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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 494078 matches for " M. K. Danbaba "
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Rice Postharvest Technology in Nigeria: An Overview of Current Status, Constraints and Potentials for Sustainable Development  [PDF]
N. Danbaba, P. Y. Idakwo, A. L. Kassum, C. Bristone, S. O. Bakare, U. Aliyu, I. N. Kolo, M. E. Abo, A. Mohammed, A. N. Abdulkadir, I. Nkama, M. H. Badau, M. A. Kabaraini, H. Shehu, A. O. Abosede, M. K. Danbaba
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105509
In 2016, the total estimated paddy production in Nigeria was 17.5 million metric tons (MMT) which is equivalent to 5.7 MMT milled rice. This is 1.3 MMT lower than the projected 7.0 MMT national consumption demands. This implies that Nigeria is progressing towards achieving self-sufficiency in rice if this data is compared with 3.5 MMT milled rice production in 2010. But about 10% - 30% or more of this increase does not reach the final consumers largely due to inefficient postharvest management practices. Huge postharvest grain loss (PHGL) and postharvest grain quality loss (PGQL) have been reported and significant efforts have been made towards reducing them and improving food security, but this is hampered by lack of simple, cost effective, adoptable and well-defined practical postharvest management practices and technologies. This situation has presented huge opportunity for investment and strategic interventions. From the point of harvest till rice reaches the consumers table, rice passes through wide range of unit operations which may have impact on the quantity and quality of the milled rice, these have made value chain actors adopt different practices to manage the process as it passes through the various unit operations. This paper examines the current rice post-harvest management technologies in Nigeria, with attention focusing on the current practices, constraints militating against the improvement of the rice postharvest system and opportunities it presents for improvement taking into account the main contribution of the research and development organizations in solving rice postharvest related challenges and lessons to be learned that will sharpen future direction for sustainable development.
Abo M. Emmanuel,Danbaba Nahemiah,Francis Nwilene
Academic Research International , 2012,
Abstract: In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), especially, West Africa, rice is the single largest source of calories in the diet of low income groups. In 2003, rice provided daily 342 kcal per capita compared to 277 kcal from millet, 275 kcal from sorghum, 247 from cassava and 216 kcalfrom maize. Agriculture, nutrition and human health are interlinked in many ways. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) causes AIDS disease in human, while rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) is a devastating disease in rice for which farmers in French speaking countries of West Africa ‘Sida du riz’ meaning AIDS of rice. HIV/AIDS is a world wide pandemic, with 70% infected person living in SSA, while RYMV is restricted to African rice fields. The diseases are both devastating and infectious and are of economic significance to nutrition and rice productivity. This paper highlight the nature of the viruses, effects, management practices and the implication of the combined effects on nutrition and rice productivity in SSA and its consequences on smallholder, resource poor rice farming families.
Quality of Garabia (A Nigerian Traditional Snack) From Four Varieties of Rice As Affected By the Addition of Cowpea
M.H. Badau,C. Ngozi,N. Danbaba
Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology , 2013,
Abstract: An experiment was conducted to evaluate the nutritional and sensory attributes of garabia a traditional cereal-based snack of Nigeria manufactured from flour obtained from broken fractions of milled four popular rice varieties in Nigeria as a strategy for the improvement of rice postharvest system for improved income and livelihood. The mean moisture, protein, fat, ash and carbohydrate contents of rice-cowpea blend garabia were 2.25, 11.87, 34.83, 2.04, and 49.00%, respectively and ranged between 1.88 to 2.47% for moisture, 10.72 to 12.86% for protein with FARO 52 blend having the highest and NERICA-L34 recording the lowest value. Calcium was found to be the most abundant mineral in rice garabia. The calculated metabolizable energy values of the blended rice garabia showed that the products are concentrated energy sources and compares favorably snacks from other sources. Consumer overall acceptability (liking) rating was higher than 6 (like slightly) based on hedonic ratings based on 9-point hedonic scales indicating that the product are well-liked by the consumers. It can then be concluded that addition of cowpea to rice flour for the production of garabia significantly improves nutritive value of the products with little or no pronounced effect on consumer acceptability.
Comparison of a Class of Rank-Score Tests in Two-Factor Designs
A Danbaba
Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Rank score functions are known to be versatile and powerful techniques in factorial designs. Researchers have established the theoretical properties of these methods based on nonparametric hypotheses, but only scanty empirical results are available in the literature on these procedures. In this paper, four types of rank score functions Wilcoxon-scores, Mood-scores, normal-scores and expected normal- scores are studied in the context of two Vway factorial designs using asymptotic ó2 (Wald-Type) and modified Box- approximation (ANOVA-Type) tests. The empirical Type I error rate and power of these test statistics on the rank scores were determined using Monte Carlo simulation to investigate the robustness of the tests. The results show that there are problems of inflation in the Type I error rate using asymptotic ó2 test for all the rank score functions, especially for small sample sizes and distributions studied. The modified Box- approximation test was found to be robust for both validity and efficiency, especially for Wilcoxon, normal and expected normal score functions. It was concluded that the asymptotic ó2 test is non-robust for rank score functions in two-factor designs.
Danbaba, Nahemiah,Dauda, Solomon Musa,Anounye, Julian Chukwuemeka
Academic Research International , 2012,
Abstract: This study was designed to evaluate technological attributes of castor seeds being evaluated under varietal improvement programmes in Nigeriathat may be useful in designing production, processes, oil extraction equipment and overall postharvest handling. The average seed major, intermediate, and minor lengths were considered and ranges from 9.42±0.36 mm, 5.62±0.22 mm and 4.27±0.14 mm respectively. The average seed weight was 116.17±19.46 g/1000 seed. While, the arithmetic, geometric, square and equivalent mean diameters were 6.43±0.20, 6.09±0.18, and 6.25±0.19 and 6.26±0.19 mm respectively. However, sphericity was 65% and aspect ration was95%. Seed volume was 12.60±1.22 g/cm3 and particle density was 9.29±1.69. A knowledge of these properties constitute important and essential engineering data in design of machines, processes and controls; in analyzing and determining the efficiency of machine or an operation, in developing new plant as well as in evaluating and retaining the quality of final product.
Resilient Back-Propagation Algorithm in the Prediction of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV  [PDF]
T. O. James, S. U. Gulumbe, A. Danbaba
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104538
Prediction of a child HIV status poses real challenges in medical research. Even though there are different statistical techniques and machine learning algorithms that have been used to predict models like HIV for the clinical data with binary outcome variables, yet neural network techniques are major participants for prediction purposes. HIV is the primary cause of mortality among women of reproductive age globally and is a key contributor to maternal, infant and child morbidity and mortality. In this paper, resilient back propagation algorithm is used for training the Neural Network and Multilayer Feed forward network to predict the mother to child transmission of HIV status.
Suitable Site Selection of Decentralised Treatment Plants Using Multicriteria Approach in GIS  [PDF]
K. Deepa, M. Krishnaveni
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2012.43030
Abstract: Metropolitan cities like Chennai facing rapid urbanisation. This results in informal extension of cities in peri-urban and rural areas. Once the city expands the problem arising is the water supply and sewage treatment system. In the present work an attempt is made in site suitable selection of Decentralised treatment plants (DCTP) with appropriate waste water treatment technologies using GIS techniques. Multicriteria analysis were performed by the combination of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). Six thematic maps were considered such as population density map, landuse map, slope map, soil map, cost map and technology. Different classes were identified for each thematic maps. Using Analytical Hierarchy Principle (AHP) [1] (Saaty, 2000), a paired comparison matrix was prepared for criteria classes and individual class weights and map scores were worked out. These weights were applied in linear summation equation to obtain a unified weight map containing due weights of all input variables. Finally all the weighted maps were reclassified to arrive the best suitable site location of decentralised treatment plants.
The meaning, lived experiences and intentions for safer sex communication among young Batswana women in dyadic relationships  [PDF]
Mabel K. M. Magowe
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2012.23040
Abstract: Increased heterosexual transmission of HIV among young women and their difficulties with safer sex communication calls for women-focused research. This qualitative phenomenological study explored the meaning and lived experiences of women, as part of larger pre-dissertation pilot on health protective sexual communication among young women in Gaborone, Botswana. This was a study conducted in two Gaborone City Council MCH clinics. Twenty women participated in individual in-depth interviews conducted in Setswana, tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim, translated into English for line by line analysis to extract themes and subthemes. Six main themes and nine subthemes emerged from the data. The main themes were: the meaning of HPSC, responsibility for HPSC, HPSC content, facilitating factors, partner’s response. Batswana women communicate with their male sexual partners about safer sex but face some difficulties. Further quantitative research can further explore women’s experiences with safer sex communication.
Scenarios in HIV/AIDS prevention research: Insights from literature and research in Botswana  [PDF]
Mabel K. M. Magowe
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2013.31010

