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An Investigation on Measles Out Break in Navagam Village of Surendranagar District of Gujarat, India in 2008
Jaydip R Oza, Mallika Chavada, Jagruti Prajapati
National Journal of Community Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: Background: An outbreak of measles was reported from a Navagam village of Surendranagar District, Gujarat, in July 2008. The present study was conducted to investigate and assess various epidemiological features associated with measles outbreak. Methods: A community based cohort study was carried out in Navagam village of Surendranagar district during month of June 2008. Suspected cases were detected through active case finding in the community. Children <15 years of age with symptoms of Fever and rash and cough or coryza or conjunctivitis (Red eye) in Navagam area of Kharaghoda PHC, Surendranagar district from 1st June, 2008 to 1st August, 2008 were identified as case in present outbreak. Blood samples were taken for IgM antibody detection. Results: The study covered 326 houses having 777children. An overall attack rate 11.17% was almost equal in both male & female. Among measles cases, 45 (49.45%) had post measles complications. As much as 69.23% children with measles had received measles vaccination in the past. Out of 11 blood samples, 10 were positive for IgM antibody. Conclusions: The outbreaks occurred due to poor vaccine coverage levels and an inefficient surveillance system which failed to generate early warning signals.
O Measles-Associated Acute Acalculous Cholecystitis  [PDF]
Caroline Clerckx, Jean-Cyr Yombi, Leila Belkhir, Bernard Vandercam
Advances in Infectious Diseases (AID) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aid.2012.24016
Abstract: Background Measles is a highly contagious viral infection whose complications most commonly involve the respiratory tract and the central nervous system. We report here what we think to be the first case of acute acalculous cholecystitis occurring during the course of measles. Case Presentation A 22-year-old female presented with fever, sore throat, coryza and an erythematous maculopapular eruption. The diagnosis of measles was confirmed by the presence of IgM antibodies to measles virus in the absence of IgG antibodies. After initial favorable evolution, she developed abdominal pain with positive Murphy’s sign and elevated liver enzymes. Ultrasonographic examination of the abdomen showed thickening (6.5 mm) of the gallbladder wall in the absence of stones or biliary tract dilatation. Evolution was spontaneously favorable, so that neither antibiotic therapy nor surgical intervention were necessary. Conclusion In the context of worldwide recent measles outbreak, we think that clinicians should be aware of the possible occurrence of acute acalculous cholecystitis, a pathology usually associated with a high rate of complications.
Relationship between Self-Reported Vaccination History and Measles and Rubella Antibody Titers in Medical and Nursing Students  [PDF]
Masanori Ogawa, Ryusuke Ae, Teppei Sasahara
Advances in Infectious Diseases (AID) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/aid.2017.72004
Abstract: In hospitals, infection control for measles and rubella is important. Medical and nursing students as well as healthcare workers must have immunity against these diseases. Many countries have adopted requirements for healthcare workers’ documented vaccination history or laboratory tests as evidence of their immunity. Evaluating a written vaccination history is difficult in many cases. Therefore, we compared measles and rubella antibody titers with self-reported vaccination history and we evaluated the association between the history and measles and rubella antibody titers, using the medical and nursing students’ data. We analyzed 564 data for measles and 558 data for rubella. Vaccination history was requested to be completed as accurately as possible. Students with one or more measles or rubella vaccinations had high positive ratios of titer, and the ratio was significantly higher than that of the students without vaccinations. The positive ratio between the two-dose and one-dose vaccination groups was not significantly different for measles or rubella (measles: p = 0.534, rubella: p = 0.452). Although it should be requested that the history is complete by using other resources, such as referring to maternity passbooks or proof of vaccination, self-reported history may be useful to confirm immunity, even if there is a possibility that the history is not accurate.
Perfil epidemiológico do sarampo no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil, de 1996 a 2000
Faversani, Maria Cristina de Sousa Santos;Kupek, Emil;Westrupp, Maria Helena Bittencourt;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2005000200020
Abstract: this ecological study, based on an analysis of secondary data from epidemiological surveillance and using the municipality (county) as the unit of analysis, showed that measles vaccine coverage was lower than necessary for eradication (95%) and control (90%) in many municipalities in the state of santa catarina, brazil, both before and during the last epidemic in 1997, particularly regarding the second dose of the vaccine, applied as a component of the mmr vaccine, scheduled at 15 months of age. low vaccine coverage was associated with higher measles incidence. however, during the 1997 epidemic small-scale measles outbreaks were recorded even in municipalities with first-dose coverage of 95% or higher, particularly among those which also had low second-dose coverage for mmr. approximately 80% of all measles cases during 1996-2000 occurred among schoolchildren and young adults. measles virus circulation in the municipality in the previous year and population density increased the risk of measles. two imported cases of measles in santa catarina in 2004 illustrate that it would be premature to describe the current situation as one of eradication.
