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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 401932 matches for " M. Müller "
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Our Economy  [PDF]
Christian Müller*
Modern Economy (ME) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/me.2011.24063
Abstract: I discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the current predominant approach to macroeconomic modelling of asset prices and suggest an alternative perspective. This alternative rests on the insight that the economy is the result of individual decisions. The industry standard has it, however, that individual action is ruled by objective, general laws instead. Changing the point of view allows to reconcile numerous puzzles and paves the way for a promising new research agenda.
Improved Variance Reduced Monte-Carlo Simulation of in-the-Money Options  [PDF]
Armin Müller
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2016.63029
Abstract: Pricing derivatives with Monte-Carlo simulations involve standard errors that typically decrease at a rate proportional to\"\" where N is the sample size. Several approaches have been discussed to reduce the empirical variance for a given sample size. This article analyzes the joint application of the put-call-parity approach and importance sampling to variance reduced option pricing. For this purpose, we examine non-path-dependent and path-dependent options. For European options, we observe dramatic variance reduction, especially for in-the-money options. Also for arithmetic Asian options, a significant variance reduction is achieved.
Methodologies of Biophysical Wound Healing Therapies  [PDF]
Jacquelyn Dawn Parente, Margareta Müller, Knut Mller
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2016.910B022
Purpose: To evaluate the effects of methodological variation of biophysical therapies on wound healing outcomes, as a preliminary study to develop a composite wound healing device. Methods: A literature search was focused on the variable devices, sys-tem configurations, input parameters, and treatment durations of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT), electrical stimulation (ES), and low-level light therapy (LLLT) from 2011 to July 2016. Results: In NPWT, lower vacuum pressures of ?50 and ?80 mmHg achieved similar tissue perfusion outcomes as earlier recommendations of ?125 mmHg, while there is no established regimen with respect to continuous, square wave, or triangular NP waveform due to inconsistent results. Use of wound filler may contribute to improved tissue granulation when compared to topical NP. An ES configuration of high-voltage pulsed current with the stimulation electrode placed in the wound bed best resembles the endogenous skin current, which guides cellular migration. However, no studies have established optimal stimulation parameters. For LLLT, laser and LED proved similarly effective. Although red light has been almost exclusively used in human pressure ulcer treatment, studies comparing blue, green, and red wavelengths more consistently show biological effects using green light. Conclu-sions: Variation in the application of mechanical, electrical, and radiant energies may be used to modulate wound healing pathways. To 2012, no studies have examined use of these biophysical modalities in combination. Further methodological studies with a systems approach would help define optimal treatment protocols for improved wound healing outcomes in clinical practice.
Diphenyl methane laxatives do not induce electrolyte imbalance  [PDF]
Stefan Müller-Lissner
Open Journal of Gastroenterology (OJGas) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojgas.2013.35046
Abstract: Aim: To analyse whether there are changes in sodium and potassium serum levels during chronic treatment with the diphenyl methanes bisacodyl and sodium picosulfate. Methods: A literature search was done using PubMed, and the reference lists of pertinent papers were screened for additional studies. Only studies of at least 4 weeks duration were considered for further analysis. Results: Four relevant studies were identified. In three randomised controlled trials with 5 to 10 mg daily of bisacodyl or sodium picosulfate, respectively, over four weeks no electrolyte losses were found. Hypokalemia was also not a problem in a group of patients with paraplegia using bisacodyl suppositories for 2 to 34 years. Conclusions: Electrolyte losses, particularly hypokalemia, are not a problem when bisacodyl or sodium picosulfate are used long-term.
Freedom and Destiny in Ancient Greek Thought: Some Footnotes for Contemporary Scientific Research and Education  [PDF]
Mo?ra Anne Müller
Advances in Historical Studies (AHS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ahs.2016.51002
Abstract: In the history of thought it has been common to inquire about the relation between personal freedom and necessity. The question of self-determination and self-sufficiency was an essential question for the ancient philosophers and poets in their enquiries about how to live a good life. In this paper we will discuss the ancient Greek interpretation of freedom and its collateral of responsibility. This will bring us to three important questions for scientific research and education: 1) Are scientific deliberation and practical wisdom exclusive skills? 2) Is the will an unneeded faculty of the soul? 3) Is the katharsis a footnote for the lucid and robust contemporary state of mind?
