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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 459686 matches for " M. W. Wilson "
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Monitoring the Sequelae of Coronary Microembolization on Myocardium Using Noninvasive Imaging (Review)  [PDF]
M. Saeed, M. W. Wilson
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2014.412073
Abstract: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a leading cause of death worldwide. It has been clinically classified into 1) ischemic from a primary coronary event (e.g., plaque rupture or thrombotic occlusion), 2) ischemic from a supply-and-demand mismatch and c) ischemic from a percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). Catheter-based PCI has been frequently used as an alternative to conventional bypass surgery for patients at high risk. However, this method of treatment is associated with microvascular obstruction (MVO) by dislodged microemboli that results in left ventricular (LV) dysfunction/remodeling, perfusion deficits, microinfarction and arrhythmia. The contributions of microemboli after revascularization of AMI have been acknowledged by major cardiac and interventional societies. Recent studies showed that Emboli Detection and Classification (EDAC) Quantifier offers increased sensitivity and capability for detecting dislodged coronary microemboli during PCI. Coronary microembolization can be detected directly by monitoring intra-myocardial contrast opacification on contrast echocardiography, increasing F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake on positron emission tomography, loss/diminution of signal on first pass perfusion and hypoenhanced zone on contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and indirectly by ST-segment elevation on electro-cardiography (ECG). The relations between volumes/sizes of microemboli, visibility of microinfarct, myocardial perfusion and LV function are still under intensive discussions. Non-invasive imaging can play important role in assessing these parameters. This review shed the light on the techniques used for detecting coronary microemboli, microvascular obstruction and microinfarct and the short- and long-term effects of microemboli on LV function, structure and perfusion.
Barriers and facilitators to an outreach rehabilitation program delivered in nursing homes after hip fracture surgical repair  [PDF]
Donna M. Wilson, Sandra L. Robertson, C. Allyson Jones, D. W. C. Johnston, Lauren A. Beaupre
Advances in Aging Research (AAR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aar.2013.21006
Abstract:

Objective: To identify and understand facilitators and barriers to implementing an Outreach rehabilitation program designed to improve post-operative recovery following hip fracture in long-term care residents. Residents of nursing home facilities are at considerable risk of hip fracture and minimal recovery following a hip fracture. Methods: Data were gathered over June-August, 2012 through semi-structured interviews or focus groups. Fifteen persons (n = 15) who were members of the Outreach rehabilitation team (n = 8) or relevant nursing home staff (n = 7) were interviewed. Data analysis was guided by principles of grounded theory method. Findings: Three major themes that contributed to or hindered the Outreach rehabilitation program emerged, namely, 1) the division, the separate operation and delivery of rehabilitation services; 2) building bridges, or negotiating ways to communicate and work together, and 3) strength in the structure, the acceptance of the program and the perceived benefits of the program. One main challenge to program implementation con- cerned coordinating additional rehabilitation with the rehabilitation provided within the nursing homes. Facility staff was largely unaware of the program and were unprepared to work with Outreach team members. As the program progressed, the facility staff and Outreach team were able to collaborate to overcome resident health issues impeding recovery such as cognitive impairment, language barriers and post-surgical pain control needs. Facilitators included the consistency of Outreach team members and accessible facility staff, which contributed to effective communication and trust between the Outreach team and facility staff. Facilitators also included support for the program by the Outreach team and facility staff, as well

Treatment Satisfaction with Insulin Glargine in Insulin-Naïve Type 2 Diabetes Patients—A Hong Kong Based Registry  [PDF]
Wing-Bun Chan, Wilson W. M. Ngai, Peter Chun-Yip Tong
Journal of Diabetes Mellitus (JDM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2014.43033
Abstract:

Objective: To evaluate patient satisfaction with insulin glargine. Design: Multicentre observational registry. Data were collected at baseline/inclusion visit, and 12 and 24 weeks. Setting: Physicians in Hong Kong, who managed type 2 diabetes patients and had >5 years’ experience in using insulin glargine. Patients: People with type 2 diabetes, new to insulin, aged 18 - 75 years, who were previously being treated with ≤3 oral antidiabetes drugs (OAD) and had HbA1c > 7%, and in whom the physicians had chosen to prescribe glargine for the first time. Main outcome measures: Treatment satisfaction assessed by Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQs), glycaemic control (fasting blood glucose and HbA1c) and adverse events. Results: Between April 2010-October 2011, 41 patients completed the study. Average duration of diabetes and OAD therapy was 7.8 ± 8.0 years and 6.7 ± 7.4 years, respectively. The global DTSQs treatment satisfaction scores improved from 20.9 at baseline to 28.4 (p < 0.05) at the end of 24 weeks insulin glargine treatment. Analysis of DTSQs scores showed a decrease in perceived frequency of hyperglycaemia (4.1 to 1.9, p < 0.001) and hypoglycemia (2.2 to 1.5, p = 0.079). Perceived convenience (0.60, p < 0.025) and flexibility (0.9, p < 0.009) were also improved from baseline. Reduction in mean HbA1c (10.2% ± 2.2% to 7.0% ± 1.0%) and fasting blood glucose (10.9 ± 4.0 mmol/L to 6.4 ± 1.8 mmol/L) from baseline to study termination was significant (p < 0.05). Almost half (48.7%) of patients achieved HbA1c ≤ 7.0%, while 26.0% patients had FBG < 5.6 mmol/L. In total, 9 (22.0%) patients experienced at least one hypoglycemia event; there were no reports of severe hypoglycaemia. Conclusions: Despite a small number of subjects completed in this study, the study demonstrated clearly that the addition of insulin glargine to OAD therapy in diabetes management improved treatment satisfaction and perceived frequency of hyper-and hypoglycaemia together with glycaemic control close to recommended target without severe side-effects in this cohort of patients in Hong Kong.

