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Innovation and Validation of Neuropsychopharmacological Testing Methods for the Assessment of Memory, Attention and Cognition in Human Participants  [PDF]
Md. Sahab Uddin, Md. Asaduzzaman
Neuroscience & Medicine (NM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/nm.2016.73010
Abstract: To meet the challenges of time searching for the new method for neuropsychopharmacology is still an ongoing process. In this experiment, we proposed and validated three neuropsychopharmacological testing methods, which are Matching Capacity (MC), Dissimilarity Identification (DI) and Sense Making (SM) tests for the estimation of memory, attention and cognition respectively in healthy aged human participants. The purpose of this experiment was to generate more effective testing methods for the determination of memory, attention and cognition in human. To endorse proposed methods a randomized double blind placebo controlled clinical trial was conducted among healthy aged human participants between the period of December 2015 and February 2016. The experiment was conducted at Gazipur Sadar, Gazipur-1703, Dhaka, Bangladesh and the experiment center was the Department of Pharmacy, Southeast University, Dhaka-1213, Bangladesh. In this experiment, 60 healthy male participants between the age of 42 to 50 years were selected and divided into 4 groups with 15 participants in each by simple randomization process. Ginkgo biloba standardized extract’s capsule (Giloba?) and Bacopa monnieri standardized extract’s syrup (Monera?) were used as standard. Psyllium seed husk (i.e., seed of the Plantago ovata) was incorporated in the hard gelatin capsule shell (size 0) to prepare capsule and used as a placebo control of the capsule (PCC). Excipients of oral liquid preparation of vitamin were used to prepare syrup and used as a placebo control of the syrup (PCS). The treatment procedure for group 1 was Ginkgo biloba standardized extract’s capsule (120 mg/capsule), 3 times daily for 21 days; group 2 was treated with Bacopa monnieri standardized extract’s syrup (1.21 g/5 ml), 2 teaspoonfuls, 3 times daily for 21 days. Psyllium seed husk’s capsule and excipients of oral liquid vitamin’s syrup were used as placebo control (PC) for group 3 and group 4 and administered in the similar manner of group 1 and group 2, respectively. Administration of Ginkgo biloba (GB) and Bacopa monnieri (BM) standardized extracts for successive days significantly increased the memory, attention and cognition of the participants with respect to PC groups. In the MC test, treatment with GB extract markedly (P < 0.05) increased the memory of the participants on 21st day with respect to PCC group. On the other hand administration of BM extract remarkably (P < 0.01)
A Comparative Study between Arbitration and Judicial Settlement as Means of Maritime Boundary Dispute Settlement  [PDF]
Md. Monjur Hasan, Md. Arifuzzaman
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2018.91006
Abstract: This paper makes an effort to draw a comparative study between judicial process and arbitration as the method of maritime boundary dispute settlement. Currently, maritime boundary dispute between states is a much talked issue all over the World. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea refers four means of maritime dispute settlement. Arbitration and Judicial processes are mainly two of them. According to the Convention every state has the right to choose one of the four means to settle their dispute. Practices show that Arbitration and Judicial settlement are more popular than any other methods of maritime boundary dispute settlement. Most of the previous maritime boundary disputes have been settled either by judicial process or by Arbitration. The present paper attempts to compare between arbitration and Judicial process as the means of maritime boundary dispute. In addition, many of the concepts mentioned in this paper may use to understand about the peaceful settlement of maritime boundary dispute.
Heat Generation Effects on MHD Natural Convection Flow along a Vertical Wavy Surface with Variable Thermal Conductivity  [PDF]
Md Abdul Alim, Md Rezaul Karim, Md Miraj Akand
American Journal of Computational Mathematics (AJCM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajcm.2012.21005
Abstract: The heat generation effects on magnetohydrodynamic(MHD) natural convection flow along a vertical wavy surface with variable thermal conductivity have been investigated. The governing boundary layer equations are first transformed into a non-dimensional form using suitable set of dimensionless variables. The resulting nonlinear system of partial differential equations are mapped into the domain of a vertical flat plate and then solved numerically employing the implicit finite difference method, known as Keller-box scheme. The numerical results of the surface shear stress in terms of skin friction coefficient and the rate of heat transfer in terms of local Nusselt number, the stream lines as well as the isotherms are shown graphically for a selection of parameters set consisting of thermal conductivity variation parameter, heat generation parameter Q, magnetic parameter M and Prandtl number Pr. Comparison of numerical results of present work with other published data has been shown in table.
