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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 826 matches for " MM Jaliya "
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Growth, Yield and Water Use Efficiency of Maize-Sorghum Intercrop at Samaru, Northern Guinea Savannah, Nigeria
BM Sani, NM Danmowa, YA Sani, MM Jaliya
Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Two field experiments were conducted during the rainy seasons in 2000 and 2001 at the Research Farm, Institute for Agricultural Research, Samaru, (11° 11’ N, 7 °37’E and 675m above sea level), Northern Nigeria to evaluate the effect of intercropping on the growth, yield and water use efficiency of a Maize-Sorghum intercrop. Intercropping is a cropping system widely practiced in the Nigerian savanna that utilizes moisture to produce several crops on one piece of land. The trial involved a maize and a sorghum variety planted as sole and intercrop in different planting arrangements (row and alternate) of both crops laid out in a randomized complete blocks design replicated three times. Results indicate that the row planting arrangement significantly out yielded the alternate arrangement but was similar to the sole crop planting arrangement. Land Equivalent Ratio (LER) values indicated more efficient utilization of space by intercrops than sole cropping. Intercropping also resulted in more efficient utilization of moisture by the intercrops compared to the sole crops.
Farmers’ Perception of the Effects of Climate Change and Coping Strategies in Three Agro-Ecological Zones of Nigeria
EB Tologbonse, SJ Auta, TD Bidoli, MM Jaliya, RO Onu, FO Issa
Journal of Agricultural Extension , 2010,
Abstract: The study assessed farmers perception of the effects of climate change and coping strategies in three agro-ecological zones of Nigeria. Three agro-ecological zones namely Middle-Belt, North-Central and North–East were purposively selected and one LGA where NAERLS extension model village is located was purposively selected from each of the 3 agro-ecological zones. One village was randomly selected in addition to the NAERLS model village. Twenty five farmers were randomly selected from each village. One hundred and fifty (150) validated structured questionnaires were used to elicit information from respondents. Data were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Farmers were fully aware of the effect of climate change and possible coping strategies such as the need for agricultural insurance, planting of drought and flood tolerant varieties and reduction of water loss through practices such as mulching and rearing of heat tolerant livestock. General perception was that climate change increases the rate of sickness/infection, reduces family income and that frequency of flood and that drought has increased. Chi-square analysis indicated a positive and significant relationship between perception of climate change and agro-ecology (X2 =23.52; p<0.05), age(X2 =5.98; p<0.05), educational level(X2 =6.47; p<0.05), coping strategy(X2 =23.29; p<0.05) and communities(X2 =37.36; p<0.05). It was recommended that efforts should be geared towards developing and making available crop varieties and livestock breeds that are tolerant to adverse conditions associated to climate change such as diseases, flood, drought and temperature. A multi-media enlightenment campaign of the effects and possible coping strategies of climate change should be adopted by all tiers of government and NGOs to reach the farmers using available extension structure on ground. Also, farming communities can run local disaster risk committees to encourage local adaptation measures as survival tactics for the purpose of ensuring food security.
