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Preparation and in vitro characterization of chitosan nanoparticles containing Mesobuthus eupeus scorpion venom as an antigen delivery system
Mohammadpour Dounighi, N;Eskandari, R;Avadi, MR;Zolfagharian, H;Mir Mohammad Sadeghi, A;Rezayat, M;
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1678-91992012000100006
Abstract: hydrophilic nanoparticles have been widely investigated in recent years as delivery systems for therapeutic macromolecules such as antigens. in the present study mesobuthus eupeus venom-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were prepared via ionic gelation of tripolyphosphate (tpp) and chitosan. the optimum encapsulation efficiency (91.1%) and loading capacity (76.3%) were obtained by a chitosan concentration of 2 mg/ml, chitosan-to-tpp mass ratio of 2 and m. eupeus venom concentration of 500 μg/ml. the average nanoparticle size at optimum conditions was determined by zetasizer (malvern instruments, uk). the nanoparticle size was about 370 nm (polydispersity index: 0.429) while the zeta potential was positive. transmission electron microscope (tem) imaging showed a spherical, smooth and almost homogenous structure for nanoparticles. fourier transform infrared (ftir) spectroscopy confirmed tripolyphosphoric groups of tpp linked with ammonium groups of chitosan in the nanoparticles. the in vitro release of nanoparticles showed an initial burst release of approximately 60% in the first ten hours, followed by a slow and much reduced additional release for about 60 hours. it is suggested that the chitosan nanoparticles fabricated in our study may provide a suitable alternative to traditional adjuvant systems.
In vivo evaluation of homeostatic effects of Echis carinatus snake venom in Iran
Salmanizadeh Hossein,Babaie Mahdi,Zolfagharian Hossein
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1678-9199-19-3
Abstract: Background The venom of the family Viperidae, including the saw-scaled viper, is rich in serine proteinases and metalloproteinases, which affect the nervous system, complementary system, blood coagulation, platelet aggregation and blood pressure. One of the most prominent effects of the snake venom of Echis carinatus (Ec) is its coagulation activity, used for killing prey. Materials and methods Subfractions F1A and F1B were isolated from Ec crude venom by a combination of gel chromatography (Sephadex G-75) and ion exchange chromatography on a DEAE-Sepharose (DE-52). These subfractions were then intravenously (IV) injected into NIH male mice. Blood samples were taken before and after the administration of these subfractions. Times for prothrombin, partial thromboplastin and fibrinogen were recorded. Results and conclusions Comparison of the prothrombin time before and after F1A and F1B administrations showed that time for blood coagulation after injection is shorter than that of normal blood coagulation and also reduced coagulation time after Ec crude venom injection. This difference in coagulation time shows the intense coagulation activity of these subfractions that significantly increase the coagulation cascade rate and Causes to quick blood coagulation. The LD50 of the Ec crude venom was also determined to be 11.1 μg/mouse. Different crude venom doses were prepared with physiological serum and injected into four mice. Comparison of the prothrombin times after injection of subfractions F1A and F1B showed that the rate of mouse blood coagulation increases considerably. Comparing the partial thromboplastin times after injecting these subfractions with this normal test time showed that the activity rate of intrinsic blood coagulation system rose sharply in mice. Finally, by comparing the fibrinogen time after subfraction injections and normal test time, we can infer intense activation of coagulation cascade and fibrin production.
Clinical and biochemical manifestation produced by scorpion (Hemiscorpius lepturus) venom in experimental animals
Mirakabbadi A., Zare;Zolfagharian, H.;Hedayat, A.;Jalali, A.;
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1678-91992007000400007
Abstract: several studies have been published about the clinical and biochemical manifestations produced by the venom of scorpions of the buthidae family, but very few reports have indicated the manifestations induced by the venom of the scorpionidae family. hemiscorpius lepturus is an important scorpion species present in the south and southwestern part of iran, causing morbidity and mortality in children and adults. for the present study, h. lepturus venom was extracted by electric shock and subcutaneously injected (6.3mg/kg) into a group of six rabbits. blood collection was carried out before and three hours after venom injection for determination of osmotic fragility and levels of blood sugar, alanine aminotransferase (alt), aspartate aminotransferase (ast), lactate dehydrogenase (ldh), creatine phosphokinase (cpk) and alkaline phosphatase (alp). in vitro studies were also carried out to verify the osmotic fragility of red blood cells (rbcs) exposed to venom concentrations ranging from 0-90μg/2ml blood. results showed the extreme effect of this venom on the lysis of rbcs both in vitro and in vivo. venom injection caused significant (p>0.001) increase in alt, ast, ldh and blood sugar levels. there was also an increase in cpk, and alp levels after venom injection; however, it was not statistically significant. all animals died four hours after having received the venom. the current study revealed that the neurological effect of h. lepturus venom is similar to that of scorpions of the buthidae family. however, they differ in rbcs lysis, which was highly significant when induced by h. lepturus venom, probably due to the presence of a type of phospholipase in this venom. further studies are needed to provide a clearer view of the mechanism of action of h. lepturus venom.
