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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 507823 matches for " M. E. Warwick "
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Growing apart? The Persistence of Inequality in Chile, 1964 – 2010
Colin M. Kennedy,Warwick E. Murray
Urbani Izziv , 2012,
Abstract: Over the last twenty years Latin America has forged ahead in terms of economic development and per capita income growth based largely on export growth. Social inequality has worsened considerably however. The continent remains the most unequal on earth and there are few signs of this improving. What is the relationship between economic growth and income inequality historically in the continent? How does this vary between and within countries? What are the geographies of inequality, particularly across the rural and urban divide? How is shifting, ostensibly post-neoliberal, state policy mediating this? This paper investigates these themes and identifies key research directions for their further exploration. It uses detailed sectoral and regional data from Chile to illustrate the growing divide, elements of it geography, and the changing role of the state in regulating inequality.
Calmodulin Bound Aquaporin-0 Reveals Two Distinct Energy Profiles  [PDF]
L. K. Balcziak, T. H. Bach, L. R. Montgomery, M. E. Warwick, U. Akgun
Computational Molecular Bioscience (CMB) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cmb.2016.64006
Abstract: Aquaporin-0 (AQP0) contributes to the nurturing and cleaning of the eye lens of waste products. It is a tetrameric protein composed of four identical monomers, each of which has its own water pore. AQP0 water conduction is regulated by pH, Ca2+ concentration, and the phosphorylation of serine residues at the C-terminal. High cellular Ca2+ concentration enhances the binding of Calmodulin (CaM), a Ca2+ dependent protein, to AQP0 from cytoplasm. This study focuses on determining the differences between the AQP0-CaM and the open AQP0 systems, by using Molecular Dynamics (MD) methods. The water conduction energy profiles are measured with two separate MD simulation techniques revealed two distinct channel profiles for the AQP0-CaM combined model. While the CaM bound channels’ energy barriers exceed the 6 kcal/mol, the no CaM bound AQP0 energy profile stays below 3 kcal/mol. The structural analysis of these different pores during the free equilibrations also supported this conclusion with distinct pore diameters. Unlike the previous report, this study observed Phe75 and His66 taking role in stabilizing the CSII restriction site in CaM bound AQP0.
Outbreak of stem bleeding in coconuts caused by Thielaviopsis paradoxa in Sergipe, Brazil Ataque de resinose do coqueiro causada por Thielavopsis paradoxa em Sergipe, Brasil
Dulce R.N. Warwick,Edson E.M. Passos
Tropical Plant Pathology , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/s1982-56762009000300007
Abstract:
The Role of CT-Based Attenuation Correction and Collimator Blurring Correction in Striatal Spect Quantification
J. M. Warwick,S. Rubow,M. du Toit,E. Beetge,P. Carey,P. Dupont
International Journal of Molecular Imaging , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/195037
Abstract: Purpose. Striatal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of the dopaminergic system is becoming increasingly used for clinical and research studies. The question about the value of nonuniform attenuation correction has become more relevant with the increasing availability of hybrid SPECT-CT scanners. In this study, the value of nonuniform attenuation correction and correction for collimator blurring were determined using both phantom data and patient data. Methods. SPECT imaging was performed using 7 anthropomorphic phantom measurements, and 14 patient studies using [I-123]-FP-CIT (DATSCAN). SPECT reconstruction was performed using uniform and nonuniform attenuation correction and collimator blurring corrections. Recovery values (phantom data) or average-specific uptake ratios (patient data) for the different reconstructions were compared at similar noise levels. Results. For the phantom data, improved recovery was found with nonuniform attenuation correction and collimator blurring corrections, with further improvement when performed together. However, for patient data the highest average specific uptake ratio was obtained using collimator blurring correction without nonuniform attenuation correction, probably due to subtle SPECT-CT misregistration. Conclusions. This study suggests that an optimal brain SPECT reconstruction (in terms of the lowest bias) in patients would include a correction for collimator blurring and uniform attenuation correction. 1. Introduction Striatal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of the dopaminergic system is becoming increasingly used for clinical and research studies. Depending on the radiopharmaceutical, striatal uptake of activity may be a measure of binding to presynaptic receptors, for example, dopamine transporters (DAT), or postsynaptic receptors belonging to various neurotransmitter systems and/or subtypes thereof. The accurate quantification of striatal uptake with these studies is frequently important for their utilization in the clinical and research context. Accurate quantification of striatal SPECT imaging needs to take into account a number of factors that degrade image quality. These include photon attenuation, collimator blurring, photon scatter, and the limited spatial resolution of SPECT systems resulting in decreased count densities via partial volume effects [1]. Attenuation correction (AC) is implemented to correct for lower counts obtained from deeper brain structures. An early study using phantom data showed the value of iterative reconstruction
