178 garments workers have been interviewed through a structured questionnaire by purposive sampling technique. The results shows that about half of them do not know how to read and write and also do not use condom during sexual intercourse. The chi-square ( 2) analysis between having knowledge and awareness about HIV/AIDS and some selected background characteristics is performed. The result reveals that among the selected variables 6 variables are statistically associated with having knowledge about HIV/AIDS of the garments workers. A logistic regression model is employed which reveals that respondent s age, education, marital status, place of birth, listening about HIV/AIDS and media information about HIV/AIDS highly significant effects on knowledge and awareness about HIV/AIDS of garment workers.
Child Labor Due to Poverty: A Study on Dinajpur District, Bangladesh
Shamsher Alam,Nazrul Islam Mondal,Mahfuzar Rahman
The Social Sciences , 2013,
Abstract: Bangladesh is a densely populated country and her population is increasing day-by-day, but the resources are not growing at the same rate. As a result, the majority of the people of the country are becoming poorer gradually. This study finds support for the widely held hypothesis that poverty compels children to work. For this, data were collected from one thousand child labors in some selected areas of Dinajpur district, Bangladesh. The respondents were selected using purposive sampling technique and successfully interviewed through a structured questionnaire. Logistic regression model suggests educational attainment and occupation of father, having loan of family; family members, income of household head and respondents’ income used in the purpose of their family help have statistically significant effects on determining the likelihood that poverty is the major cause of child labor in the study areas. Finally, this study suggests some policy recommendations that will very helpful to combat against child labor from Bangladesh.
Determinants of Safe Maternity Delivery Practices in Bangladesh: A Logistic Regression Analysis
Mahfuzar Rahman,Shahidur Rahman Choudhary,Syeda Afreena Mamun
Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: This study is designed to evaluate the effects of some selected demographic, socio-economic, cultural and programmatic factors on safe maternity deliver practices (delivery assisted by doctors, trained nurses or midwives, or family welfare visitors) among the Bangladeshi women, through the logistic regression method. This study is based on the national-level data drawn from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS), 2004 with a sample of 10146 ever-married women aged 10-49 years who had at least one delivery before they were interviewed. The result of logistic regression shows that uneducated is less likely to have safe maternity deliveries. Exposed to mass media is positive and significantly associated with safe-delivery practices. Conservatism and religious taboos are likely to affect the practices, since Muslim women are less likely to have safe-delivery practices compared to non-Muslims women. Finally, the results suggest some suggestive policy measures so that the planners and implementers may take appropriate initiatives to ensue the safe maternity delivery practices especially in Bangladesh.
Contamination of drinking-water by arsenic in Bangladesh: a public health emergency
Smith,Allan H.; Lingas,Elena O.; Rahman,Mahfuzar;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862000000900005
Abstract: the contamination of groundwater by arsenic in bangladesh is the largest poisoning of a population in history, with millions of people exposed. this paper describes the history of the discovery of arsenic in drinking-water in bangladesh and recommends intervention strategies. tube-wells were installed to provide ??pure water?? to prevent morbidity and mortality from gastrointestinal disease. the water from the millions of tube-wells that were installed was not tested for arsenic contamination. studies in other countries where the population has had long-term exposure to arsenic in groundwater indicate that 1 in 10 people who drink water containing 500 μg of arsenic per litre may ultimately die from cancers caused by arsenic, including lung, bladder and skin cancers. the rapid allocation of funding and prompt expansion of current interventions to address this contamination should be facilitated. the fundamental intervention is the identification and provision of arsenic-free drinking water. arsenic is rapidly excreted in urine, and for early or mild cases, no specific treatment is required. community education and participation are essential to ensure that interventions are successful; these should be coupled with follow-up monitoring to confirm that exposure has ended. taken together with the discovery of arsenic in groundwater in other countries, the experience in bangladesh shows that groundwater sources throughout the world that are used for drinking-water should be tested for arsenic.