Quality Study of Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Brick Using Neutron Radiography Technique  [PDF]
Md. Khurshed Alam, Md. Moniruz Zaman, Md. Al Amin
Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research (JBCPR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jbcpr.2015.33013
Abstract: A powerful non-destructive testing (NDT) technique is adopted to study the quality of RHA brick-1 and RHA brick-2. In that case, rice husk ash has been utilized for the preparation of bricks in full replacement of clay. In these studies, homogeneity of elemental distribution, water absorption and size and shape of the pores have been observed. From the studies, it was observed that elemental distribution is very good at various level, large number of porosity is presented with little bit size, initial rate of absorption (IRA) due to first five minutes immersion of water is higher compared to other immersion time (>5 minute), incremental water intrusion area increases very slowly with the increasing immersion time and the water absorption for RHA brick-2 becomes saturated very early than that of the RHA brick-1.
MHD Effects on Mixed Convective Nanofluid Flow with Viscous Dissipation in Surrounding Porous Medium  [PDF]
Md. Nasir Uddin, Md. Abdul Alim, Md. Mustafizur Rahman
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2019.74065
In existence of concerning magnetic field, heat together with mass transfer features on mixed convective copper-water nanofluid flow through inclined plate is investigated in surrounding porous medium together with viscous dissipation. A proper set of useful similarity transforms is considered as to transform the desired governing equations into a system as ordinary differential equations which are nonlinear. The transformed equations for nanofluid flow include interrelated boundary conditions which are resolved numerically applying Runge-Kutta integration process of sixth-order together with Nachtsheim and Swigert technique. The numerical consequences are compared together with literature which was published previously and acceptable comparisons are found. The influence of significant parameters like as magnetic parameter, angle for inclination, Eckert number, fluid suction parameter, nanoparticles volume fraction, Schmidt number and permeability parameter on concerning velocity, temperature along with concentration boundary layers remains examined and calculated. Numerical consequences are presented graphically. Moreover, the impact regarding these physical parameters for engineering significance in expressions of local skin friction coefficient in addition to local Nusselt together with Sherwood numbers is correspondingly examined.
Effects of Thermophoresis on Unsteady MHD Free Convective Heat and Mass Transfer along an Inclined Porous Plate with Heat Generation in Presence of Magnetic Field  [PDF]
Md Alamgir Kabir, Md Abdullah Al Mahbub
Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics (OJFD) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojfd.2012.24012
Abstract: An analysis of Thermophoresis effect on unsteady magneto-hydrodynamic free convection flow over an inclined porous plate with time dependent suction in presence of magnetic field with heat generation has been considered by employing Nachtsheim-Swigert shooting iteration technique along with sixth order Runge-Kutta integration scheme. Resulting non-dimensional velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are then presented graphically for different values of the parameters entering into the problem. Finally, the effects of the pertinent parameters on the skin-friction coefficient, the rate of heat transfer (Nusselt number) and wall deposition flux (Stanton number), which are of physical interest, are exhibited in tabular form.
Adverse Effects of Allelopathy from Legume Crops and Its Possible Avoidance  [PDF]
Md. Fuad Mondal, Md. Asaduzzaman, Toshiki Asao
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.66086
Abstract: Plant releases many bioactive chemicals from its various parts such as leaves, stem, root and sometimes decomposed body through different mechanism into its surrounding environment. These bioactive chemicals are often termed as allelochemicals because they interact with the surrounding environment. This interaction is either positive or negative. Effects of allelochemicals to the agricultural and biological ecosystem are well documented. In leguminosae family many species are involved in releasing of allelochemicals. Many researchers found that this allelochemicals have both positive and detrimental effects on the successive legume crops. Legume monoculture is common in many parts of the world where they cause a numbers of ecological and economic problems such as decline in crop yield due to soil sickness, regeneration failure and replant problem. These negative effects of allelochemicals open a great concern on allelopathy research. This article reviews the adverse effects of allelochemicals, their extraction and isolation, mechanism inside the plant body. These all are done to find out the possible selection methods of succeeding crops to avoid the allelopathic effects in the next crop of a monoculture farm field. The main purpose of this article is to highlight the adverse allelopathic effects of legume crops to provide ways for sustainable development in agro-ecosystem.
