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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 400728 matches for " M. Itzkowitz "
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Have the Algae-Grazing Fish in the Back Reefs of Jamaica and Grand Cayman Changed in Size? A View across 36 Years  [PDF]
Matthew J. Draud, M. Itzkowitz
Open Journal of Marine Science (OJMS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojms.2018.82016
Abstract:
The island of Jamaica is often cited as an example of how overfishing has dramatically reduced the sizes of coral reef fishes. To examine the change in fish sizes over a 36-year period, we analyzed data from systematic surveys conducted in 1977 and 2013/14 of the sizes and relative abundances of four common algae-grazing fishes in the shallow backreef habitats of Jamaica and Grand Cayman. The four species are: striped parrotfish (Scarus iseri), stoplight parrotfish (Sparisoma viride), ocean surgeon (Acanthurus tractus) and the blue tang (Acanthurus coeruleus). We predicted that all four species would be larger in Grand Cayman than in Jamaica in 1977 as well as in 2013/14, because Grand Cayman has been cited as having less fishing pressure than Jamaica. For the same reason, we expected all four species would have declined in size over the 36 years in Jamaica but not in Grand Cayman. Furthermore, we predicted that the compressed body shape of the ocean surgeon and the blue tang would have made them especially vulnerable to net and trap fishing compared to the two parrotfishes, and that accordingly the effects of overfishing would be greater in these two species. We rejected this hypothesis. The size distributions of the laterally compressed species changed significantly on both islands over the 36-year time span, although not as predicted. At both islands, the blue tangs shifted toward smaller sizes and the ocean surgeons shifted toward larger sizes. There were no size distribution changes detected in the two fusiform species. There was also no support for the prediction that the sizes of these four species were larger in Grand Cayman than in Jamaica during either time period.
Cancer in inflammatory bowel disease
Jianlin Xie, Steven H Itzkowitz
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2008,
Abstract: Patients with long-standing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). Many of the molecular alterations responsible for sporadic colorectal cancer, namely chromosomal instability, microsatellite instability, and hypermethylation, also play a role in colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis. Colon cancer risk in inflammatory bowel disease increases with longer duration of colitis, greater anatomic extent of colitis, the presence of primary sclerosing cholangitis, family history of CRC and degree of inflammation of the bowel. Chemoprevention includes aminosalicylates, ursodeoxycholic acid, and possibly folic acid and statins. To reduce CRC mortality in IBD, colonoscopic surveillance with random biopsies remains the major way to detect early mucosal dysplasia. When dysplasia is confirmed, proctocolectomy is considered for these patients. Patients with small intestinal Crohn’s disease are at increased risk of small bowel adenocarcinoma. Ulcerative colitis patients with total proctocolectomy and ileal pouch anal-anastomosis have a rather low risk of dysplasia in the ileal pouch, but the anal transition zone should be monitored periodically. Other extra intestinal cancers, such as hepatobiliary and hematopoietic cancer, have shown variable incidence rates. New endoscopic and molecular screening approaches may further refine our current surveillance guidelines and our understanding of the natural history of dysplasia.
Diversified Microbiota of Meconium Is Affected by Maternal Diabetes Status
Jianzhong Hu, Yoko Nomura, Ali Bashir, Heriberto Fernandez-Hernandez, Steven Itzkowitz, Zhiheng Pei, Joanne Stone, Holly Loudon, Inga Peter
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078257
Abstract: Objectives This study was aimed to assess the diversity of the meconium microbiome and determine if the bacterial community is affected by maternal diabetes status. Methods The first intestinal discharge (meconium) was collected from 23 newborns stratified by maternal diabetes status: 4 mothers had pre-gestational type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) including one mother with dizygotic twins, 5 developed gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and 13 had no diabetes. The meconium microbiome was profiled using multi-barcode 16S rRNA sequencing followed by taxonomic assignment and diversity analysis. Results All meconium samples were not sterile and contained diversified microbiota. Compared with adult feces, the meconium showed a lower species diversity, higher sample-to-sample variation, and enrichment of Proteobacteria and reduction of Bacteroidetes. Among the meconium samples, the taxonomy analyses suggested that the overall bacterial content significantly differed by maternal diabetes status, with the microbiome of the DM group showing higher alpha-diversity than that of no-diabetes or GDM groups. No global difference was found between babies delivered vaginally versus via Cesarean-section. Regression analysis showed that the most robust predictor for the meconium microbiota composition was the maternal diabetes status that preceded pregnancy. Specifically, Bacteroidetes (phyla) and Parabacteriodes (genus) were enriched in the meconium in the DM group compared to the no-diabetes group. Conclusions Our study provides evidence that meconium contains diversified microbiota and is not affected by the mode of delivery. It also suggests that the meconium microbiome of infants born to mothers with DM is enriched for the same bacterial taxa as those reported in the fecal microbiome of adult DM patients.
Study of Duct Characteristics Deduced from Low Latitude Ground Observations of Day-Time Whistler at Jammu  [PDF]
M. Altaf, M. M. Ahmad
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2013.33032
Abstract:

Propagation characteristics of low latitude whistler duct characteristics have been investigated based on day-time measurements at Jammu. The morphogical characteristics of low latitude whistlers are discussed and compared with characteristics of middle and high latitude whistlers. The Max. electron density (Nm) at the height of the ionosphere obtained from whistler dispersion comes out to be higher than that of the background which is in accordance with the characteristics of whistler duct. The equivalent width is found to be close to the satellite observations and the characteristics of whistler duct in low latitude ionosphere are similar to those in middle and high latitude ionosphere. The width of ducts estimated from the diffuseness of the whistler track observed during magnetic storm is found to lie in the range of 50 - 200 Km.