Socio-Demographic Condition and Health Complications of Street-Based Sex Workers in Rajshahi City, Bangladesh
Md. Nazrul Islam Mondal,Md. Mahfuzar Rahman,Md. Kamal Hossain
Research Journal of Medical Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjmsci.2010.119.124
Abstract: Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) including HIV, continue to present major public health, social and economic problem in Bangladesh leading to consisderable morbidity, mortality and stigma. For this a study on socio-demographic and health complications has been designed to investigate some important factors which are responsible for certain health hazards of Street-based Sex Workers (SSWs). A cross-sectional study was conducted among SSW in randomly selected three Drop In Centers (DIC). Socio-demographic and health related information have been collected through a structured questionnaire using purposive sampling technique and a total of 176 SSW have been interviewed. Most of the SSWs are very young (68.18% below 35 years) and they have been connected to this most hated profession by early ages (52.84% before 25 years). This profession is mainly dominated by the illiterate (76.14%) and married women (73.29%). They are paid a little amount of money (<50 Tk per client) and they have taken highest number of clients (>3) per night. On the other hand, they have spent very few amount of money (<500 Tk month-1) for health purpose. Consequently, they are suffering from different types of health complications. Very young, married and illiterate women are serving the sex trade containing severe health hazards. The study suggests that female educational attainment should improve and to promote for the safety of this high vulnerable group immediate program should be taken by the policy makers as well as social leaders.
Bangladesh arsenic mitigation programs: lessons from the past
Abul Hasnat Milton,Samar Kumar Hore,Mohammad Zahid Hossain,Mahfuzar Rahman
Emerging Health Threats Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.3402/ehtj.v5i0.7269
Abstract: Ensuring access to safe drinking water by 2015 is a global commitment by the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In Bangladesh, significant achievements in providing safe water were made earlier by nationwide tubewell-installation programme. This achievement was overshadowed in 1993 by the presence of arsenic in underground water. A total of 6 million tubewells have been tested for arsenic since then, the results of which warranted immediate mitigation. Mitigation measures included tubewell testing and replacing; usage of deeper wells; surface water preservation and treatment; use of sanitary dug wells, river sand and pond sand filters; rainwater collection and storage; household-scale and large-scale arsenic filtrations; and rural pipeline water supply installation. Shallow tubewell installation was discouraged. Efforts have been made to increase people's awareness. This paper describes the lessons learned about mitigation efforts by the authors from experience of arsenic-related work. In spite of national mitigation plans and efforts, a few challenges still persist: inadequate coordination between stakeholders, differences in inter-sectoral attitudes, inadequate research to identify region-specific, suitable safe water options, poor quality of works by various implementing agencies, and inadequate dissemination of the knowledge and experiences to the people by those organizations. Issues such as long-time adaptation using ground water, poor surface water quality including bad smell and turbidity, and refusal to using neighbor's water have delayed mitigation measures so far. Region-specific mitigation water supply policy led by the health sector could be adopted with multisectoral involvement and responsibility. Large-scale piped water supply could be arranged through Public Private Partnerships (PPP) in new national approach.
Spatial patterns of fetal loss and infant death in an arsenic-affected area in Bangladesh
Nazmul Sohel, Marie Vahter, Mohammad Ali, Mahfuzar Rahman, Anisur Rahman, Peter Streatfield, Pavlos S Kanaroglou, Lars Persson
International Journal of Health Geographics , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1476-072x-9-53
Abstract: Pregnant women from Matlab, Bangladesh, who used tube-well water for drinking while pregnant between 1991 and 2000, were included in this study. In total 29,134 pregnancies were identified. A spatial scan test was used to identify unique non-random spatial and spatiotemporal clusters of fetal loss and infant death using a retrospective spatial and spatiotemporal permutation and Poisson probability models.Two significant clusters of fetal loss and infant death were identified and these clusters remained stable after adjustment for covariates. One cluster of higher rates of fetal loss and infant death was in the vicinity of the Meghna River, and the other cluster of lower rates was in the center of Matlab. The average concentration of arsenic in the water differed between these clusters (319 μg/L for the high cluster and 174 μg/L for the low cluster). The spatial patterns of arsenic concentrations in tube-well water were found to be linked with the adverse pregnancy outcome clusters. In the spatiotemporal analysis, only one high fetal loss and infant death cluster was identified in the same high cluster area obtained from purely spatial analysis. However, the cluster was no longer significant after adjustment for the covariates.The finding of this study suggests that given the geographical variation in tube-well water contamination, higher fetal loss and infant deaths were observed in the areas of higher arsenic concentrations in groundwater. This illustrates a possible link between arsenic contamination in tube-well water and adverse pregnancy outcome. Thus, these areas should be considered a priority in arsenic mitigation programs.Despite improvements in child survival, annually, more than nine million children die before the age of five, mostly in low- and middle-income countries [1,2]. About four million of these deaths are within the first four weeks of life and a similar number of stillbirths occur [1-3]. In Bangladesh, under-five mortality has rapidly declined