A Numerical Study of MHD Laminar Flow in a Rotating Curved Pipe with Circular Cross Section  [PDF]
Md. Mainul Hoque, Md. Mahmud Alam
Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics (OJFD) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojfd.2015.52014
Abstract: The incompressible viscous steady flow through a rotating curved pipe of circular cross-section with magnetic field is investigated numerically to examine the combined effects of rotation (Coriolis force), magnetic field and curvature (centrifugal force) on the flow. The curvature of the pipe has been assumed to be small, that is, the radius of the circle in which the central line of the pipe is coiled is large in comparison with the radius of the cross section. Spectral method is applied as a main tool for the numerical technique, where Fourier series, Chebyshev polynomials, Collocation methods, and Iteration method are used as secondary tools. The flow depends on the Taylor number (Tr), Dean Number (Dn), Magnetic Parameter (M) and the dimensionless curvature of the pipe δ. When Tr > 0, the rotation is in the direction so that the Coriolis force enforces the curvature effect. When Tr < 0, the rotation is in the direction so that the Coriolis force exhibits an opposite effect to that of the curvature. The calculations are carried out for 1500 ≤ Tr ≤ 1500, Dn ≥ 1000 (large Dean number), M ≥ 0 and δ = 0.01. Due to high magnetic field four-vortex solution is observed in a rotating curved pipe system. Visualization is attained with MAPLE software.
Children’s Age Ascription and Consequences across Family Life Cycle between Muslim and Santal in Bangladesh  [PDF]
Md. Emaj Uddin, Md. Awal Kabir
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2016.77099
Abstract: Children’s age ascription across family life situations is culturally constructed in every society. Relevant literature suggests that children’s age ascription and its consequences across family life situation are enormous and pervasive across the cultures. Despite this, there is a paucity of systematic cross-cultural evidence on which social workers may play important roles in changing age ascription and its negative consequences. Reviewing cross-cultural literature, this study compares age ascription and its consequences in family life situations between Muslim and Santal cultures in Bangladesh. Evidence suggests that age ascription of the Santal for working/earning, marrying, mothering and family authority is earlier, but later in schooling, separation between boy and girl, separate sleeping between son and daughter and/or parent than that in the Muslim community. Santal children with early or late age assignment in those family life situations compared to Muslim ones are more likely to suffer from negative social, psychological, and health consequences. Based on the evidence, social work implications are discussed to change age status assignment and consequences in the family life situation between the two ethnic communities in Bangladesh.
Effects of Hydromagnetic and Thermophoresis of Unsteady Forced Convection Boundary Layer Flow over Flat Plates  [PDF]
Md. Jashim Uddin, Md. Yeakub Ali
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2016.49182
Abstract: In this paper, we analyze unsteady two dimensional hydromagnetic forced convection boundary layer flow of a viscous incompressible fluid along flat plates with thermophoresis. The potential flow velocity has been taken as a function of the distance x and time t. The governing partial differential equations are transformed to ordinary differential equation by applying local similarity transformation. The resulting similarity equations are then solved numerically for unsteady case, applying Nachtsheim-Swigert shooting iteration technique with six order Runge-Kutta method. The variations in fluid velocity, fluid temperature and species concentration are displayed graphically and discussed for different material parameters entering into the analysis. The effects of the pertinent parameters on the skin-friction coefficient, wall heat transfer coefficient and wall deposition flux rate are also displayed in tabulated form and discussed them from the physical point of view. An analysis of the obtained results shows that the flow field is influenced appreciably by the magnetic field parameter and the thermophoresis particle deposition.
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