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Strengthening foodborne diseases surveillance in the WHO African region: An essential need for disease control and food safety assurance
P Mensah, L Mwamakamba, S Kariuki, MC Fonkoua, A Aidara-Kane
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2012,
Abstract: Several devastating outbreaks of foodborne diseases have been reported in the African region including acute aflatoxicosis in Kenya in 2004 and bromide poisoning in Angola in 2007. There are concerns about transmission of multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria and pesticide residues in foods. The globalization of the food trade which could increase the spread of food contaminants internationally is an emerging issue. The new International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005) cover events of international importance including contaminated food and outbreaks of foodborne disease. The IHR (2005) and other international as well as regional agreements require Member States to strengthen surveillance systems including surveillance for foodborne diseases. WHO has been supporting countries to strengthen foodborne disease surveillance since 2003. This paper reports on the work of WHO and partners in the area of foodborne disease surveillance, the challenges and opportunities and provides perspectives for the area of its work. The paper shows that laboratory-based surveillance is the preferred system for foodborne disease surveillance since it allows early detection of outbreak strains and identification of risk factors with laboratory services as the cornerstone. Foodborne disease surveillance has been included in the revised Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) Strategy and there are guidelines for use by countries. WHO in collaboration with partners, especially the Global Food Infections Network (GFN), has been supporting countries to strengthen national analytical capacity for foodborne disease surveillance and research. Training for countries to detect, control and prevent foodborne and other enteric infections from farm to table has been conducted. The training for microbiologists and epidemiologists from public health, veterinary and food sectors involved in isolation, identification and typing of Salmonella sp, Campylobacter sp., Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio sp. and Shigella from human and food samples have been carried out. Research into specific topics in microbiology and chemical contaminants has been conducted. Three institutions in Cameroun, Mali and Nigeria have been designated as centres of excellence for chemical contaminants. Despite these significant achievements, a number of challenges remain. Most food safety programmes and food safety systems remain fragmented resulting in duplication of efforts and inefficient use of resources; and most laboratories in the African Region are poorly resourced. In countries where facilities exist, there is underutilization and lack of synergy among laboratories. Countries should, therefore, conduct audits of existing laboratories to determine their strengths and weaknesses and strategize as appropriate. It is also imperative to continue to strengthen partnerships and forge new ones and increase resources for food safety, in general, and for foodborne disease surveillance, in particular, and conti
The Structure of Explanations and Counter-Explanations of Homosexuality  [PDF]
Fabrizzio Mc Manus
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2012.24035
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to revisit an ongoing controversy within the so called “Science Wars”; more specifically, I will address a particular topic within the “human nature” debate: the ontological and epistemological status of homosexuality. I claim that, in this particular chapter of the “Science Wars”, we are continually left in an explanatory impasse even when more data are collected, more rigorous experimental techniques are developed, more subtle arguments are offered and more pluralistic narratives are told. My diagnosis of the source of this impasse leads me to the conclusion that here we are dealing with a structural problem that cannot be solved with an elaboration of new models and theories that maintain an on- tology and an epistemology that are no longer suited as an explanans of human nature in general, and homosexuality in particular. Nevertheless, my analysis of the structural features of the biological explanations and the constructivist counter-explanations also leads me to the belief that, although biologists do not fully understand the intricacies of subjects, neither constructivists understand the facticity of evolution and the challenge that it implies. If so, then the subject might be the right target of explanation. And, if so, constructivists might be right about the uniqueness of human homosexuality as a modern, western phenomenon explainable in terms of subjectivities and identities that mold and are molded by desires and institutions. But, if they are, evolution is not expendable because now we are facing a most intriguing question: How is that we humans became subjects?