Preparing and Characterizing Chitosan Nanoparticles Containing Hemiscorpius lepturus Scorpion Venom as an Antigen Delivery System
Mohammadpour Dounighi, N.,Damavandi, M.,Zolfagharian, H.,Moradi, S.
Archives of Razi Institute , 2012,
Abstract: In recent years, chitosan nanoparticles have been studied widely for protein delivery. In this study, Hemiscorpius lepturus (HL) venom was encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles. The aim of the present work was to carry out a systematic study for preparing biocompatible and biodegradable nanoparticles for loading HL scorpion venom and to evaluate their potential as an antigen delivery system. In this study, HL venom loaded chitosan nanoparticles fabricated by ionic gelation of chitosan and tripolyphosphate and the factors which may be influenced in the preparation of nanoparticles were analyzed. Also, their physicochemical properties and in vitro release behavior were studied. The optimum encapsulation efficiency and capacity were observed when the chitosan concentration and HL venom were 2mg/ml and 500μg/ml, respectively. The HL venom loaded nanoparticles were in the size range of 130-160nm (polydispersity index values of 0.423) and exhibited the positive zeta potential. Transmission electron microscope imaging showed spherical and smooth surface of nanoparticles. The profiles of the release exhibited a burst releases about 50% in the first 4 hr and then slowed down at a constant rate. The obtained results suggested that the chitosan nanoparticles prepared in this work had the potential for antigen delivery.
Ocular Injuries Occurring in Motor Vehicular Accident Victims, Yazd Province.
MR Besharati,MR Shoja
Journal of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: Introduction: Motor vehicular accidents are one of the leading causes of death in young men and severe complications in all age groups. This study was carried out to evaluate eye injuries secondary to motor vehicular accidents that have a high rate of occurrence in Yazd province. Methods: This descriptive, cross- sectional study was conducted through case series method. Simple sampling, i.e. census from the under study population was performed to complete the sample number. The study was carried out in 1383 on 126 motorcycle accident cases with eye injuries referred to the Kalantari Emergency Department. Data collected from questionnaires was analyzed by SPSS software using chi-square, Fisher and Variance analysis statistical tests. Results: Of the 126 cases, 124 (98.4%) were male and 2 (1.6%) were female. The mean age of the patients was 27.4 (SD=13.7) ranging between 5 months and 81 years. The highest rate of accidents was between cars and motor cycles; 83 cases (65.9%) and most of them (76.2%) were in the city. The most frequent eye injury was sub conjunctival hemorrhage in 112 cases (44.4%) followed by eyelids injury [Right side 64 cases (50.8%) and left side in 55 cases (43.6%)], orbital injury in 57 cases (22.6%) of which 39 cases (68.4%) had periorbital hematoma and 18 cases (31.6%) had an orbital fracture, 20 cases (7.9%) had ocular movement limitation and lacrimal drainage system injury was seen in 13 cases (5.2%). Those with helmets had more mandibular fractures (p=0.0001). Conclusion: The victims of motor vehicular accidents in our study were young men. The most frequent eye injuries were sub conjunctival hemorrhage, eyelid, orbital and lacrimal system injuries.
