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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 404166 matches for " M. Werner "
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Modelling stable water isotopes: Status and perspectives
Werner M.
EPJ Web of Conferences , 2010, DOI: 10.1051/epjconf/201009005
Abstract: Modelling of stable water isotopes H2 18O and HDO within various parts of the Earth’s hydrological cycle has clearly improved our understanding of the interplay between climatic variations and related isotope fractionation processes. In this article key principles and major research results of stable water isotope modelling studies are described. Emphasis is put on research work using explicit isotope diagnostics within general circulation models as this highly complex model setup bears many resemblances with studies using simpler isotope modelling approaches.
Water Quality and Heavy Metal Monitoring in Water, Sediments, and Tissues of the African Catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) from the River Nile, Egypt  [PDF]
Alaa G. M. Osman, Werner Kloas
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2010.14045
Abstract: Water quality of the river Nile and trace elements of the water, sediments and fish tissues were investigated in the current work. Eighteen different sampling points were selected along the whole course of the River Nile from its spring at Aswan to its estuaries at Rosetta and Damietta. Higher mean value of conductivity, alkalinity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), ammonia (NH3), nitrate (NO3), total solid (TS), sulphate (SO4), chloride (Cl), orthophosphate were recorded in the water of Damietta and Rosetta branches comparing to other sites. Also trace metals in the water, sediments and tissues of Clarias gariepinus increased significantly (P < 0.05) from Aswan toward Damietta and Rosetta branch. Such increase proves the presence of large quantities of organic and inorganic pollutants in Rosetta and Damietta water. This was expected due to the fact that the water of such branches receives high concentrations of organic and inorganic pollutants from industrial, domestic as well as diffuse agricultural wastewater. The heavy metal residues in the tissues of Clarias gariepinus exhibited different patterns of accumulation and distribution among the selected tissues and localities. It was evident from our study that, liver was the site of maximum accumulation for the elements followed by gills while muscle was the over all site of least metal accumulation. Trace metals accumulations in fish liver at sites under investigation were detected in the following descending order: Zn > Fe > Cu > Pb > Mn > Cr> Cd > Hg. In the gill tissues theses metals were accumulated in the following order Fe > Zn > Mn > Pb > Cr > Cu > Cd> Hg. The low accumulation of metals in muscle may be due to lack of binding affinity of these metals with the proteins of muscle. This is particularly important because muscles contribute the greatest mass of the flesh that is consumed as food.
Efecto sedativo de la asociación xilazina-morfina en caninos
Bustamante,H; Werner,M;
Archivos de medicina veterinaria , 2009, DOI: 10.4067/S0301-732X2009000300007
Abstract: the aim of this study was to evaluate the sedative and adverse effects produced by the endovenous combination of xylazine and morphine administered to dogs. fourty dogs of different breed, size and age were used. each animal received 0.4 mg/kg of xylazine and 0.4 mg/kg of morphine i.v. sedation was evaluated using the punctuation score described by young y col (1990). the scores were obtained before the administration and 5, 10 and 20 minutes after administration. heart rate, respiratory rate and the presentation of side effects during the evaluation time were also recorded. the results obtained show also that the scores in the analyzed variables presented significant differences (p < 0.05), indicating a marked sedative effect produced by the association between xylazine and morphine. in the same way, there was a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in heart rate and respiratory rate. side effects that appeared during the study were excitement and respiratory effort. it can be concluded that the endovenous administration of xylazine and morphine combination produced significant sedation in dogs and side effects as excitement and minor respiratory effort.
