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Compact microstrip antennas have recently received much attention due to the increasing demand of small antennas for personal communication equipment. The problem of achieving a wide impedance bandwidth for compact microstrip antennas is becoming an important topic in microstrip antenna design. In this paper the design and development of a 2 × 1 array of a low cost slotted microstrip line fed shorted patch antenna (MFSPA) has been presented. Both the shorted patch and microstrip line feed network have air substrate. The material cost is thus reduced to a minimum. The array consists of two adjacent patches fed, using a simple microstrip T network. The impedance bandwidth of nearly 40%, covering the bandwidth requirement of 1750 MHz band is obtained. Also the antenna exhibits dual band operation. The cross polarization radiation in H-Plane observed with a single element antenna has been reduced considerably with 2 × 1 array. A peak antenna gain of 9.2 dBi is obtained with a small variation of 0.8 dBi. From the results obtained it is clear that the antenna array studied has a low cost fabrication and is suitable for applications in DCS mobile communication base station.
Fungal infections of the skin are one of the often faced with dermatological diseases in worldwide. Topical therapy is an attractive choice for the treatment of the cutaneous infections due to its advantageous such as targeting of drugs to the site of infection and reduction of the risk of systemic side effects. Currently, antifungal drugs are generally used as conventional cream and gel preparations in topical treatment. The efficiency of that treatment depends on the penetration of drugs through the target layers of the skin at the effective concentrations. However, stratum corneum, the outermost layer of the skin, is an effective barrier for penetration of drugs into deeper layers of the skin. The physicochemical characteristics of drug molecules and the types of the formulations are effective factors in topical drug delivery. Therefore, a number of formulation strategies have been investigated for delivering antifungal compounds through targeted site of the skin. This review article focuses on the new alternative formulation approaches to improve skin penetration of antifungal drugs.
images play an important role in the Earth study as they bring the main
information received from the Space Flyer Units (SFU) to help researchers.
Space images’ deciphering gives the opportunity to study the territory and to
plot different maps. On the basis of the space image obtained from Landsat 5TM
(30 m resolution, 01.09.2012 year), we managed to get a picture of the modern
relief of the northern part of Inder lake. When comparing the space image with
topographic maps of 1985, we succeeded to identify the dynamics of landforms
change on the studied area, what has been shown on the drawn map of the relief
of the Inder salt dome uplift. 14 classes, corresponding to a particular type
of terrain or to a landscape complex, have been distinguished on the studied
area. Inder salt dome uplift is a paradynamic conjugation, consisting of highly
karsted Inder Mountains corresponding to large diapir uplift, and of the Inder
Lake having a large ellipsoidal shape. Geomorphologically, the investigated
territory is located on the left bank of Zhaiyk River, and presents a salt dome
uplift in the form of a plateau-like hill raised above the surrounding surface
from 12 to 40 m. The maximum height reaches 42.5 m (g. Suatbaytau). The crest
of the Inder salt dome is composed of Low Permian sediments (rock salt with
anhydrite, potassiummagnesium salts), and has an area of about 210 km2.
Inder lake’s basin is represented by a tectonic depression, which is the local
basis of erosion and is a drainage place of the Inder uplift karstic water. The
lake area is 150 km2. Depending on the climatic conditions, the
water level can vary.
ammoxidation on V-Sb-Bi-Zr/γ-Al2O3 oxide catalyst in the temperature interval 633 - 673 K have been studied. It
has been established that rates of conversion of 4-phenyl-o-tolu- nitrile into the aimed 4-phenylphthalonitrile and CO2 are described by half-order equation on concentration of substratum
and to be independent of the oxygen and ammonia partial pressures. It has been
revealed that formation of 4-phenylphthalimide from byproducts is due to
hydrolysis of 4-phenylphthalonitrile; carbon dioxide is produced by oxidation
of 4-phenyl-o-tolunitrile and
decarboxylation of 4-phenylphthalimide, and 4-phenylben- zonitrile is produced
from 4-phenyl-o-tolunitrile and