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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 141 matches for " Mahamat Youssouf "
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Epidemiological Profile of Chronic Kidney Disease at the General Hospital of National Reference of N’Djamena (Chad)  [PDF]
Ibrahim Hamat, Guillaume Mahamat Abderraman, Zeinab Ma?ga Moussa Tondi, Mahamat Youssouf, Mouhammadou Moustapha Cisse, Fotclossou Tara, Elhaj Fary Ka, Abdou Niang, Boucar Diouf
Open Journal of Nephrology (OJNeph) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojneph.2016.63010
Abstract: Introduction: Chronic renal failure is a disease that affects many patients worldwide and increasingly in Africa. At the end of 2003, about 1.1 million people were suffering from End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) and were treated with periodic dialysis [12]. In Africa, CKF represents 2% to 10% of hospital admissions and is responsible for 4% to 22% of deaths [14]. So, this study is conducted for the first time in Chad, with the aims to determine the prevalence of CKD. Methods: This was a retrospective, descriptive and analytical study over a period of 12 months from April 29, 2011 to April 28, 2012. All patients with chronic renal failure regardless of etiology and stage of chronic kidney disease were included in the study. Chronic renal failure was defined as a glomerular filtration rate below 60 ml/min/1.73m (MDRD) for more than 3 months. This study was conducted in several departments of the National General Reference Hospital (NGRH) of N’Djamena. Result: Among 2039 inpatients, 195 patients had chronic renal failure, as a frequency of 9.6%. The average age of our patients was 51 ± 16.8 years, ranging from 11 to 85 years. Male predominance was noted to be 59% of men against 41% of women. We noted that high blood pressure accounted for 66.2% (N = 129) of cases, diabetes in 48.2% (N = 94), alcoholism in 28.7% (N = 56), smoking in 14.9% (N = 29) and the association alcoholism-smoking in 19.5% (N = 38). Hypertension was the leading cause of chronic renal failure (66.2%). All patients had a serum creatinine and creatinine clearance was assessed. Among them, we noted 57 patients (29%) with end-stage renal failure. The average calcium and phosphate serum were 1.8 mmol/l and 1.6 mmol/l, respectively. We noted that 120 patients as 61.5%, currently took herbal medicine. 48 out of 57 of our patients with ESRD as 24.6% of patients in the study had received replacement therapy (hemodialysis) with 12.5% of deaths. Conclusion: Chad, who compiled the first study with 195 patients at the General Hospital of N’Djamena National Reference over a period of one year has objectified a prevalence of chronic renal failure of 9.6%.
Profile of Patients with Acute Renal Injury in N’Djamena: About 36 Cases  [PDF]
Guillaume Mahamat Abderraman, Hamat Ibrahim, Moussa Tondi Zeinabou Maiga, Tall Ahmed Lemrabott, Faye Maria, Kossi Akomola Sabi, Mahamat Youssouf, Cisse Mouhamadou Moustapha, Ka Elhaj Fary Ka, Niang Abdou, Diouf Boucar
Open Journal of Nephrology (OJNeph) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojneph.2017.71001
Abstract: Introduction: The incidence of acute renal injury (AKI) has increased in recent decades. Acute renal failure is defined by the abrupt arrest (within hours or days) of the kidney excretory function. Oliguria (urine output <400 ml/ 24h) is presented in about half of the cases. The circumstances of the occurrence of AKI are multiple: surgical, traumatic, obstetric, medical, often obvious. Its prognosis depends on the speed of management and the associated organ failure. The objective of this study is to describe the profile of patients in emergency hemodialysis at the Nephrology Unit of the National Reference General Hospital (HGRN) in N’Djamena, Chad. Methods: This was a multicenter, descriptive study in patients with acute renal failure place over a period of 12 months in the emergency departments of the 2 hospitals in N’Djamena. Defined as carriers of an AKI (RIFLE criteria), patients with: 1) Oliguria: urinary output < 400 ml/24h (<0.5 ml/kg/h in children) or anuria: urinary output < 300 ml/24h; 2) Associated with an increase in serum creatinine: serum creatinine × 3 or serum creatinine> 350 μmol/l or decrease of GFR by 75%. Results: Of the 311 patients admitted, 36 cases met the inclusion criteria, a frequency of 11.57%. The mean age was 34.46 years with extremes ranging from 7 to 80 years. The female sex predominated with 52.80% as sex ratio of 0.91. Isolated hypertension was noted with 38.88%. Dyspnea accounted for 41.66% of patients admitted to emergency departments. In our series, 50% of our patients had hyperthermia at admission. Oliguria was observed in 41.70% of the cases. Edema accounted for 33.33% of cases. The AKI with the failure criterion was 58.34% (21/36), with the criterion “injury” 25% (9 cases) and the criterion “risk” 16.66 (6 cases). AKI were organic in 83.34% (30/36). It was noted that 14 patients, 38.8% had an infectious syndrome. There were 6 patients who had (16.66%) an obstructive AKI, 5