Analysis of South Hemisphere Temperature Anomalies over the Last Millennium up to the Beginning of the Contemporary Age: A Comparison between a Statistical Model and a Global Dynamic Model  [PDF]
Gabriela V. Müller, Cintia R. Repinaldo
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2014.32019

We analyze the consistency of the coupled atmosphere-ocean GISS-ER climate model in reproducing South American temperature anomalies over the last millennium. For that purpose, we compare the model results with the Neukom’s temperature anomaly reconstruction provided by a statistical model that uses multiproxy data and climatological temperature anomalies. Specifically, we examine temperature anomalies for summer and winter of a 6-member ensemble of the GISS-ER model with 1× solar forcing and 2× solar forcing, calculated for the period 1000-1899. Using the Neukom’s reconstructions and the model outputs, we calculate the summer mean anomalies of the period 1001-1700 (a period that includes Medieval Climate Anomaly -MCA- and Little Ice Age -LIA-), and winter mean anomalies of the period 1706-1800 (a period that includes the pre-industrial period). These mean anomalies are subtracted from Neukom’s reconstructions defining the reconstructions wrt 1001-1700 (summer) and wrt 1706-1800 (summer and winter). In general, the model is not very consistent with the reconstructions, since the model’s mean and spread show very small interannual variability in contrast to what the reconstructions exhibit, and often with anomalies of opposite sign. In the period 1001-1700, the model presents, on average, negative temperature anomalies for the 1× and 2× forcing. In the period 1706-1800, the model displays positive anomalies for summer and negative anomalies for winter for the 1× and 2× forcing. In particular, the anomaly that better reproduces the sign of the reconstructions is that wrt 1001-1700 with 1× forcing and for summer. The model has an error of only 33% in reproducing the sign of the anomalies, in comparison to the Neukom’s reconstruction for the same reference period. The model’s anomaly wrt 1001-1700 with 1× forcing for summer also reproduces the MCA and LIA’s sign of the reconstruction. The MCA’s sign is reproduced in almost 75% of the comparisons, and the LIA’s sign in more than 73% of the comparisons with the reconstruction, indicating that the model can represent this important anomalies.

A Control System Design to Establish Dose-Response Relationships in Wound Healing Therapy  [PDF]
Jacquelyn Dawn Parente, Knut Mller
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2017.105B009
Advanced biophysical wound healing therapies can apply mechanical, electrical, or light energy to re-stimulate healing processes in chronic wounds. Despite the growing evidence of the clinical efficacy of these therapies, the optimal treatment stimulation parameters remain unknown and there are no standard treatment protocols. We introduce a closed-loop control design as an experimental system to study the dose-response of wound healing therapy treatment within a prescribed multidimensional and multimodal stimulation parameter space. Systems engineering approaches are applied to the control problem for estimation of a transfer function and model equations derived for use in optimal model-based control. The experimental control system design consisted of simultaneous application of biophysical energies inputted into a wound system. A study design set up including the use of negative pressure wound therapy, electrical stimulation therapy, and photobiomodulation device systems was described. Treatment stimulation parameters were selected from experimental ranges used in the scientific literature. Classical control methods and model-based control were suggested for model selection and evaluation and design of the overall control system. An experimental design for multimodal biophysical wound healing therapy control system is introduced to establish the dose-response interactions for development of therapeutic applications and device design.
Mittendrin statt nur dabei: Ethnographie als Methodologie in der Humangeographie
M. Müller
Geographica Helvetica (GH) , 2013,
Abstract: Interest in the lived mundane practices and embodied experience of subjects has seen a tremendous upsurge in human geography in the past years. With its focus on social interaction and concern with subjects' lifeworlds, ethnography suggests itself as a suitable methodological approach to match this interest. Against the lack of a sustained debate in German-speaking human geography, this special issue seeks to illustrate the potential of ethnography for different conceptual approaches with the help of empirical examples. It is the task of this editorial to review key issues associated with ethnographic research. In so doing, it does not equate ethnography with the method of participant observation, but rather understands it as a methodology with specific implications for the responsibility and position of the researcher, the interpretation of the material and the construction of a narrative.
Wertsetzung als Implikation der Erz hlhaltung. Bemerkungen zur Judendarstellung im Jurek Beckers Romanen
Heidi M. Müller
Philosophica , 1986,
A minimal, statistical model for the surface albedo of Vestfonna ice cap, Svalbard
M. Mller
The Cryosphere , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/tc-6-1049-2012
Abstract: The ice cap Vestfonna is located in northeastern Svalbard and forms one of the largest ice bodies of the Eurasian Arctic. Its surface albedo plays a key role in the understanding and modelling of its energy and mass balance. The principle governing factors for albedo evolution, i.e. precipitation and air temperature and therewith snow depth and melt duration, were found to vary almost exclusively with terrain elevation throughout the ice cap. Hence, surface albedo can be expected to develop a comparable pattern. A new statistical model is presented that estimates this mean altitudinal albedo profile of the ice cap on the basis of a minimal set of meteorological variables on a monthly resolution. Model calculations are based on a sigmoid function of the artificial quantity rain-snow ratio and a linear function of cumulative snowfall and cumulative positive degree days. Surface albedo fields of the MODIS snow product MOD10A1 from the period March to October in the years 2001–2008 serve as a basis for both calibration and cross-validation of the model. The meteorological model input covers the period September 2000 until October 2008 and is based on ERA-Interim data of a grid point located close to the ice cap. The albedo model shows a good performance. The root mean square error between observed and modelled albedo values along the altitudinal profile is 0.057±0.028 (mean ± one standard deviation). The area weighted mean even reduces to a value of 0.054. Distinctly higher deviations (0.07–0.09) are only present throughout the very lowest and uppermost parts of the ice cap that are either small in area or hardly affected by surface melt. Thus, the new, minimal, statistical albedo model presented in this study is found to reproduce the albedo evolution on Vestfonna ice cap on a high level of accuracy and is thus suggested to be fully suitable for further application in broader energy or mass-balance studies of the ice cap.
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