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The Salesópolis-Caraguatatuba trail lies slightly more than 130 km to ESE from the Sao Paulo city, and it is fully inserted within the Atlantic Forest. The region is particularly interesting because it brings together a complex lithological association and an exuberant topographical expression. A set of geological and geomorphological elements with high potentiality for the sustainable tourism development is documented in this paper. The geosites provide a wide variety of attraction, including valleys, streams, waterfalls and the unusual shapes of rocks. In each one of those outcrops, the visitors will have an exceptional opportunity for a better understanding about the processes that control the landscape evolution. In accordance with the new conception of geotourism, and taking as a basis the concepts of the geoscience for a rereading and interpretation of the several aspects of space and landscape, the sites catalogued should enable a new insight to increase environmental awareness of the local community, and, mainly, to encourage an innovative form of economic activity that has as a fundamental principle the nature preservation.
The 3.6 km-diameter Colonia impact crater, centred at 2352'03\"S and 4642'27\"W, lies 40 km to the south-west of the S?o Paulo city. The structure was formed on the crystalline basement rocks and displays a bowl-shaped with steeper slope near the top that decreases gently toward the centre of the crater. Over recent years were drilled two boreholes inside the crater, which reached a maximum depth of 142 m and 197 m. Geological profile suggests four different lithological associations: 1) unshocked crystalline basement rocks (197 - 140 m); 2) fractured/brecciated basement rocks (140 - 110 m); 3) polymictic allochthonous breccia deposits (110 - 40 m); and 4) post-impact deposits (40 - 0 m). Petrographic characterisation of the polymictic allochthonous breccia reveals a series of distinctive shock-metamorphic features, including, among others, planar deformation features in quartz, feldspar and mica, ballen silica, granular texture in zircon and melt-bearing impact rocks. The occurrence of melt particles and very high-pressure phase transformation in suevite breccia suggest a shock pressure regime higher than 60 GPa.
The soil temperature is an important microclimatic factor due to the interactions between soil and plant, and the energy exchange with the atmosphere. The soil energy exchange is affected by the incident solar radiation, type of coverage and mainly by the soil thermal properties. Among the soil thermal properties, the soil thermal diffusivity is highlighted because it affects the soil temperature profile and soil heat flux transport and distribution. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate different estimates of soil thermal diffusivity of a Gleyic Solonetz soil in the Brazilian Pantanal. The soil thermal diffusivity was determined by the amplitude, logarithmic, arctangent and the phase methods between 0.01 and 0.03 m, 0.01 and 0.07 m and 0.01 and 0.15 m depth. The soil thermal diffusivity estimated by the four methods showed significant differences and varied over the study period as a function of volumetric soil water content. The soil thermal diffusivity estimated by logarithmic methodshowed better performance at different depths, followed by the method of phase.