Lipid Profile of Infected Patients Treated with Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Cameroon
L. Ngondi Judith,S.H.L. Etame,M. Fonkoua,H. Yangoua
Journal of Medical Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) has been associated with the development of a clinical group and metabolic disorders in AIDS. The aim of this study was to analyse the lipid profile, of HIV-1 infected individuals treated with or without Protease Inhibitor (PI) during the highly active antiretroviral therapy. A retrospective study was carried out on 40 healthy individuals (Control Group), 36 HIV-1 infected individuals not following antiretroviral therapy and 65 HIV-1 infected patients on antiviral therapy. The different HAARTs comprised: Lamivudin+Zidovudin+Indinavir (n = 10), Lamivudin+Zidovudin +Nevirapin (n = 7), Lamivudin+Zidovudin+Efavirenz (n = 7), Stavudin+Lamivudin+Efavirenz (n = 12) and Stavudin+Lamivudin+Nevirapin (n = 29). The duration of the antiviral therapy was comprised between 9 and 12 months. There were no differences between HAARTs in relation to the triglyceride and LDL cholesterol levels. The association of a protease inhibitor [Indinavir] with Zidovudin and Lamivudin induced a significant increase of total cholesterol compare to HIV negative as well as the LDL: HDL and total cholesterol: HDL ratios than in others HAARTs. The use of Efavirenz as Non Nucleotidic Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (NNRTI) was associated with elevated triglyceride levels while nevirapin increase the total cholesterol and both LDL and HDL cholesterol levels but a great improvement in LDL: HDL and cholesterol: HDL ratios was observed with the combination of Stavudin and lamivudin with Nevirapin compare to Efavirenz. The use of a protease inhibitor as well as Efavirenz in a combination therapy increased risk for coronary artery disease.
The Long-term Effect of Different Combination Therapies on Glucose Metabolism in HIV/Aids Subjects in Cameroon
L. Ngondi Judith,H.D. Mbouobda,Fonkoua Martin,A.P. Kengne Nouemsi
Journal of Medical Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: he use of antiretroviral drugs is associated with an increase of metabolic abnormalities such as impaired glucose metabolism and insulin resistance. This study was designed to investigate the long-term effect of anti-retroviral combinations therapy on glucose metabolism in HIV/AIDS patients in Cameroon. A descriptive and prospective study was carried out on 58 patients on HAART and 80 pre-HAART patients. The various drugs regimens comprised Lamivudin-Zidovudin associated with Efavirenz (Therapy I, n = 9) or Nevirapin (Therapy II, n = 13) and Stavudin-Lamivudin associated with Nevirapin (Therapy III, n = 30) or Efavirenz (Therapy IV, n = 16). All patients were monitored at baseline and then 12 months after. Blood glucose levels increased significantly in both pre-HAART (34.08±9.93%) and HAART patients (45.56±7.86%) The mean blood glucose levels increased by 78.19% (p<0.001), 61.50% (p<0.0001), 69.96% (p<0.0001) and 16.92% (p<0.01) with therapy I, II, IV and III, respectively. The increase was associated with efavirenz or zidovudine use. It is possible that efavirenz or zidovudine use in a combination therapy may exaggerate an underlying tendency to develop mitochondrial toxicity or insulin resistance.
Electrotransfer of low doses of plasmid encoding interleukin-10 in gene therapy of collagen-induced arthritis
Mc Boissier
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/ar447
Púrpura de Sch?nlein Henoch: Qué hay de nuevo?
Revista argentina de dermatolog?-a , 2011,
Abstract: henoch sch?nlein purpura is the most common vasculitis in childhood, althoug it can be seen in adults. it is caharacterized by the presence of palpable purpura, abdominal or joint pain may be accompanied by hematuria. renal involvement is more common in adults. the diagnosis is clinical but biopsy may be useful to rule out other differential diagnoses. discussed in this review the changes made regarding the diagnostic criteria and developments in relation to pathophysiology.