Comparison of efficacy and safety of topical Ketotifen (Zaditen) with Cromolyn sodium in the treatment of Vernal keratoconjunctivitis
MR Shoja,MR Besharaty
Journal of Research in Medical Sciences , 2005,
Abstract: Background: This study compared the efficacy of Ketotifen fumarate .025% (Zaditen) with Cromolyn sodium 4% (Opticrom) eye drops in prevention of itching, tearing, and redness in Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (VKC). Methods: This double blind randomized single center clinical trial conducted between April and August 2004 in Yazd. One hundred eligible patients with clinical diagnosis of moderate VKC were randomly prescribed Zaditen (group A: n=50) and Cromolyn sodium (group B: n=50) eye drops for a 4 weeks period. Itching, lacrimation, redness, and photophobia were scored on a 4-points severity scale. Results: After 7 days of treatment, the response rates based on subjects assessment of global efficacy was significantly greater in Ketotifen group (61.5%) than in Cromolyn group(53%).A clear response to treatment occurred in 94.4 of Zaditen and 81.2% of Sodium Cromoglycate treated patients. The investigator,s assessment of response rates also showed that Ketotifen was superior to Cromolyn sodium (P=0.001). Ketotifen produced a significantly better outcome than Cromolyn for relief of signs and symptoms of VKC (P<0.05). Ketotifen fumarate treatment significantly reduced the total signs and symptoms score for each patients, in compare with day 0. Conclusion: Ketotifen had a faster onset of action and provided better symptom relief than Cromolyn. The rapid onset of action and symptom control, make Zaditen a valuable treatment for VKC. Keywords : VKC , allergic conjuctivitis , zaditen
Evaluation of keratoconus by videokeratography in subjects with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC)
MR Shoja,MR Besharati
Journal of Research in Medical Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: To assess demographic variables and the incidence of keratoconus in patients with VKC and to evaluate the characteristics of Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) associated with keratoconus. METHODS: One hundred and fifty patients with VKC were studied at Ophthalmology Department of Shaheed Sadoughi medical center between October 2004 and June 2005. Both eyes of VKC patients were evaluated by Orbscan topography for the diagnosis of keratoconus. Corneal topography maps were examined with modified Robinowitz-McDonnell test. The characteristics of VKC were recorded in keratoconus patients. RESULTS: The study included 93 male and 57 female subjects. The patients mean age was 13.07 ± 4.71 (range 8-24) years. The clinical forms of VKC were as follows: 45.2% mixed, 38% palpebral and 16.7% limbal types. Fifty four (36%) of 150 subjects with VKC had complications of pseudogerontoxon, punctate keratitis and shield ulcer. Eighty-four eyes (42 subjects) of 150 patients with VKC were detected as having keratoconus by videokeratography maps (28%). There were 27 males and 15 females in keratoconus group. 16.7% of the eyes had mild, 33.3% had moderate and 50% had severe keratoconus. Eyes with severe keratoconus presented at younger age (12.7 ± 3.35 years) than moderate keratoconus (18.3 ± 2.15 years). Keratoconus was more common in male gender, long-standing disease, mixed and palpebral VKC. CONCLUSION: Screening of keratoconus subjects with corneal topography allows early detection and management of keratoconus. The higher incidence of keratoconus in our study is due to videokeratography study of early keratoconus. KEYWORDS: VKC, videokeratography, keratoconus.
The Conversion of Federal Polytechnics into Universities: The Funding Aspect
MR Sanni
African Research Review , 2009,
Abstract: There were only two (2) federally owned universities in Nigeria in 1962. The number increased to 13 in 1975 and went further to 26 in 2008. From the mere 104 pioneer students that enrolled at the University College Ibadan in 1948, the total student enrolment in Federal Universities jumped to 2,754 in 1965, 259,904 in 1998 and 433,871 in 2003. How has funding been over the years? Will the Federal Government be able to cope in area of funding if it carries out its intention of converting all Federal Polytechnics to Universities? The paper traced the history and funding patterns of both University and Polytechnic education right from the inception to the present day, provided reasons for governments reasons for the conversion of the Polytechnics and concluded that the Federal Government definitely has to provide more funds for graduates of Federal Government universities to be accepted as equals of their counterparts in Europe and America.
Impact of information Technology on the ever changing Teaching-Learning programme A Case of Technology Faculty Students, Jimma University
Mr Reddy
Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: Now-a- days, the way of learning is being changed slowly from traditional methods(Teacher-oriented methods) to modern methods(Student-oriented methods). The student-oriented instruction method is based on the intensive participation of students on the Teaching-Learning programme supported by latest available Information Technology. But shortage and usage of Information Technology materials is the current problem to student community to achieve desired goals. This paper deals with impact of information technology over the Teaching-Learning process in general and particularly in the Technology Faculty of Jimma University. The study is set to find out how Jimma university Tech. Faculty students are improving their studies with available latest information technology materials and to know awareness of students towards the usage of advanced teaching-learning materials. Data was colleted through a well-designed questionnaire from sample students. Statistical and other Techniques are used to analyze the data. Analysis and Results are drawn using the various statistical Methods. Conclusion, discussion and Recommendations have been made from research findings of this paper. we conclude that Technology students of Jimma University have no awareness of impact of information technology on their studies. Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences Vol. 1 (2) 2006: pp. 89-101
The Influence of the Economy on Hospitality Industry in Nigeria
MR Sanni
Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management , 2009,
Abstract: In theory, many people patronize the hospitality industry when the economy is buoyant, thereby signifying a positive correlation between the industry and the economy. But is this true of the Nigerian situation? The contributions of the hospitality industry (represented by Hotels and Restaurants) to the Nigerian economy (represented by the Gross Domestic Products – GDP) and the GDP itself from 1980 – 2006 (27 years) were analyzed, using simple regression analysis. Lag variables were introduced in order to safe guard against autocorrelation while white noise heteroscedasticity tests were performed in order to make the conclusions more reliable. It was found that a positive correlation exists between the hospitality industry and the GDP and that the industry depends almost entirely on the economy, thereby confirming a priori expectation. What this means in effect is that for the hospitality industry to continue to be relevant, government must at all times ensure a stable but steadily rising economy.
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