La globalización de la fruta, los cambios locales y el desigual desarrollo rural en América Latina: Un análisis crítico del complejo de exportación de fruta chilena
Murray,Warwick E.;
EURE (Santiago) , 1999, DOI: 10.4067/S0250-71611999007500004
Abstract: some comentators see chile as the most ?successful? example of a developing country which has become involved in the global fruit export complex. the neoliberal reforms of the 1970s and 1980s helped precipitate a large ?boom? in such exports. at the present time, chile is the major fruit exporter in the southern hemisphere. inevitably, contact with global forces has induced rapid local and regional change, mediated through (largely) multinational companies. this has fundamentally altered the nature of social and economic relations of production in the chilean countryside. the objective of this article is to illustrate how neoliberalism has led to unequal and unsustainable rural development in chile, and how well-targetted state regulation could alleviate some of the problems currently facing the fruit sector. more generally, the article intends to be critical of the neoliberal ?consensus? which is now almost hegemonic among latin american states
La globalización de la fruta, los cambios locales y el desigual desarrollo rural en América Latina: Un análisis crítico del complejo de exportación de fruta chilena
Warwick E. Murray
EURE (Santiago) , 1999,
Abstract: Algunos ven a Chile como el ejemplo más ‘exitoso’ de un país en desarrollo que exporta fruta no tradicional. Las reformas neoliberales de las décadas de los 70 y 80 ayudaron a precipitar un gran boom en las exportaciones de fruta. Actualmente, Chile es el mayor exportador de fruta en el Hemisferio Sur. Inevitablemente, el contacto con las fuerzas globales ha inducido a un rápido cambio a escala local y nacional, mediado por empresas frutícolas en gran parte multinacionales, quienes han alterado fundamentalmente la naturaleza de las relaciones sociales y económicas de la producción en el campo chileno. El objetivo específico de este artículo es ilustrar cómo el neoliberalismo ha llevado a un desarrollo rural desigual en el campo chileno y, más crucialmente, cuán útiles pueden ser la efectiva intervención y regulación del Estado para contribuir a aliviar tensiones. Desde un punto de vista más general, este artículo intenta adoptar una posición crítica del ‘consenso’ neoliberal imperante en América Latina Some comentators see Chile as the most ‘successful’ example of a developing country which has become involved in the global fruit export complex. The neoliberal reforms of the 1970s and 1980s helped precipitate a large ‘boom’ in such exports. At the present time, Chile is the major fruit exporter in the Southern Hemisphere. Inevitably, contact with global forces has induced rapid local and regional change, mediated through (largely) multinational companies. This has fundamentally altered the nature of social and economic relations of production in the Chilean countryside. The objective of this article is to illustrate how neoliberalism has led to unequal and unsustainable rural development in Chile, and how well-targetted state regulation could alleviate some of the problems currently facing the fruit sector. More generally, the article intends to be critical of the neoliberal ‘consensus’ which is now almost hegemonic among Latin American states
The Effect of Transition Hysteresis Width in Thermochromic Glazing Systems  [PDF]
Michael E. A. Warwick, Ian Ridley, Russell Binions
Open Journal of Energy Efficiency (OJEE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojee.2013.22011
Abstract:

Thermochromic glazing theoretically has the potential to lead to a large reduction in energy demand in modern buildings by allowing the transmission of visible light for day lighting whilst reducing unwanted solar gain during the cooling season, but allowing useful solar gain in the heating season. In this study building simulation is used to examine the effect of the thermochromic transition hysteresis width on the energy demand characteristics of a model system in a variety of climates. The results are also compared against current industry standard glazing products. The results suggest that in a warm climate with a low transition temperature and hysteresis width energy demand can be reduced by up to 54% compared to standard double glazing.