Erben, Erbrecht und Erbschaftssteuern im Kulturvergleich
Werner M. Egli
Forum Historiae Iuris , 2000,
Abstract: Werner M. Egli:: Erben, Erbrecht und Erbschaftssteuern im Kulturvergleich (Zusammenfassung) Anders als im 19. Jh. ist Vererbung heute ein eher stiefmütterlich behandeltes Thema der Sozialwissenschaften i.a. und der Ethnologie im besonderen. Dies ist prim r durch ihren Funktionswandel zu erkl ren. In tribalen und b uerlichen Gesellschaften hat Vererbung auch heute noch eine existenzsichernde Funktion. Für den Kulturvergleich wird Vererbung definiert als in seinem Ablauf kulturell gepr gter, nicht-reziproker, diachroner Tausch. Ihre Untersuchung ist deshalb schwierig, weil die ethnographischen Quellen selten zwischen Erbverhalten und Erbrecht unterscheiden. Mit neuerem Vergleichsmaterial (Müller et al.1999) lassen sich die auf Murdocks "Ethnographic Atlas" (1967) basierenden Thesen von Goody (1976) best tigen, wonach in staatlich organisierten Gesellschaften, mit hoher innerer Stratifikation und intensivem Anbau die Vererbung eine relativ unabh ngige Variable ist, die die verwandtschaftlichen Institutionen pr gt, und zwar nach dem Kriterium heterogene vs. homogene Vererbung. Beim Einbezug weiterer Kriterien der Nachfolge und Teilung des Erbes ergibt sich aber auf der Basis des neuen Vergleichsmaterials ein anderes Modell: Nur in Gesellschaften, wo Land - aufgrund unterschiedlicher Bedingungen - ein hochwertiges Gut ist, trifft der erste Teil von Goodys These zu. Für eine differenzierte Betrachtung dieser "Erbengesellschaften" müssen neue Variablen codiert werden. Eine dieser Variablen, die der Erbschaftssteuer, wird an zwei ethnographischen Beispielen veranschaulicht. Abschliessend vergleicht der Autor seine Interpretation dieser Beispiele mit den Rechtfertigungen der Erbschaftssteuer in unserer Gesellschaft seitens der Juristen und votiert für Ciceros Auffassung, wonach diese Steuer - zumindest dort, wo sich das Erbrecht zu legitimieren hat - demjenigen obliegen, der materiell von der Erbschaft profitiert. Werner M. Egli: Inheritance, inheritance law and inheritance taxes in cross-cultural perspective (Summary) In contrast to the 19th century inheritance of property is nowadays a rather neglected topic in the social sciences in general and in social anthropology in particular. That may be explained by the change of its function. But in tribal and peasant societies its function is still of subsistence kind. For cross-cultural comparison inheritance can be defined as a culturally shaped, non-reciprocal, diachronic exchange. Its investigation is difficult, because the ethnographic sources do usually not distinguish between inheritance behaviour and law of in
A comparison of flood extent modelling approaches through constraining uncertainties on gauge data
M. G. F. Werner
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 2004,
Abstract: A comparison is made of 1D, 2D and integrated 1D-2D hydraulic models in predicting flood stages in a 17 km reach of the River Saar in Germany. The models perform comparably when calibrated against limited data available from a single gauge in the reach for three low to medium flood events. In validation against a larger event than those used in calibration, extrapolation with the 1D and particularly the integrated 1D-2D model is reliable, if uncertain, while the 2D model is unreliable. The difference stems from the way in which the models deal with flow in the main channel and in the floodplain and with turbulent momentum interchange between the two domains. The importance of using spatial calibration data for testing models giving spatial predictions is shown. Even simple binary (eye-witness) observations on the presence or absence of flooding in establishing a reliable model structure to predict flood extent can be very valuable. Keywords: floods, hydraulic modelling, model calibration, uncertainty analysis
Efecto sedativo de la asociación xilazina-morfina en caninos Sedative effects of the association between xylazine and morphine in canine
H Bustamante,M Werner
Archivos de medicina veterinaria , 2009,
Abstract: El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar los efectos sedativos y efectos colaterales presentados posterior a la administración endovenosa de la asociación entre xilazina y morfina en perros. Cuarenta perros de diferentes razas, tama os y edades ingresados para consulta de rutina en el Hospital Veterinario de la Universidad Austral de Chile durante el a o 2002 fueron utilizados. Cada animal recibió 0,4 mg/kg de xilazina y 0,4 mg/kg por vía endovenosa. Los puntajes indicadores de sedación fueron evaluados utilizando una escala de puntajes descrita por Young y col (1990). Los puntajes fueron evaluados previo a la administración de los fármacos y 5, 10 y 20 minutos posteriores a la administración de ellos. De igual forma, fueron evaluados durante este tiempo frecuencia cardiaca, frecuencia respiratoria y efectos colaterales. Los resultados indican que los puntajes de las variables analizadas aumentaron significativamente (P < 0,05), lo que refleja un marcado efecto sedativo dado por la asociación farmacológica. De la misma forma, se determinó una disminución significativa posterior a la administración en los valores de frecuencia cardiaca y respiratoria. Durante el tiempo de evaluación se presentaron efectos colaterales caracterizados principalmente por excitación y dificultad respiratoria. Se puede concluir que la administración endovenosa de la asociación entre xilazina y morfina produjo significativa sedación y efectos colaterales como excitación y dificultad respiratoria leve en caninos. