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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 402402 matches for " M. Schulz "
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The Game of Life, Decision and Communication  [PDF]
Roland Mühlenbernd, Simon Schulz
Natural Science (NS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2014.613097

The game of life represents a spatial environment of cells that live and die according to fixed rules of nature. In the basic variant of the game a cell’s behavior can be described as reactive and deterministic since each cell’s transition from an actual state to a subsequent state is straight-forwardly defined by the rules. Furthermore, it can be shown that the alive cells’ spatial occupation share of the environment decreases quickly and levels out at a really small value (around 3%), virtually independent of the initial number of alive cells. In this study we will show that this occupation share can be strongly increased if alive cells become more active by making non-deterministic sacrificial decisions according to their individual positions. Furthermore, we applied signaling games in combination with reinforcement learning to show that results can be even more improved if cells learn to signal for navigating the behavior of neighbor cells. This result stresses the assumption that individual behavior and local communication supports the optimization of resourcing and constitute important steps in the evolution of creature and man.


Non-spherical source-surface model of the heliosphere: a scalar formulation
M. Schulz
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2003,
Abstract: The source-surface method offers an alternative to full MHD simulation of the heliosphere. It entails specification of a surface from which the solar wind flows normally outward along straight lines. Compatibility with MHD results requires this (source) surface to be non-spherical in general and prolate (aligned with the solar dipole axis) in prototypical axisymmetric cases. Mid-latitude features on the source surface thus map to significantly lower latitudes in the heliosphere. The model is usually implemented by deriving the B field (in the region surrounded by the source surface) from a scalar potential formally expanded in spherical harmonics, with coefficients chosen so as to minimize the mean-square tangential component of B over this surface. In the simplified (scalar) version the quantity minimized is instead the variance of the scalar potential over the source surface. The scalar formulation greatly reduces the time required to compute required matrix elements, while imposing essentially the same physical boundary condition as the vector formulation (viz., that the coronal magnetic field be, as nearly as possible, normal to the source surface for continuity with the heliosphere). The source surface proposed for actual application is a surface of constant F ≡ r-kB , where r is the heliocentric distance and B is the scalar magnitude of the B field produced by currents inside the Sun. Comparison with MHD simulations suggests that k ≈ 1.4 is a good choice for the adjustable exponent. This value has been shown to map the neutral line on the source surface during Carrington Rotation 1869 (May–June 1993) to a range of latitudes that would have just grazed the position of Ulysses during that month in which sector structure disappeared from Ulysses' magnetometer observations.
Spin facilitated Ising model with long range interaction
Beatrix M. Schulz,Steffen Trimper,Michael Schulz
Physics , 2004, DOI: 10.1016/j.physleta.2004.03.019
Abstract: We study the dynamics of a spin facilitated Ising model with long range kinetic constraints. To formulate those restrictions within an analytical approach we introduce the size of a kinetic active environment of a given spin. Based on a Master equation in second quantized form, the spin-autocorrelation function is calculated. It exhibits a pronounced slow dynamics, manifested by a logarithmic decay law of the spin-autocorrelation function. In case of an infinite kinetic interaction the mean field solution yields an asymptotic exact expression for the autocorrelation function which is in excellent agreement with Monte Carlo Simulations for finite interaction lengths. With increasing size of the active zone the cooperative processes, characterizing the facilitated model with short range kinetic interaction, become irrelevant. We demonstrate that the long range kinetic interaction dominates the actual spin configurations of the whole system and the mean field solution is the exact one.
Synaptic Plasticity in vivo: More than Just Spike-Timing?
Jan M. Schulz
Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience , 2010, DOI: 10.3389/fnsyn.2010.00150
Microlocal Properties of Bisingular Operators
M. Borsero,R. Schulz
Mathematics , 2013, DOI: 10.1007/s11868-013-0083-z
Abstract: We study the microlocal properties of bisingular operators, a class of operators on the product of two compact manifolds. We define a wave front set for such operators, and analyse its properties. We compare our wave front set with the $SG$ wave front set, a global wave front set which shares with it formal similarities.
Does Soil Disturbance Affect Soil Phosphorus Fractions?  [PDF]
Yonathan D. Redel, Rudolf Schulz, Torsten Müller
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2013.36031

