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MRI is a state of art imaging modality in characterization of indeterminate adnexal masses  [PDF]
Amit Nandan Dhar Dwivedi, Shivi Jain, Ram Chandra Shukla, Madhu Jain, Arvind Srivastava, Ashish Verma
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2013.63A039
Abstract:
Aims and Objectives: The aim of this diagnostic observational study was to find an association of final diagnosis of adnexal masses suggested by MRI and compare it as an imaging modality in determining the origin, nature (benign/malignant) & characteristics of adnexal masses by calculating sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out in 90 patients in the department of radio diagnosis and imaging, institute of medical sciences, Banaras Hindu University (BHU). The patients were referred from department of obstetrics & gynecology, institute of medical sciences. Majority of the referred cases were those who had clinical features of abdominal pain, abdominal lump, menstrual irregularity, ascites, and anorexia or weight loss & in whom adnexal mass was suspected clinically. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed using 1.5 Tesla MR Scanner, Magnetom Avanto (Siemens Healthcare). Results: Out of 114 masses, 17 (14.9%) were malignant. The benign adnexal masses were maximum in the age group 20 - 39 years (56/97, 57.7%), while malignant masses were mainly found in women ≥60 years of age (11/17, 64.7%). CA-125 level was grossly elevated in association with 35.3% of the malignant masses. On MRI, the sensitivity for the mass of ovarian origin was (97.7%) and specificity was (73.1%). The diagnostic accuracy was (92.1%). The mass of uterine origin had a sensitivity of (73.1%) and diagnostic accuracy (99.1%). Conclusion: MRI, because of its accuracy in identifying the origin of adnexal mass and characterizing the solid, hemorrhagic, fatty and fibrous content, may obviate surgery or significantly contribute to preoperative planning for a sonographically indeterminate mass. MRI is the state of the art imaging modality for evaluation of adnexal masses with an overall high diagnostic accuracy.
On Almost Pretopological Vector Spaces  [PDF]
Shallu Sharma, Madhu Ram, Sahil Billawria
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104937
Abstract:
In this paper, we introduce the notion of almost pretopological vector spaces and present some examples of almost pretopological vector spaces. Almost pretopological vector spaces are defined by using regular open sets and pre-open sets. The relationships of almost pretopological vector spaces with certain other types of spaces are provided. Along with some useful results, it is proved that in almost pretopological vector spaces, translation and scalar multiple of a regular open (resp. regular closed) set are pre-open (resp. pre-closed).
Variation of Zonal Winds in the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere in Association with Deficient and Excess Indian Summer Monsoon Scenario  [PDF]
Vazhathottathil Madhu
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2014.44062
Abstract: The Indian summer monsoon is one of the most dominant tropical circulation systems in the general circulation of the atmosphere. The country receives more than 80% of the annual rainfall during a short span of four months (June to September) of the southwest monsoon season. Variability in the quantum of rainfall during the monsoon season has profound impacts on water resources, power generation, agriculture, economics and ecosystems in the country. The inter annual variability of Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (ISMR) depends on atmospheric and oceanic conditions prevailed during the season. In this study we have made an attempt to understand the variation of the of zonal winds in the tropical Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere (UT/LS) region during deficient and Excess rainfall years of Indian summer monsoon and its relation to Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (ISMR). It is found that in the equatorial Upper Troposphere zonal winds have westerly anomalies during deficient rainfall year’s and easterly anomaly during excess rainfall years of Indian summer monsoon and opposite zonal wind anomaly is noted in the equatorial Lower Stratosphere during the deficient and excess rainfall years of Indian summer monsoon. It is also found that the June to September upper troposphere zonal winds averaged between 15°N and 15°S latitudes have a long-term trend during 1960 to 1998. Over this period the tropical easterlies and the tropical jet stream have weakened with time.