Increased Childhood Mortality and Arsenic in Drinking Water in Matlab, Bangladesh: A Population-Based Cohort Study
Mahfuzar Rahman, Nazmul Sohel, Mohammad Yunus, Mahbub Elahi Chowdhury, Samar Kumar Hore, Khalequ Zaman, Abbas Bhuiya, Peter Kim Streatfield
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0055014
Abstract: Background Arsenic in drinking water was associated with increased risk of all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular death in adults. However, the extent to which exposure is related to all-cause and deaths from cancer and cardiovascular condition in young age is unknown. Therefore, we prospectively assessed whether long-term and recent arsenic exposures are associated with all-cause and cancer and cardiovascular mortalities in Bangladeshi childhood population. Methods and Findings We assembled a cohort of 58406 children aged 5–18 years from the Health and Demographic Surveillance System of icddrb in Bangladesh and followed during 2003–2010. There were 185 non-accidental deaths registered in-about 0.4 million person-years of observation. We calculated hazard ratios for cause-specific death in relation to exposure at baseline (μg/L), time-weighted lifetime average (μg/L) and cumulative concentration (μg-years/L). After adjusting covariates, hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause childhood deaths comparing lifetime average exposure 10–50.0, 50.1–150.0, 150.1–300.0 and ≥300.1μg/L were 1.37 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74–2.57), 1.44 (95% CI, 0.88–2.38), 1.22 (95% CI, 0.75–1.98) and 1.88 (95% CI, 1.14–3.10) respectively. Significant increased risk was also observed for baseline (P for trend = 0.023) and cumulative exposure categories (P for trend = 0.036). Girls had higher mortality risk compared to boys (HR for girls 1.79, 1.21, 1.64, 2.31; HR for boys 0.52, 0.53, 1.14, 0.99) in relation to baseline exposure. For all cancers and cardiovascular deaths combined, multivariable adjusted HRs amounted to 1.53 (95% CI 0.51–4.57); 1.29 (95% CI 0.43–3.87); 2.18 (95%CI 1.15–4.16) for 10.0–50.0, 50.1–150.0, and ≥150.1, comparing lowest exposure as reference (P for trend = 0.009). Adolescents had higher mortality risk compared to children (HRs = 1.53, 95% CI 1.03–2.28 vs. HRs = 1.30, 95% CI 0.78–2.17). Conclusions Arsenic exposure was associated with substantial increased risk of deaths at young age from all-cause, and cancers and cardiovascular conditions. Girls and adolescents (12–18 years) had higher risk compared to boys and child.
Influence of Prenatal Arsenic Exposure and Newborn Sex on Global Methylation of Cord Blood DNA
J. Richard Pilsner, Megan N. Hall, Xinhua Liu, Vesna Ilievski, Vesna Slavkovich, Diane Levy, Pam Factor-Litvak, Mahammad Yunus, Mahfuzar Rahman, Joseph H. Graziano, Mary V. Gamble
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037147
Abstract: Background An emerging body of evidence indicates that early-life arsenic (As) exposure may influence the trajectory of health outcomes later in life. However, the mechanisms underlying these observations are unknown. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of prenatal As exposure on global methylation of cord blood DNA in a study of mother/newborn pairs in Matlab, Bangladesh. Design Maternal and cord blood DNA were available from a convenience sample of 101 mother/newborn pairs. Measures of As exposure included maternal urinary As (uAs), maternal blood As (mbAs) and cord blood As (cbAs). Several measures of global DNA methylation were assessed, including the [3H]-methyl-incorporation assay and three Pyrosequencing assays: Alu, LINE-1 and LUMA. Results In the total sample, increasing quartiles of maternal uAs were associated with an increase in covariate-adjusted means of newborn global DNA methylation as measured by the [3H]-methyl-incorporation assay (quartile 1 (Q1) and Q2 vs. Q4; p = 0.06 and 0.04, respectively). Sex-specific linear regression analyses, while not reaching significance level of 0.05, indicated that the associations between As exposures and Alu, LINE-1 and LUMA were positive among male newborns (N = 58) but negative among female newborns (N = 43); tests for sex differences were borderline significant for the association of cbAs and mbAs with Alu (p = 0.05 and 0.09, respectively) and for the association between maternal uAs and LINE-1 (p = 0.07). Sex-specific correlations between maternal urinary creatinine and newborn methyl-incorporation, Alu and LINE-1 were also evident (p<0.05). Conclusions These results suggest that prenatal As exposure is associated with global DNA methylation in cord blood DNA, possibly in a sex-specific manner. Arsenic-induced epigenetic modifications in utero may potentially influence disease outcomes later in life. Additional studies are needed to confirm these findings and to examine the persistence of DNA methylation marks over time.
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