Modulatory effects of Tabebuia impetiginosa (Lamiales, Bignoniaceae) on doxorubicin-induced somatic mutation and recombination in Drosophila melanogaster
Sousa, Neila C. de;Rezende, Alexandre A.A. de;Silva, Regildo M.G. da;Guterres, Zaira R.;Graf, Ulrich;Kerr, Warwick E.;Spanó, Mário A.;
Genetics and Molecular Biology , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-47572009005000042
Abstract: the wing somatic mutation and recombination test (smart) in d. melanogaster was used to study genotoxicity of the medicinal plant tabebuia impetiginosa. lapachol (naphthoquinone) and β-lapachone (quinone) are the two main chemical constituents of t. impetiginosa. these compounds have several biological properties. they induce apoptosis by generating oxygen-reactive species, thereby inhibiting topoisomerases (i and ii) or inducing other enzymes dependent on nad(p)h:quinone oxidoreductase 1, thus affecting cell cycle checkpoints. the smart was used in the standard (st) version, which has normal levels of cytochrome p450 (cyp) enzymes, to check the direct action of this compound, and in the high bioactivation (hb) version, which has a high constitutive level of cyp enzymes, to check for indirect action in three different t. impetiginosa concentrations (10%, 20% or 40% w/w). it was observed that t. impetiginosa alone did not modify the spontaneous frequencies of mutant spots in either cross. the negative results observed prompted us to study this phytotherapeuticum in association with the reference mutagen doxorubicin (dxr). in co-treated series, t. impetiginosa was toxic in both crosses at higher concentration, whereas in the hb cross, it induced a considerable potentiating effect (from ~24.0 to ~95.0%) on dxr genotoxity. therefore, further research is needed to determine the possible risks associated with the exposure of living organisms to this complex mixture.
Differentially displayed expressed sequence tags in Melipona scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini) development
Santana, Flávia A.;Nunes, Francis M.F.;Vieira, Carlos U.;Machado, Maria Alice M.S.;Kerr, Warwick E.;Silva Jr, Wilson A.;Bonetti, Ana Maria;
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0001-37652006000100008
Abstract: we have compared gene expression, using the differential display reverse transcriptase - polymerase chain reaction (ddrt-pcr) technique, by means of mrna profile in melipona scutellaris during ontogenetic postembryonic development, in adult worker, and in both natural and juvenile hormone iii-induced adult queen. six, out of the nine ests described here, presented differentially expressed in the phases l1 or l2, or even in both of them, suggesting that key mechanisms to the development of melipona scutellaris are regulated in these stages. the combination ht11g-ap05 revealed in l1 and l2 a product which matches to thioredoxin reductase protein domain in the clostridium sporogenes, an important protein during cellular oxidoreduction processes. this study represents the first molecular evidence of differential gene expression profiles toward a description of the genetic developmental traits in the genus melipona.
Mancha de Septoria da alface: isolamento, inocula??o e avalia??o de cultivares em condi??es de campo e casa de vegeta??o
Sousa, Cristina S.;Kerr, Warwick E.;Santos, Marlos R.;Arruda, Alcione S.;Spini, Vanessa B. M. G.;Juliatti, Fernando C.;Takatsu, Armando;
Fitopatologia Brasileira , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-41582003000500016
Abstract: the objectives of this work were to establish appropriate methodologies for isolation and inoculation of septoria lactucae in order to evaluate resistance. nine lettuce (lactuca sativa) cultivars (vitória-de-santo-ant?o, uberlandia 10.000, maioba, elba, aurélia, black seeded simpson, grand, rapids, salad bowl-mimosa and babá de ver?o) were screened for resistance to this pathogen under greenhouse and field conditions. the best results obtained were: a) for isolation: to transfer cirrus of conidia directly to the surface of petri dishes with pda medium plus antibiotics (streptomycin, chloramphenicol, ampicilim and riphampicin); b) for inoculation: to spray plants of six to eight leaves with a conidia suspension of 1 x 104 spores/ml and keep them in a moist chamber for 48 h. significant differences were found among cultivars both in greenhouse and field tests. under both conditions the cultivars maioba and vitoria de santo ant?o were found to be, respectively, the most susceptible and the most resistant cultivars among those tested. from these results, the greenhouse test methodology is seen to ge highly promising for the rapid screening of a great number of genotypes in breeding programs of lettuce resistant to s. lactucae.
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