Spatial and Temporal Variability of Total Column Ozone over the Indian Subcontinent: A Study Based on Nimbus-7 TOMS Satellite  [PDF]
Vazhathottathil Madhu
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2014.45078
Abstract: The distribution and variability of ozone is very important to the atmospheric thermal structures, and it can exert their greater influence on climate. Present study is based on Nimbus-7 TOMS overpass column ozone for a period of 14 years (1979-1992) over twelve selected Indian stations from south to north latitude and it explores the spatial and temporal variability of Total Column Ozone (TCO). For this investigation an advanced statistical methods such as Factor Analysis and Morlet wavelet transform are employed. Total column ozone variability over these stations is grouped into two clusters (Eigen value greater than 1) by the Multivariate Factor analysis. It is found that the Group I stations shows the same nature of variability mainly due the first factor as the primarily loading and whereas as the Group II stations shows the same nature of variability due to second factor as the primary loading. The correlation value of TCO decreases from 0.9 to 0.32 as we move from south to north stations (lower latitude to higher latitude). The total column ozone over tropical stations is maximum during monsoon season with peak in the month of June and that for the higher latitude stations is during the pre-monsoon season. Annual average of TCO for tropical stations is about 265 DU and that for subtropical stations is about 280 DU and a difference of 15 DU is noted in the annual average of TCO between tropical and subtropical stations. A large reduction in TCO is noted over the Indian subcontinent in the year 1985, the same year in which the ozone hole over Antarctica was discovered. It is also found that two prominent oscillations are present in total column ozone one with a periodicity of 16 to18 months and other with 28 to 32 months (QBO periodicity) apart from the annual oscillations. These oscillations are found to be significant at above 95% level of confidence when tested with Power Spectrum method. Tropical TCO shows high concentration during the westerly phase and low concentration during the easterly phase of the equatorial stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation.
Effects of Charity on Social Welfare: a Theoretical Analysis  [PDF]
Madhu S. Mohanty
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2011.12004
Abstract: Using a social welfare function approach, this study theoretically demonstrates that charity and selfless service contribute positively to the welfare of the society without reducing welfare of any individual and thus they invariably lead to Pareto-improvement in social welfare. In other words, a society, regardless of its current level of development, can attain a higher level of subjective wellbeing if the affluent class voluntarily undertakes the service activities that benefit the needy.
Development of Siliconized Epoxy Resins and Their Application as Anticorrosive Coatings  [PDF]
Prashant Gupta, Madhu Bajpai
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2011.13020
Abstract: The present work involves the development of siliconized epoxy resin to overcome the drawback of epoxy resin like poor impact strength, high rigidity and moisture absorbing nature because of which they are not applied as corrosion resistant coating. By embedding silicone into the back bone of polymeric resin the above drawback can be reduced to substantial level. For achieving this, siliconised epoxy resins were prepared by reacting amine terminated silicone resin with novolac epoxy resin and meta-phenylenediamine was used as curing agent. The applied films of coating were baked at 150oC. Cured films were evaluated for their thermal, mechanical, chemical and corrosion resistance properties to ascertain the commercial utility of these eco-friendly resin for use in anti corrosive formulations. The siliconized epoxy resins system was found to exhibit good thermal and anticorrosive properties.
Ulcerated Nodal Metastasis in Penile Carcinoma  [PDF]
Krishnamachar Harish, Yagachikatte Chikkanarasaiah Madhu
Open Journal of Urology (OJU) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/oju.2011.14019
Abstract: A 35 year old male patient presented with untreated ulcerative lesion over the penis of one year duration with ulcerations over bilateral groin and suprapubic areas of three months duration. Biopsy was reported as squamous cell carcinoma. Involvement of nodes along suprapubic area is rare and is found ulcerated in this case. Ulceration of nodes and fixity occurs in the later stages of malignancy. Blowout of the underlying femoral vessels is one of the terminal events in such cases. This patient underwent bilateral ilioinguinal node dissection, total penoscrotal amputation and bilateral flap cover with tensor fascia lata flap.