Assessment of Climate Change Adaptive Strategies in Small Ruminant Production in Rural Nigeria
EB Tologbonse, AO Iyiola-Tunji, FO Issa, MM Jaliya, CK Daudu, IK Adedokun, BI Okoro
Journal of Agricultural Extension , 2011,
Abstract: Animals are intrinsically dependent on the environment, and any fluctuations in weather and climate can affect them through water and land changes, such as desertification, feed and water availability. Climate change will not only impact the health and welfare of animals, but also the more than a billion people who depend on them. This study was therefore aimed at evaluating the adaptive measures used by rural farmers to alleviate the effect of climate change on small ruminant (sheep and goats) production in rural Nigeria. The target population for this study was all the small ruminant farmers in the five agro-ecological zones of Nigeria. A total of 300 respondents were interviewed using validated structured interview schedule. Data were analyzed using frequency counts, means and percentage. The result shows that most (71.9%) of the respondents were adults between 20 and 50 years of age. About 35% keep sheep and goats together while others keep either of the species. The most preferred management system is semi-extensive system (64%). Majority (93.2%) of small ruminant farmers in the rural Nigeria were aware of what climate change is all about and about 54% of them had observed changes in climage through personal experience.Majority of them had also observed and attributed changes to effect of climate change on their flock. Majority of them have also used various strategies to combat climate change. Traditional health care and irrigation of pasture during dry season were not effective adaptive strategies to combat climate change.There is need to educate the farmers more on the possible effect of climate change through the use of radio and other extension organizations (government and non-governmental) on the current situation and implication of climate change on themselves and their animals
Dietary Fats and Oils: Some Evolutionary and Historical Perspectives Concerning Edible Lipids for Human Consumption  [PDF]
Dante Roccisano, Jaliya Kumaratilake, Arthur Saniotis, Maciej Henneberg
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2016.78070
Abstract: Consumption of fats and oils in the ancient world was examined as a window to human nutritional needs and compared with lipid usage in the modern world, post-1900. In earlier periods, the natural and only source of edible fats and oils came from both animals and plants. These fats and oils played a vital role in the evolution of the human body structure, supporting many biochemical functions. Artifacts from prehistoric periods and the ancient world had indicated that humans were evolutionarily adapted to consume saturated lipids. They also consumed unsaturated fats and oils extracted from animals and plants, now identified as omega-3 to omega-6 in the fatty acid ratio of 1:1, commonly derived from naturally consumed unprocessed products and food sources. These fats and oils assisted in providing the ingredients for the building up of cells and maintaining their structural integrity in tissues, including the brain and other important internal organs, as well as providing energy for many biochemical processes in the body. The double bonds distributed throughout fatty acid carbon chains are a characteristic of unsaturated vegetable oils. They are more structurally diverse in polyunsaturated fats and oils with the greater preponderance for carbon-to-carbon double bonds distributed in the carbon chains. These double bonds are susceptible to generating free radicals. This article considers potential problems that proponents of the prevailing diet-heart cholesterol paradigm of the past 60 years may have neglected. It also presents the possible consequences of abandoning the evolutionarily inherited foods containing extracted natural saturated and monounsaturated fats and oils. Furthermore, the article addresses the contribution of docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids to immunity and the possible connection of excess consumption of omega-6 fatty acid to the marked rise in obesity and other non-communicable diseases in modern civilization.
The brown adipocyte differentiation pathway in birds: An evolutionary road not taken
Nadejda V Mezentseva, Jaliya S Kumaratilake, Stuart A Newman
BMC Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1741-7007-6-17
Abstract: We have identified in vitro inductive conditions in which mesenchymal cells isolated from the embryonic chicken limb bud differentiate into avian brown adipocyte-like cells (ABALCs) with the morphological and many of the biochemical properties of terminally differentiated brown adipocytes. Avian, and as we show here, lizard species lack the gene for UCP1, although it is present in amphibian and fish species. While ABALCs are therefore not functional brown adipocytes, they are generated by a developmental pathway virtually identical to brown fat differentiation in mammals: both the common adipogenic transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), and a coactivator of that factor specific to brown fat differentiation in mammals, PGC1α, are elevated in expression, as are mitochondrial volume and DNA. Furthermore, ABALCs induction resulted in strong transcription from a transfected mouse UCP1 promoter.These findings strongly suggest that the brown fat differentiation pathway evolved in a common ancestor of birds and mammals and its thermogenicity was lost in the avian lineage, with the degradation of UCP1, after it separated from the mammalian lineage. Since this event occurred no later than the saurian ancestor of birds and lizards, an implication of this is that dinosaurs had neither UCP1 nor canonically thermogenic brown fat.Most mammalian species have two types of adipose tissue, white and brown fat, both of which contain adipocytes that store lipids for the production of energy. White adipocytes (WAs) generate metabolically useful energy, while brown adipocytes (BAs) dissipate energy in the form of heat and are responsible for non-shivering thermogenesis [1]. White and brown fat differ in morphology as well as function. Mature WAs contain a single lipid droplet ('unilocular'), few mitochondria, and a nucleus which is displaced to the cytoplasmic periphery. BAs employ numerous mitochondria in heat production. Their lipid is packaged in mul