Review Article: Immobilized Molecules Using Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology  [PDF]
Magdy M. M. Elnashar
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2010.11008
Abstract: Immobilized molecules using biomaterials and nanobiotechnology is a very interesting topic that touching almost all aspects of our life. It uses the sciences of biology, chemistry, physics, materials engineering and computer science to develop instruments and products that are at the cutting edge of some of today’s most promising scientific frontiers. In this review article, the author based on his experience in this arena has tried to focus on some of the supports for im-mobilization; the most important molecules to be immobilized such as DNA, cells, enzymes, metals, polysaccharides, etc and their applications in medicine, food, drug, water treatment, energy and even in aerospace. He specified a special section on what is new in the arena of supports and technologies used in enzyme immobilization and finally a recommendation by the author for future work with a special attention to up-to-date references.
Using of the generalized special relativity (GSR) in estimating the neutrino masses to explain the conversion of electron neutrinos  [PDF]
M. H. M. Hilo
Natural Science (NS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2011.34044
Abstract: In this work the Generalized Special Relativity (GSR) is utilized to estimate masses of some elementary particles such as, neutrinos. These results are found to be in conformity with experimental and theoretical data. The results obtained may explain some physical phenomena, such as, conversion of neutrinos from type to type when solar neutrino reaches the Earth.
Postischemic Lower Extremity Wounds Treated with and without Negative Pressure Dressing  [PDF]
Naz?mmü?
Surgical Science (SS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2012.37075
Abstract: Background: Vacuum-assisted dressing is a noninvasive closure system of the wound, which makes localized and controlled negative pressure. Its mechanical tension reduces edema, stimulates granulation tissue formation and angiogenesis, and prepares the wound bed for closure. In this study, a patient has been presented, who suffered from serious lower extremity wounds due to arterial emboli, one of her wounds has been treated with vacuum-assisted dressing and the other with conventional dressing to evaluate the efficacy of vacuum-assisted dressing in acute ischemic wounds. Methods: A 65-year-old female patient was admitted to the emergency clinic, due to complaint of severe pain in her right lower extremity which suggested an acute arterial occlusion. She immediately underwent an embolectomy operation; however, a few days later, severe ischemia on the leg and foot became appearant. All of the necrosis was sharply debrided under sterile conditions in the operating room, and then lower leg wound was covered with vacuum-assisted dressing, also calcaneal wound was dressed with silver sulphadiazine. Results: Eighteen days after the first dressing with negative pressure, distal leg wound became ready for closure, whereas, enough granulation tissue over the calcaneal area developed merely thirty-four days later. Calcaneal wound closed spontaneously within fifty-three days. Conclusions: When dealing with this experience, using the negative pressure dressing in patient with severe lower limb wounds following arterial emboli, accelerates wound healing by means of developing the granulation tissue, and rapidly prepares the wound for closure, so it may reduce the risk of amputation.
Laplace Transform Method for Unsteady Thin Film Flow of a Second Grade Fluid through a Porous Medium  [PDF]
M. Ali, M. Awais
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.53017
Abstract:

In this article, we have effectively used the Numerical Inversion of Laplace transform to study the time-dependent thin film flow of a second grade fluid flowing down an inclined plane through a porous medium. The solution to the governing equation is obtained by using the standard Laplace transform. However, to transform the obtained solutions from Laplace space back to the original space, we have used the Numerical Inversion of Laplace transform. Graphical results have been presented to show the effects of different parameters involved and to show how the fluid flow evolves with time.

An Integral Collocation Approach Based on Legendre Polynomials for Solving Riccati, Logistic and Delay Differential Equations  [PDF]
M. M. Khader, A. M. S. Mahdy, M. M. Shehata
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.515228
Abstract:

In this paper, we propose and analyze some schemes of the integral collocation formulation based on Legendre polynomials. We implement these formulae to solve numerically Riccati, Logistic and delay differential equations with variable coefficients. The properties of the Legendre polynomials are used to reduce the proposed problems to the solution of non-linear system of algebraic equations using Newton iteration method. We give numerical results to satisfy the accuracy and the applicability of the proposed schemes.

ДОСЛ ДЖЕННЯ АНАЛ ТИЧНОГО МЕТОДУ ОЦ НЮВАННЯ ЙМОВ РНОСТ ПОТЕНЦ ЙНО КОНФЛ КТНИХ СИТУАЦ Й В ПОВ ТРЯНОМУ РУС The study of the analytical method of evaluating the probability of potential conflict situations in air traffic Исследование аналитического метода оценки вероятности потенциально конфликтных ситуаций в воздушном движении
В.M. Василь?в
Proceedings of National Aviation University , 2007,
Abstract: Розглянуто застосування запропонованого ран ше методу оц нювання ймов рност потенц йних конфл кт в для системи керування пов тряним рухом. Досл джено властивост методу, наведено проанал зовано результати комп’ютерного моделювання. Application of the method of potential conflicts probability evaluation offered before for air traffic control system is considered. The properties of the method are investigated, results of computer modeling are represented and analyzed. Рассмотрено применение предложенного ранее метода оценки вероятности потенциальных конфликтов для системы управления воздушным движением. Исследованы свойства метода, приведены и проанализированы результаты компьютерного моделирования.
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