Disturbance Legacy on Soil Carbon Stocks and Stability within a Coastal Temperate Forest of Southwestern British Columbia, Canada  [PDF]
Camille E. Defrenne, Julie E. Wilson, Suzanne W. Simard, Les M. Lavkulich
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2016.65025
Abstract: Although it has been recognized that soils play a critical role in carbon storage and that coastal temperate forests have considerable potential to sequester soil organic carbon (SOC), studies related to SOC stocks and stability are scarce in these ecosystems. Forest disturbances may leave legacies on SOC properties and may further compromise SOC storage capacity of these ecosystems. In the Pacific Spirit Regional Park of southwestern British Columbia, we compared SOC stocks and stability among three second-growth forests that have been affected by disturbances of different magnitudes. We collected data on soil chemical and physical properties to estimate SOC content and assess SOC stability. We found that SOC stocks in the forest characterized by low magnitude disturbance were greater than those of the forest characterized by high magnitude disturbance (8.2 ± 1.3 kg·Cm-2 versus 5.3 ± 0.1 kg·Cm-2 to 30 cm depth). SOC was less stable in the highly disturbed forest and subsequent vegetation changes might have further reduced SOC stability. Our results provide insight into the role of disturbance history in the current SOC storage capacity of coastal temperate rainforests of British Columbia.
Meron Ground State of Rashba Spin-Orbit-Coupled Dipolar Bosons
Ryan M. Wilson,Brandon M. Anderson,Charles W. Clark
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.185303
Abstract: We study the effects of dipolar interactions on a Bose-Einstein condensate with synthetically generated Rashba spin-orbit coupling. The dipolar interaction we consider includes terms that couple spin and orbital angular momentum in a way perfectly congruent with the single-particle Rashba coupling. We show that this internal spin-orbit coupling plays a crucial role in the rich ground-state phase diagram of the trapped condensate. In particular, we predict the emergence of a thermodynamically stable ground state with a meron spin configuration.
Residual nilpotence and ordering in one-relator groups and knot groups
I. M. Chiswell,A. M. W. Glass,John S. Wilson
Mathematics , 2014, DOI: 10.1017/S0305004114000644
Abstract: Let $G=< x,t\mid w>$ be a one-relator group, where $w$ is a word in $x,t$. If $w$ is a product of conjugates of $x$ then, associated with $w$, there is a polynomial $A_w(X)$ over the integers, which in the case when $G$ is a knot group, is the Alexander polynomial of the knot. We prove, subject to certain restrictions on $w$, that if all roots of $A_w(X)$ are real and positive then $G$ is bi-orderable, and that if $G$ is bi-orderable then at least one root is real and positive. This sheds light on the bi-orderability of certain knot groups and on a question of Clay and Rolfsen. One of the results relies on an extension of work of G. Baumslag on adjunction of roots to groups, and this may have independent interest.