Interaction of Carbon Dioxide Enrichment and Soil Moisture on Photosynthesis, Transpiration, and Water Use Efficiency of Soybean  [PDF]
Madegowda Madhu, Jerry L. Hatfield
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/as.2014.55043
Abstract:

Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is one of the most important oil and protein sources in the world. Interactive effect of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and soil water availability potentially impact future food security of the world under climate change. A rhizotron growth chamber experiment was conducted to study soil moisture interactions with elevated CO2 on gaseous exchange parameters of soybean under two CO2 concentrations (380 and 800 μmol·mol-1) with three soil moisture levels. Elevated CO2 decreased photosynthetic rate (11.1% and 10.8%), stomatal conductance (40.5% and 36.0%), intercellular CO2 concentration (16.68% and 12.28%), relative intercellular CO2 concentration (17.4% and 11.2%), and transpiration rate (43.6% and 39%) at 42 and 47 DAP. This down-regulation of photosynthesis was probably caused by low leaf nitrogen content and decrease in uptake of nutrients due to decrease in stomatal conductance and transpiration rate. Water use efficiency (WUE) increased under elevated CO2 because increase in total dry weight of plant was greater than that of water use under high CO2 conditions. Plants under normal and high soil moisture levels had significantly higher photosynthetic rate (7% to 16%) favored by optimum soil moisture content and high specific water content of soybean plants. Total dry matter production was significantly high when plants grown under elevated CO2 with normal (74.3% to 137.3%) soil moisture level. Photosynthetic rate was significantly and positively correlated with leaf conductance and intercellular CO2 concentration but WUE was significantly negatively correlated with leaf conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration and transpiration rate. However, the effect of high CO2 on plants depends on availability of nutrients and soil moisture for positive feedback from CO2 enrichment.

Elevated Carbon Dioxide and Soil Moisture on Early Growth Response of Soybean  [PDF]
M. Madhu, Jerry L. Hatfield
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/as.2015.62027
Abstract:

Interactions between elevated [CO2] and soil water availability have the potential impact on crops and future food security of the world. The study was conducted to investigate vegetative growth response of soybeans under two [CO2] (380 and 800 μmol mol-1) with three soil moisture levels in controlled environment. Slow growth rate and altered crop phenology of soybeans were observed under elevated [CO2] at early stage (V-3/V-4), but showed positive physiologically response at later stage (R3) indicating adoptive mechanism of plants to high [CO2]. Elevated [CO2] decreases the number of leaves by 23% and 14% and reduces in leaf areas by 11.7% and 9.7% compared with ambient [CO2] at 29 and 44 days after planting (DAP), respectively. Adaptive mechanism of plants to high [CO2] produced 39% and 83.7% greater leaf number and leaf areas, respectively at later stage (R3) of the crop growth (59 DAP). There was a reduction in a specific leaf area (SLA) at 29 DAP (22.2%) but an increase at 44 DAP (1.4%) and 58 DAP (8.5%) under elevated [CO2]. Dry matter production of plants was increased significantly for elevated [CO2]. Increase in leaf C (<1%) and reduction in N concentration (6.0% - 9.5%) increased the C:N ratio of soybean leaves (4.4% - 12.98%) under elevated [CO2]. Elevated [CO2] with normal soil moisture condition produced a maximum number of pods (54.8% - 122.4%) and an increase in dry weight of pods (29.8% - 56.6%). Plants under elevated [CO2] produced significantly greater numbers of root nodules per plant by 114% compared with plants under ambient [CO2] at 44 DAP. These results show a direct and interactive effect of elevated [CO2] and soil moisture on plant growth that will affect not only the global food security but also nutritional security.

2 D - QSAR studies on CYP26A1 inhibitory activity of 1-[benzofuran-2-yl-(4-alkyl/aryl-phenyl)-methyl]-1 H-triazoles
Madhu Yadav
Bioinformation , 2011,
Abstract: The Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) study is performed over a set of 15, 4-alkyl/aryl-substituted 1-[benzofuran-2-yl-phenylmethyl]-1 H-triazoles derivatives. This study is based on the application of physicochemical parameters in QSAR. The parameters include (MR (molar refractivity), MW (molecular weight), Pc (parachor), St (surface tension), D (density), Ir (index of refraction) and log P (partition coefficient). The parameters describing physiochemical properties are used as independent variables and the biological activity (IC50) is considered as dependent variable in multiple regression analysis. Different models were generated with high co-efficient of determination (R2). The 2D-QSAR study identified compounds capable of inhibiting the metabolic breakdown of the retinoid (trans-retinoic acid (ATRA)) involved in the activation of specific nuclear Retinoic acid receptors (RARs). This study identifies R115866 as a potential inhibitor of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) mediated metabolism with increased RA levels for retinoid actions.
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