EFEKTIVITAS IMUNISASI CAMPAK DI KABUPATEN KUNINGAN, JAWA BARAT
Djoko Yuwono,Imran Lubis
Bulletin of Health Research , 2012,
Abstract: A study to evaluate effectiveness of measles immunization programme was carried out in Kuningan regency, West Jawa province, an area with over 80% coverage of immunization. In this study interviews were conducted with 599 respondents who were parents of 0-36 months children. These interviews consist of questions about socioeconomic conditions, parent's knowledge about measles, care of measles patients and examination of measles immunity among 12-36 months old children. Sample colection were done with a modified WHO cluster sampling method. The study result shows that measles incidence is 72.7 per 1000 children of 0-36 months of age. Measles vaccination efficacy is 79.7%. Children who are at risk of measles is 1.4 times in non-immunized children compared to children who received measles vaccine. Serology examination indicated only 28.2% children who were seropositive for measles.
Clinical Trial of Measles and Rubella Combined Vaccine Produced by POLYVAC in Vietnam  [PDF]
Nguyen Dang Hien, Nguyen Thuy Huong, Ngo Thu Huong, Pham Thi Phuong Thao, Dinh Hong Duong, Nguyen Xuan Dong, Tomio Lee, Takashi Ito, Tetsuo Nakayama
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2018.82020
Abstract: A clinical trial of measles and rubella combined vaccine (MR: MRVAC) produced by POLYVAC was conducted in Vietnam in 2016. A total of 756 subjects were enrolled, and 504 were allocated to MRVAC and 252 to control MR vaccine groups. Paired sera were obtained in 733, and the number of subjects was 403 aged 1 - 2 years, 164 aged 2 - 18 years, and 166 aged 18 - 45 years. Antibodies against measles and rubella viruses were evaluated by EIA. Most subjects had been immunized with a single dose of Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) measles vaccine at 9 months of age. Only 41 of 403 subjects aged 1 - 2 years were negative for measles antibody before vaccination, and all became seroconverted. A serological response of more than a 2-fold increase against measles was noted in 214 (47%, 95% CI; 42.4%
Epidemic Outbreak of Measles in the Region of Plovdiv, Bulgaria (March-July 2017)  [PDF]
Petya Argirova, Andrei Petrov, Nikolay Vatev, Maria Atanasova, Mariana Mourdjeva, Mariana Stoycheva
World Journal of Vaccines (WJV) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/wjv.2018.81001
Abstract: Object: To analyze the clinical, epidemiological and laboratory characteristics of the cases with measles in the Plovdiv region, Bulgaria, in the period March-July 2017. Materials and Methods: The study included 139 hospitalized patients with measles, treated in the Clinic of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital “St. George”—Plovdiv, during the observed period. Diagnosis was verified by ELISA in 133 of the patients. The following methods were used: clinical and epidemiological analysis, laboratory, microbiological and imaging tests. Results: The age distribution of the patients was: infants below 1 year were 23.8%; 1 - 3 years—24.5%; 4 - 17 years—30.9%; and over 18 years —20.8%. Ethnicity: from Roma origin were 83.5% and Bulgarians—16.5%. Most of the patients (62%) reported contact with a measles patient. Ninety eight of the patients were over 13 months of age and they should have been immunized, as the vaccine in Bulgaria is applied on the 13 month. Of these 98 patients, 49% were immunized, 28% were not, and for 23% there were not data. The most common clinical symptoms were: fever—97.1%, cough—98.6% and runny nose—82.7%. Conjunctivitis was observed in 82%, asthenia in 46%, and diarrhea in 51.1%. The rash appeared average on the 4th day of the onset of complaints. Koplik’s spots were observed in 71.9%, cervical lymphadenopathy in 56.1%, hepatomegaly—in 25.2%, and splenomegaly—in 7.9%; auscultation data for bronchitis/pneumonia—in 33.1%. Laboratory tests: leucopenia in 32.4%, leukocytosis—2.2%, normal results—in the rest 65.4%. ESR was increased in 39.1% and CRP in 76.5% of the patients. X-ray of the lung was performed under indication and was positive in 28/46. The serological test—anti-measles IgM (ELISA) was positive in 95.7% (133/139). We observed the following complications: pneumonia—12.2%, bronchitis—15.1%, laryngitis—4.3%, otitis—1.4%, gastroenteritis—14.4% and stomatitis—6.5%. The outcome was fatal for one patient. Conclusions: Measles still prevails during the age of childhood, but 20.8% of the patients were adults. The analysis of the patient’s immunity showed that the lap of immunization was the main cause for periodical arising of epidemic outbreaks, although the programs for elimination of measles in Europe until 2020. The disease ran with typical course but we observed a higher rate of complications.