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sedative and adverse effects produced by the endovenous combination of xylazine and morphine administered to dogs. Fourty dogs of different breed, size and age were used. Each animal received 0.4 mg/kg of xylazine and 0.4 mg/kg of morphine i.v. Sedation was evaluated using the punctuation score described by Young y col (1990). The scores were obtained before the administration and 5, 10 and 20 minutes after administration. Heart rate, respiratory rate and the presentation of side effects during the evaluation time were also recorded. The results obtained show also that the scores in the analyzed variables presented significant differences (P < 0.05), indicating a marked sedative effect produced by the association between xylazine and morphine. In the same way, there was a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in heart rate and respiratory rate. Side effects that appeared during the study were excitement and respiratory effort. It can be concluded that the endovenous administration of xylazine and morphine combination produced sign
Quantum soliton generation using an interferometer
M. J. Werner
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.81.4132
Abstract: For the first time a method for realizing macroscopic quantum optical solitons is presented. Simultaneous photon-number and momentum squeezing is predicted using soliton propagation in an interferometer. Extraction of soliton pulses closer to true quantum solitons than their coherent counterparts from mode-locked lasers is possible. Moreover, it is a general method of reducing photon-number fluctuations below the shot-noise level for non-soliton pulses as well. It is anticipated that similar reductions in particle fluctuations could occur for other forms of interfering bosonic fields whenever self-interaction nonlinearities exist, for example, interacting ultracold atoms.
Analysis of Reflection Electron Energy Loss Spectra (REELS) for Determination of the Dielectric Function of Solids: Fe, Co, Ni
Wolfgang S. M. Werner
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1016/j.susc.2007.03.001
Abstract: A simple procedure is developed to simultaneously eliminate multiple scattering contributions from two reflection electron energy loss spectra (REELS) measured at different energies or for different experimental geometrical configurations. The procedure provides the differential inverse inelastic mean free path (DIIMFP) and the differential surface excitation probability (DSEP). The only required input parameters are the differential cross section for elastic scattering and a reasonable estimate for the inelastic mean free path (IMFP). No prior information on surface excitations is required for the deconvolution. The retrieved DIIMFP and DSEP can be used to determine the dielectric function of a solid by fitting the DSEP and DIIMFP to theory. Eventually, the optical data can be used to calculate the (differential and total) inelastic mean free path and the surface excitation probability. The procedure is applied to Fe, Co and Ni and the retrieved optical data as well as the inelastic mean free paths and surface excitation parameters derived from it are compared to values reported earlier in the literature. In all cases, reasonable agreement is found between the present data and the earlier results, supporting the validity of the procedure.
Geometry of Universal Magnification Invariants
M. C. Werner
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1063/1.3204970
Abstract: Recent work in gravitational lensing and catastrophe theory has shown that the sum of the signed magnifications of images near folds, cusps and also higher catastrophes is zero. Here, it is discussed how Lefschetz fixed point theory can be used to interpret this result geometrically. It is shown for the generic case as well as for elliptic and hyperbolic umbilics in gravitational lensing.
Gravitational lensing in the Kerr-Randers optical geometry
M. C. Werner
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1007/s10714-012-1458-9
Abstract: A new geometric method to determine the deflection of light in the equatorial plane of the Kerr solution is presented, whose optical geometry is a surface with a Finsler metric of Randers type. Applying the Gauss-Bonnet theorem to a suitable osculating Riemannian manifold, adapted from a construction by Naz\i m, it is shown explicitly how the two leading terms of the asymptotic deflection angle of gravitational lensing can be found in this way.
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