Modélisation des Données de La Pauvreté par La Famille Singh-Maddala
MC Haidara
Afrika Statistika , 2009,
Abstract: Nous abordons la modelisation des donnees de la pauvrete, en particulier, celles des bases de donnees senegalaises de 1996 a 2001, par la famille des fonctions de repartition de Singh-Maddala. Les resultats sont bien meilleurs que l'ajustage classique Lognormal. Ces resultats permettent le calcul able des indicateurs de pauvrete en termes d'intervalles de conance en vue d'un suivi ecace de la pauvrete, un des objectifs du Millenaire pour le developpement.
Modelisation de donnees de la pauvrete par la famille Singh-Maddala
MC Haidara
Afrika Statistika , 2009,
Abstract: Nous abordons la modelisation des donnees de la pauvrete, en particulier, celles des bases de donnees senegalaises de 1996 a 2001, par la famille des fonctions de repartition de Singh-Maddala. Les resultats sont bien meilleurs que l'ajustage classique Lognormal. Ces resultats permettent le calcul able des indicateurs de pauvrete en termes d'intervalles de conance en vue d'un suivi ecace de la pauvrete, un des objectifs du Millenaire pour le developpement.
Catchment management agencies as crucibles in which to develop responsible leaders in South Africa
MC Dent
Water SA , 2012,
Abstract: During the past 17 years in South Africa, far-reaching policy, legislation and institutional changes in water-related governance have occurred. Responsible leaders have ensured that a paradigm of integrated water resource management (IWRM) is firmly entrenched in the above policy, legislation and institutional arrangements. IWRM in turn demands a level of interaction between individuals, disciplines and organisations such that multi-sector, multi-level stakeholders can collectively, timeously, wisely and cost-effectively visit the consequences of their proposed, present and past actions. Such social learning processes demand leadership and the ongoing development of leaders at all levels. This paper is structured around the propositions for leadership development in the field outlined by Scharmer (2009a). The principal aim of the paper is to reveal the extent to which the multi-sector catchment management agency (CMA) phenomenon is an ideal crucible for leadership development in the field. It is argued that the complex adaptive system that embodies the water realm needs to be engaged by developing complex adaptive systems of governance and that the CMAs have the potential to meet this requirement. Furthermore, it is argued that processes to achieve this required leadership are also ideal for developing leadership. At a time when worldwide developments in communication and computer technology have spawned an exponential growth in successful endeavours related to self-organising around common challenges, the CMA provides a unique and nourishing context for self-organising that simultaneously connects to South Africa’s water governance mainstream of policies, laws, institutions and administrative procedures.
Installed water resource modelling systems for catchment management agencies
MC Dent
Water SA , 2001,
Abstract: Following international trends there are a growing number of modelling systems being installed for integrated water resource management, in Southern Africa. Such systems are likely to be installed for operational use in ongoing learning, research, strategic planning and consensus-building amongst stakeholders in the catchment management agencies (CMAs). These installed systems are poised to change fundamentally, the way modelling is approached in Southern Africa. They are a logical and irreversible response to the enormous forces which have led to the revision of the South African Water Law and the water resource management paradigms which it embodies. This paper examines the business forces behind this paradigm shift and it explores the evidence of the changes already taking place in terms of the modelling technology and the organisational and individual responses. Such installed modelling systems are essential for the social process of water allocation as well as for dealing with externalities. Given the paucity of observed data in Southern Africa, it follows that in many decision-making situations the model is not required to produce accurate answers, for we would have no way of checking their accuracy. Rather it is a tool to help organise a negotiation or learning process in which its primary function is to provide a framework for thinking by enabling the participants to make their implicit assumptions explicit in a systematic manner. This, in turn, provides a means for stakeholders to visit the possible consequences of their intended actions. The creativity and opportunities for compromise which this process releases is where the real benefit of modelling lies. Recurrent themes in this paper will be the business, technical and human resource issues pertaining to the use of installed modelling systems in the social process of water allocation. WaterSA Vol.27(3) 2001: 333-340
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