Influence of Climate Temperature on the Valorization of Dung-Wastewater Slaughterhouse Biogas in Two Regions: In Chad and Senegal  [PDF]
Haroun Ali Adannou, Saka Goni, Mahamat Bichara Abderaman, Mahamoud Youssouf Khayal, Ache Abouya Khamis, Moulaye Aidara, Talla Kharouna, Aboubaker Chedich Beye
Natural Resources (NR) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2019.104006
Abstract: In this work, we have produced biogas by co-digestion of cow dung and slaughterhouse wastewater under different climate temperatures in two countries: N’Djamena in Chad, a country of Central Africa and Dakar in Senegal, a country of West Africa. In a first approach, we put the cow dung in cans of 1.5 L, hermetically closed. The goal was to know how long you could produce biogas. Then we built a bio-digester to produce biogas for cooking. Each bio-digester was exposed to receive solar heat that varied between 27°C to 41°C in Chad and between 24°C to 30°C in Senegal. Influenced by the high temperature and a minimum residence time, the experiments showed that the N’Djamena test produced biogas more quickly than the Dakar test which, on the contrary, had a low temperature and a long residence time. The production of biogas began at the end of seven days with flammability on the twenty-first day for the bio-digester in Chad and after twenty-seven days with a flammability on the thirty-sixth day for the bio-digester of Senegal. The different digestates were valorised in fertilizers, bricks and green coal. Our research aims to meet the living conditions of the rural world specifically for women by reducing their work and thus allowing them to have more time to self-educate and educate their children.
Can Macroinvertebrate Assemblage Changes Be Used as Biological Indicator of Water Quality of the Nokoue Lake (Benin)?  [PDF]
Hamed Odountan, Youssouf Abou
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2015.612122
Abstract: Investigations on biological capacity of water quality of macroinvertebrate community are very uncommon, and such as the amount of information available on the Nokoue Lake (the largest lake of Benin) is very limited. This information gap needs to be filled for better management of the Nokoue Lake. The goal of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using the macroinvertebrate community structures in Nokoue Lake and the environmental factors responsible for the maintenance of these structures. Nokoue Lake was studied over three months, during high flood period in which time subsurface water and macroinvertebrate samples were collected and analyzed. A study showed that the macroinvertebrate assemblages was done according to ecological gradients as pH, conductivity, TDS, salinity, chlorophyll a and probably to anthropogenic actions (nutriments). Better than the percentage of insects, the percentage of Chironomidae informed very well about macroinvertebrate assemblages. To assess the biological health of the environment, the Family Biotic Index (FBI) turns out to be more appropriate than diversity indices that do not take into account the intermediate pollution. Organic pollution revealed by the FBI probably affects the aquatic life.
Structure and Composition of Macroinvertebrates during Flood Period of the Nokoue Lake, Benin  [PDF]
Hamed Odountan, Youssouf Abou
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2016.62007
Abstract: The Nokoue Lake is the largest lake of Benin Republic and it is also considered as one of the most productive lagoon ecosystems in West Africa. This productivity is decreasing and thus raises productivity issue for a better management and conservation. Macroinvertebrate can be useful for this purpose. A study was conducted to assess the spatial variation of macroinvertebrates during high flood period. A total of 3892 macroinvertebrates of fresh and brackish water were sampled during the survey. Structural analysis of the macroinvertebrate community revealed that it was made up of 16 orders, 48 families and 66 genera dominated by Insecta compared to Mollusca, Crustacea and the Annelida. Insects were dominated by Diptera (Chironomus sp. and Tanytarsus sp.), Coleoptera (Dystiscidae) and accounted for 57.1% of the sampled population. Mollusca, Crustacea, Annelida and Arachnida were the following most abundant and represented 23.9%, 10.7%, 8.1% and 0.2% of the total population, respectively. The Evenness index of Pielou was higher on the Station 8 (0.91 - 0.97), close to Oueme River. However, no significant difference (p > 0.05) was observed neither between station nor between month on the Shannon-Wiener index (2.06 - 4.31), Simpson index (0.04 - 0.40) and the taxa number (10 - 27). Macroinvertebrate assemblages and composition were primarily due to changes in water quality dependent on hydroclimatic changes and probably to anthropogenic actions. This suggests the need for real investigation of the macroinvertebrate biological capacity when formulating conservation strategies for the Nokoue Lake.