Increased turnover of organic matter as a result of soil disturbance (e.g. by soil tillage) is described in principle, but the direct influence of soil disturbance on soil P turnover especially for organic farming systems has not been sufficiently proven. The objective of the study was to evaluate the short term effect of soil disturbance on different soil P fractions in a soil shaking experiment. Four soils were incubated for 10 days in the dark with three different disturbance treatments: 1) no disturbance, 2) overhead shaking for 2 h at the beginning of the experiment and 3) continuous overhead shaking at 5 r. p. m. The four investigated soils were: 1) a silty loam soil with long term bio-compost application and 2) the corresponding soil without bio-compost application, 3) a long-term organically managed clay loam soil and 4) a clay loam soil with long time application of pig manure, all not and from Baden-Württemberg, Germany. We determined NaHCO3-, NaOH- and H2SO4-extractable inorganic and organic P fractions (Pi and Po, resp.) in a sequential extraction. Furthermore, the potentially plant available P as Calcium-acetate-lactate-extractable P (CAL-P) and P extractable by electro-ultra-filtration (EUF-P), and aqua regia extractable total P (PT) were determined. Furthermore, we determined microbial biomass carbon (MBC), nitrogen (MBN) and phosphorus (MBP), and acid phosphatase activity in soil. The organically managed soil had the highest PT contents (1300 mg·kg-1). The soil with pig manure application had the smallest potentially labile P fractions (NaHCO3-Pi and -Po and NaOH-Pi). The ecologically managed soil had the biggest organic P fractions (114 mg·kg-1 NaHCO3-Po and 463 mg·kg-1 NaOH-Po), but, this soil was the lowest in CAL-P (5 mg·kg-1). Short term soil

Wave function mapping conditions in Open Quantum Dots structures
M. Mendoza,P. A. Schulz
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.68.205302
Abstract: We discuss the minimal conditions for wave function spectroscopy, in which resonant tunneling is the measurement tool. Two systems are addressed: resonant tunneling diodes, as a toy model, and open quantum dots. The toy model is used to analyze the crucial tunning between the necessary resolution in current-voltage characteristics and the breakdown of the wave functions probing potentials into a level splitting characteristic of double quantum wells. The present results establish a parameter region where the wavefunction spectroscopy by resonant tunneling could be achieved. In the case of open quantum dots, a breakdown of the mapping condition is related to a change into a double quantum dot structure induced by the local probing potential. The analogy between the toy model and open quantum dots show that a precise control over shape and extention of the potential probes is irrelevant for wave function mapping. Moreover, the present system is a realization of a tunable Fano system in the wave function mapping regime.
Moving a perturbation across quantum dots: tuning of Fano resonances
M. Mendoza,P. A. Schulz
Physics , 2003,
Abstract: We propose a controllable way of tuning Fano resonances in open quantum dots in the absence of magnetic field. A quantum dot can be modified by changing the gate voltages that define the dot itself. An extra degree of freedom can be introduced by means of a controllable repulsive perturbation, such as the one induced by scanning a Atomic Force Microscope tip on a real sample. We numerically investigate the coupling between localized states in the dot and the continuum in the leads. The advantage of such position controllable perturbation is the selective manipulation of the quantum dot states. We show that this could be a feasible alternative to quantum dots in Aharonov-Bohm interferometers as a Fano resonance tuning device.
EU DataGRID testbed management and support at CERN
E. Leonardi,M. W. Schulz
Computer Science , 2003,
Abstract: In this paper we report on the first two years of running the CERN testbed site for the EU DataGRID project. The site consists of about 120 dual-processor PCs distributed over several testbeds used for different purposes: software development, system integration, and application tests. Activities at the site included test productions of MonteCarlo data for LHC experiments, tutorials and demonstrations of GRID technologies, and support for individual users analysis. This paper focuses on node installation and configuration techniques, service management, user support in a gridified environment, and includes considerations on scalability and security issues and comparisons with "traditional" production systems, as seen from the administrator point of view.
Antarctic ice-sheet response to atmospheric CO2 and insolation in the Middle Miocene
P. M. Langebroek, A. Paul,M. Schulz
Climate of the Past (CP) & Discussions (CPD) , 2009,
Abstract: Foraminiferal oxygen isotopes from deep-sea sediment cores suggest that a rapid expansion of the Antarctic ice sheet took place in the Middle Miocene around 13.9 million years ago. The origin for this transition is still not understood satisfactorily. One possible cause is a drop in the partial pressure of atmospheric carbon dioxide (pCO2) in combination with orbital forcing. A complication is the large uncertainty in the magnitude and timing of the reconstructed pCO2 variability and additionally the low temporal resolution of the available pCO2 records in the Middle Miocene. We used an ice sheet-climate model of reduced complexity to assess variations in Antarctic ice sheet volume induced by pCO2 and insolation forcing in the Middle Miocene. The ice-sheet sensitivity to atmospheric CO2 was tested for several scenarios with constant pCO2 forcing or a regular decrease in pCO2. This showed that small, ephemeral ice sheets existed under relatively high atmospheric CO2 conditions (between 640–900 ppm), whereas more stable, large ice sheets occurred when pCO2 was less than ~600 ppm. The main result of this study is that the pCO2-level must have declined just before or during the period of oxygen-isotope increase, thereby crossing a pCO2 glaciation threshold of around 615 ppm. After the decline, the exact timing of the Antarctic ice-sheet expansion depends also on the relative minimum in summer insolation at approximately 13.89 million years ago. Although the mechanisms described appear to be robust, the exact values of the pCO2 thresholds are likely to be model-dependent.
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