Imputing forest carbon stock estimates from inventory plots to a nationally continuous coverage
Barry Tyler Wilson, Christopher W Woodall, Douglas M Griffith
Carbon Balance and Management , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1750-0680-8-1
Abstract: Forest ecosystems represent the largest terrestrial carbon (C) sink on earth [1,2], such that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change [3] has recognized their management as an effective strategy for offsetting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions [4,5]. As part of the Convention, the U.S. has been submitting national reports, the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory (NGHGI), detailing emissions and removals of GHGs [3] on an annual basis for many years [6]. In addition to international reporting requirements, GHG budgets are being developed at sub-national scales including states (e.g., California) and ownerships (e.g, National Forest System climate change scorecard). Forest C stocks in the U.S. are estimated using data from the national forest inventory conducted by the USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program [7]. Broad forest ecosystem components (e.g., aboveground live biomass) have been delineated to generalize C stocks to meet international reporting agreements pursuant to refining understanding of global carbon cycling [2,3]. Carbon estimates for the ecosystem components of forest floor (inclusive of litter, fine woody debris, and humic soil horizons), down dead wood, belowground (BG) biomass, and soil organic matter are calculated by FIA using models based on geographic area, forest type, and, in some cases, stand age [6,8]. Estimates of aboveground (AG) standing live and dead tree C stocks are based on biomass estimates obtained from inventory tree data [6,9]. Although forest C stock estimates, such as those from FIA, are readily available at national and regional scales [6,7], there is increasing interest in disaggregating these large-scale numerical estimates into maps of continuous estimates to enable strategic forest management and monitoring activities geared toward offsetting GHG emissions [10] and advancing C dynamics research.Secondary to the need for spatially continuous forest C maps, numerous constituents (e.g., m
Disseminating research findings: what should researchers do? A systematic scoping review of conceptual frameworks
Paul M Wilson, Mark Petticrew, Mike W Calnan, Irwin Nazareth
Implementation Science , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1748-5908-5-91
Abstract: However, there is lack of clarity between funding agencies as to what represents dissemination. Moreover, the expectations and guidance provided to researchers vary from one agency to another. Against this background, we performed a systematic scoping to identify and describe any conceptual/organising frameworks that could be used by researchers to guide their dissemination activity.We searched twelve electronic databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO), the reference lists of included studies and of individual funding agency websites to identify potential studies for inclusion. To be included, papers had to present an explicit framework or plan either designed for use by researchers or that could be used to guide dissemination activity. Papers which mentioned dissemination (but did not provide any detail) in the context of a wider knowledge translation framework, were excluded. References were screened independently by at least two reviewers; disagreements were resolved by discussion. For each included paper, the source, the date of publication, a description of the main elements of the framework, and whether there was any implicit/explicit reference to theory were extracted. A narrative synthesis was undertaken.Thirty-three frameworks met our inclusion criteria, 20 of which were designed to be used by researchers to guide their dissemination activities. Twenty-eight included frameworks were underpinned at least in part by one or more of three different theoretical approaches, namely persuasive communication, diffusion of innovations theory, and social marketing.There are currently a number of theoretically-informed frameworks available to researchers that can be used to help guide their dissemination planning and activity. Given the current emphasis on enhancing the uptake of knowledge about the effects of interventions into routine practice, funders could consider encouraging researchers to adopt a theoretically-informed approach to their resear
Does dissemination extend beyond publication: a survey of a cross section of public funded research in the UK
Paul M Wilson, Mark Petticrew, Michael W Calnan, Irwin Nazareth
Implementation Science , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1748-5908-5-61
Abstract: We conducted a survey of 485 UK-based principal investigators of publicly funded applied and public health research. Participants were contacted by email and invited to complete an online questionnaire via an embedded URL. Gift vouchers were given to all participants who completed the questionnaire. Four reminder emails were sent out to non-respondents at one, two, three, and four weeks; a fifth postal reminder was also undertaken.A total of 243/485 (50%) questionnaires were returned (232 completed, 11 declining to participate). Most researchers recognise the importance of and appear committed to research dissemination. However, most dissemination activity beyond the publishing of academic papers appears to be undertaken an ad hoc fashion. There is some evidence that access to dissemination advice and support may facilitate more policy interactions; though access to such resources is lacking at an institutional level, and advice from funders can be variable. Although a minority of respondents routinely record details about the impact of their research, when asked about impact in relation to specific research projects most were able to provide simple narrative descriptions.Researchers recognise the importance of and appear committed to disseminating the findings of their work. Although researchers are focussed on academic publication, a range of dissemination activities are being applied albeit in an ad hoc fashion. However, what constitutes effective dissemination (in terms of impact and return on investment) remains unclear. Researchers need greater and clearer guidance on how best to plan, resource, and facilitate their dissemination activities.There is renewed interest and emphasis on the gap between research and policy and practice, both nationally in the UK and internationally. In the UK, a series of policy reviews have highlighted gaps and suggested measures to enhance the uptake of research knowledge into routine clinical practice[1-3]. The Government's 2006
Insecticide susceptibility of horn flies, Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae), in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil
Barros, Antonio Thadeu M.;Gomes, Alberto;Koller, Wilson W.;
Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1984-29612007000300006
Abstract: horn fly susceptibility to insecticides was evaluated in the state of mato grosso do sul, brazil, from october 2000 to september 2002. insecticide bioassays (n=57) were conducted in 38 ranches from 14 municipalities throughout the state. horn flies from wild populations were collected on cattle and exposed to filter papers impregnated with cypermethrin, permethrin, or diazinon and mortality was assessed after two hours. resistance to cypermethrin was detected in all populations, with resistance ratios (rr) ranging from 27.6 to 91.3-fold. permethrin bioassays provided apparently low levels of resistance (rr<5), however, resistant flies were found in 96.9% of the populations based on diagnostic concentrations. from both pyrethroid bioassays, resistance was detected in 97.4% of the populations. on the other hand, a high susceptibility to diazinon (rr < 1.1) was detected in all populations. pyrethroid products, most cypermethrin (92.3%) and deltamethrin (66.7%), were used in all ranches controlling horn flies (97.5%). insecticide treatments, usually incorrectly applied, were routinely delivered by manual backpack sprayers in most ranches (84.5%). this profile of insecticide use helps to explain the widespread resistance of horn flies to pyrethroids in the state as well as their high susceptibility to the organophosphate. inadequate control practices contribute to aggravate the resistance problem and its consequences.
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