Severe External Genitalia Lesion by Firearm: A Case Report  [PDF]
Mahamat Ali Mahamat, Sidi Sougui, Choua Ouchemi, Olivier Ngaringuem, Mohamed Jalloh, Lamine Niang, Serigne M. Gueye
Open Journal of Urology (OJU) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/oju.2015.510030
Abstract: Gunshot wounds to external genitalia are rare either in war field and civilian setting accounting for 2% - 4% of all injuries with often a lesion to the urinary tract. We report a case of external genital injury in a 27 years old man, accidentally injured by his own arm when he pressed the trigger of his gun placed in his pants. He had no past medical or surgical history, he presented to the emergency room (ER) with hemorrhagic scrotal and penile injuries with adjacent urethral tissue damage. He underwent a scrotal flap urethroplasty, and realignment of the corpus cavernosa and the tunica albugina. The patient lost his Foley catheter at post-operative day 3 and subsequently developed a urethral stenosis. Gunshot wounds to external genitalia are rare. A good reconstruction is necessary to avoid an impact on sexual and voiding function.
Approach Thermal Habitat Assessment in N’Djamena in Chad  [PDF]
Ahmat Charfadine, Mahamat Barka, Abakar Mahamat Tahir, Mohagir Ahmed Mohammed, Pr. Salif Gaye
World Journal of Engineering and Technology (WJET) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wjet.2016.41009
Abstract: For the earth material construction is the most used one in Chad, the object of this work is the assessment of the thermal quality of earthen adobe mixed with straw. Different simulation software analyzes the CoDyBa which is conducted to determine the behavior of this material compared to living comfort thanks to the Fanger model, which is a method of approach to thermal comfort standpoint. The study focused on two configurations on the formation of the walls of a room. The first of these configurations led to the definition of a first cell constructed earthen adobe named Batter roofing sheet aluminum and a second cell built in blocks named Batbet which had the same geometric characteristics (thickness, dimensions and side openings) and covered in the same manner as the ground cell. The different comfort indices PMV and PPD values of these two configurations of habitat were identified and were used to determine their thermal comfort rating.
Emergency Drainage of Upper Urinary Tract with a Double Catheter in the Hospital General de Grand Yoff of Dakar (HOGGY)  [PDF]
Madina Ndoye, Mahamat Ali Mahamat, Gille Natchagande, Mohamed Jalloh, Lamine Niang, Serigne M. Gueye
Open Journal of Urology (OJU) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oju.2016.62003
Abstract: Goals: The goals are to assess the use of Double Jendo-prostheses in urinary obstructions in the Hospital General de Grand Yoff of Dakar (HOGGY). Patients and methods: This is a 4-year retrospective study (1st January 2009-31st December 2012). The study included all patients with obstruction of the upper urinary tract, and with a reversing type Double Jendo-prostheses. Findings: A total of 82 patients were chosen for this study, including 41 males. Patient’s average age was 45 years. Kidney failure accounted for 11.5% of the causes of consultations. Lithiasic obstacles (34.2%) and tumours (21.5%) were the most recurrent. Catheter was successfully placed in 78% of cases, and highly contributed to improve renal function in 69% of cases. The frequently complications found in patients with Double J Catheters were back pain and urinary tract infections. Four cases of catheters calcifications were reported. Catheter was replaced in 62.2% of patients within an average period of 6.9 months. Conclusion: Double J Catheters remain important in the preservation of renal function in case of obstruction. Its use requires a mastery of these indications and a rigorous follow-up.
Mahamat Issa Haasn
International Journal of New Computer Architectures and their Applications , 2011,
Abstract: Resource/service discovery is a very vital issue in Internet based distributed systems such as Grid and Cloud computing. In this paper we address the RD issue in intergrid. We design a service discovery framework by integrating semantic technology, peer-to-peer network and intelligent agents. The framework has two main components which are service description, and service registration and discovery models. The earlier consists of a set of ontologies that are used as a data model for service description and services to accomplish the description process. The service registration is based super-peer architecture to organize the nodes and on ontology to manage the node organization. In addition to that, we introduce intelligent agents to automate the discovery process. We evaluate the framework via simulation experiments, and the result confirms the effectiveness of the framework in satisfying the required RD features (interoperability, scalability, decentralization and dynamism).
Alienor Method for Nonlinear Multi-Objective Optimization  [PDF]
Mahamat Maimos, Balira O. Konfe, Souleymane Koussoube, Blaise Some
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/am.2011.22023
Abstract: This paper deals with the Alienor method to tackle multiobjective nonlinear optimization problems. In this approach, the multiple criteria of the optimization problem are aggregated into a single one using weighted sums. Then, the resulting single objective nonlinear optimization problem is solved using the Alienor method associated with the Optimization Preserving Operators technique which has proved to be suitable for (nonlinear) optimization problems with a large number of variables (see [1]). The proposed approach is evaluated through test problems. The results show that the approach provides good approximations of the Pareto front while requiring small computational time, even for large instances.
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