TITER ANTIBODI CAMPAK PADA BALITA PASCA IMUNISASI DI DAERAH POTENSIAL WABAH DAN NON WABAH CAMPAK DI KABUPATEN KEBUMEN
Sarwo Handayani,Liliana Kurniawan,Bambang Heriyanto,Sehatman Sehatman
Bulletin of Health Research , 2012,
Abstract: In Indonesia, measles immunization programme had been implemented since 1982 and Indonesia had reach the Universal Child Immunization (UCI), the immunization coverage was more than 80% and it had been reached in 1991. Due to this success the measlse cases should be reduced, but the fact was, there were still outbreaks in many regions in Indonesia. And some of measles cases had been immunized before. The objective of this study was to determine the antibody titre of the children under 5 years of age, who had been measles' immunized before, lived in the measles potential and non potential outbreak regions in Kebumen District. Fifty five samples had been collected from each regions in this study. The inclusion criteria were healthy children, under 5 years old, had been measles immunized and had never got measles. The measles antibody titre was determined by neutralization test with vero cell. There was no significant difference (p=0.580, p=0.834 and p=0.996) among proportion of measles positive antibody titre, measles protective antibody titre and the GMT antibody between children who lived in the measles potential and non potential outbreak regions. There was negative measles antibody titre (titre < 8), although they had been immunized. The proportion of negative measles antibody titre was 10.9 -16.4%. There was no significant difference of the GMT antibody by sex, age groups and nutrition status. In this case booster was needed because the percentage of measles protective titre was low. It could be achieved by measles BIAS (school children immunization month) programme.and that had been implemented since 2003.
Measles vaccination: influence of age on its efficacy
Lopes, Marta Heloísa;Mendon?a, Jo?o Silva de;Pannuti, Cláudio Sérgio;Albrecht, Paul;Biancalana, Maria Lúcia Neves;Mantese, Orlando César;Correa, José Fábio;Amato Neto, Vicente;
Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de S?o Paulo , 1989, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-46651989000500005
Abstract: the authors compare the serologic efficacy and the clinical protection afforded by three different measles vaccination schemes in adequately nourished children in s?o paulo city, brazil. two hundred forty two children were divided into three groups. group a, comprising 117 children who had received the vaccine before 12 months of age and a second dose at 12 months of age or more. group b, comprising 46 children who had received only one dose, before 12 months of age. group c, comprising 79 children who had received only one dose, at 12 months of age or more. the geometric mean titer of antibodies in group a was 790.1; in group b, 251.1; and in group c, 550.3. there was no statistically significant difference between groups a and c. the exposure to the measles virus was probably similar in all groups, and the children in groups a and c had similar chances of acquiring the disease after vaccination whereas in group b the chances were higher when compared to the other two groups. the results obtained in this study favor the use, in developing countries, of a vaccination program against measles that includes an early first dose at eight months of age and revaccination after 12 months of age.
"The study of Measles cases and suspected cases in southern Tehran (1379) "
"Sadeghi Pour Roudsari HR,Mirsadraee A,Effeat Panah M,Sarvari A
Tehran University Medical Journal , 2002,
Abstract: Backgroud: Measles, as one of the most contagious diseases, because of the risks of mortality, mental and physical disabilities which may afflict on the patients, has always been so important to the scientists and researchers. With respect to burden of diseases, numerous measures have been taken to control and eliminate measles. In our country, vaccination is considered as the most important strategy to control the measles, however, the surveillance on the patients is on the second place. Screening (Active & passive), prompt and appropriate control of measles in high risk areas can help to control the disease. Materials and Methods: There are 1375283 people with a variety of demographic traits who live in southern Tehran. Southern Tehran covering 10th, 11th, 16th, 17th, 19th divisions of Tehran municipality consists of high risk areas. Because of too many immigrants, overcrowded areas, malnutrition and poverty, the south of Tehran is considered as one of high risk areas, predisposed to measles epidemics. So in 1999, a cross-sectional study was done. Results: On 230 subjects suspected to be measles in south of Tehran, 147 subjects were diagnosed as measles by para clinic evidence, 121 subjects of which were men. Most of these were of the age 20 to 24 years old who lived in the eleventh part of Tehran municipality area. The majority of patients were found among soldiers who lived in dormitories in Horr garrison and military training college located on the above-mentioned area. Unfortunately, most of them did not have reliable history of vaccination. Most of these patients had been in close contact with the colleagues who were measled (61.2 percent). The rate of measles incidence during winter soars at most. Conclusion: The most important factor to be researched is that, the age of these patients differs much from what is expected, due to unknown reason.
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