Microdrill, Diode Laser, and Manual Microsurgical Stapedoplasty: A Comparative Study  [PDF]
Priit Kasen?mm, Maris Suurna
International Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery (IJOHNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijohns.2014.31002
Abstract:

Background: To evaluate hearing outcome, operation time and post-operative hospital stay after primary stapedoplasty with three different techniques: manual microsurgical, microdrill-assisted, and microdrill- and laser-assisted technique. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 150 consecutive cases of primary otosclerosis was operated by one surgeon. The patients were divided into three groups depending on the utilized surgical techniques: a fully manual microsurgical stapedoplasty (n = 56), microdrill-assisted stapedoplasty (n = 32), and microdrill- and laser-assisted stapedoplasty (n = 62). The mean pre- and post-operative air-bone gap was calculated by using pre- and post-operative mean pure tone air- and bone-conduction thresholds at 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in the hearing outcome between the groups. The closure of air-bone gap and the improvement of the hearing were demonstrated in all study groups. Introduction of diode laser for stapes surgery resulted in significantly reduced operation time (about one-third) and the increase in the

Seasonal depression of fertility in hot climates as influenced by production level and temperature humidity stress
MM Heiman
Genetics Selection Evolution , 1982, DOI: 10.1186/1297-9686-14-1-103a
Abstract:
Taxonomic considerations on the genera Moneuptychia Forster and Carminda Dias, reval. (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae)
Dias, MM;
Brazilian Journal of Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-69842011000300026
Abstract: euptychia soter butler, 1877, the type species of moneuptychia forster, 1964, is compared to satyrus paeon godart, 1824, the type species of carminda dias, 1998. the male genitalia and wing design patterns of these species are dealt with. some additional data from other species from both genera are also presented. the morphological comparisons carried out in this study indicate that carminda is not a junior synonym of moneuptychia. thus, carminda is revalidated.
Seroprevalence survey of H9N2 avian influenza virus in backyard chickens around the Caspian Sea in Iran
Hadipour, MM;
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-635X2010000100008
Abstract: since 1998, an epidemic of avian influenza occurred in the iranian poultry industry. the identified agent presented low pathogenicity, and was subtyped as an h9n2 avian influenza virus. backyard chickens can play an important role in the epidemiology of h9n2 avian influenza virus infection. close contact of backyard chickens with migratory birds, especially with aquatic birds, as well as neighboring poultry farms, may pose the risk of transmitting avian influenza virus, but little is known about the disease status of backyard poultry. a h9n2 avian influenza virus seroprevalence survey was carried out in 700 backyard chickens from villages around the caspian sea, northern iran, using the hemagglutination-inhibition (hi) test. the studied backyard chickens had not been previously vaccinated and showed no clinical signs of disease. the mean antibody titers found were 6.8, 7.5, 5.9, 7.2, 5.7, 6.4, 6.2 and the seroprevalence was 76.2%, 79.5%, 68.18%, 78.27%, 65%, 72.31% and 71.4% as found in seven villages. overall hi titer and seroprevalence against h9n2 were 6.52 and 72.98%, respectively.
H9N2 avian influenza virus antibody titers in human population in fars province, Iran
Hadipour, MM;
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-635X2010000300004
Abstract: among the avian influenza a virus subtypes, h5n1 and h9n2 viruses have the potential to cause an influenza pandemic because they are widely prevalent in avian species in asia and have demonstrated the ability to infect humans. this study was carried out to determined the seroprevalence of h9n2 avian influenza virus in different human populations in fars province, which is situated in the south of iran. antibodies against h9n2 avian influenza virus were measured using hemagglutination-inhibition (hi) test in sera from 300 individuals in five different population in fars province, including poultry-farm workers, slaughter-house workers, veterinarians, patients with clinical signs of respiratory disease, and clinically normal individuals, who were not or rarely in contact with poultry. mean antibody titers of 7.3, 6.8, 6.1, 4.5, and 2.9 and seroprevalences of 87%, 76.2%, 72.5%, 35.6%, and 23% were determined in those groups, respectively. higher prevalences were detected in poultry-farm workers, slaughter-house workers, and veterinarians, possibly due to their close and frequent contact with poultry.
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