The difficulties in communication about sexuality-related matters in HIV prevention require appropriate research approaches. Scenarios can be useful in qualitative, quantitative research methods and interventions related to sensitive cognitive issues of human sexuality. This paper presents an analysis of the use of scenarios in HIV/AIDS prevention research from the literature and empirical evidence. Examples of scenario-based instrument development research studies in safer sex communication for the prevention of HIV/AID by Kalichman (2000) and Magowe (2006) are provided. A computer-based search of articles addressing the use of case scenarios in research was conducted on Google and Google scholar, using the following search terms: “case scenarios”, “scenarios in research”, case scenarios in safer sex negotiation: “case scenarios in safer sex communication”, “case scenarios in dyadic communication”, “partner communication”, “case research”, “vignettes in HIV/AIDS research”, and, “sexuality related vignettes”. Papers included provided the definition, purpose, components, types of scenarios, use of scenarios in safer sex communication. Examples are drawn from instruments development studies using with case scenarios. Twenty-nine documents were retrieved, and eight of these studies addressed the use of scenarios in research. Five studies were specifically on HIV prevention research, focusing on safer sex communication, negotiation or couple/partner communication. The content of the studies included the definition of scenarios, case scenarios and vignettes; purpose and use of scenarios in research. Studies showed that scenarios are useful in qualitative elicitation of themes and content for instrument development for further quantitative research. Nursing deals with sensitive and complex cognitive issues in human behavior, and therefore scenario-based research can help develop personoriented research and interventions while protecting the individual’s privacy and confidentiality.

Photonics from Al-Haitham to Optoelectronics of AMTEC  [PDF]
M. A. K. Lodhi
Journal of Computer and Communications (JCC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2013.17017

The word “photonics is derived from the Greek word “photos” meaning light. It covers all technical applications of light over the whole spectrum. Most applications, however, are in the range of the visible and near infrared light. With a brief history of classical work and tenets of optics, we will present electrical circuit of a thin-film device used in a fuel cell, called Alkali Metal Thermo Electric Convertor (AMTEC).The device uses infrared radiation to knock out electrons from some alkali metal, which after going through a circuit and having done the prescribed work, meet the ions again. The system is closed and continues working as long as the radiation source is kept on. The longevity, power and efficiency of the device depend inversely to some extent on the thickness of electrodes used for collecting electrons freed from the alkali metal, as well as of the solid electrolyte. The details of the device’s circuit comprising both electrical and optical functions will be discussed.

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