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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 715996 matches for " M. A. Mahmoud "
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Quality Characteristics of Gamma Irradiated Beefburger Formulated with Partial Replacement of Beef Fat with Olive Oil and Wheat Bran Fibers  [PDF]
Karema A. Mahmoud, Hesham M. Badr
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.26091
Abstract: Five beefburger formulations were prepared with substituting beef fat with olive oil and levels of wheat bran and irradiated at doses of 0 and 3 kGy, then samples were refrigerated stored and their quality characteristics were investigated. The results indicated that replacement of beef fat with olive oil and ascending levels of wheat bran in burger batter significantly decreased their contents of total lipids and saturated fatty acids, while increased their contents of dietary fibers, unsaturated fatty acids and the ratios of unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids to the saturated ones. Moreover, significant improvements were observed in the cooking yield and moisture and fat retention of samples, proportionally to the added wheat bran, and both raw and cooked burger samples showed a high sensory acceptability. Irradiation of samples effectively inactivated Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella and enterobacteriaceae and significantly reduced the counts of mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria as well as molds and yeasts without any adverse effects on the quality characteristics of samples. Thus, reducing beef fat levels with the addition of olive oil and wheat bran produced a highly acceptable beefburger products with improved nutritional content as well as improved cooking and binding properties, while irradiation improved their microbiological quality.
Adaptive Terminal-Modality-Based Joint Call Admission Control for Heterogeneous Cellular Networks  [PDF]
Mahmoud M. Badawy, Salman A. AlQahtani
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2013.69043

The coexistence of different Radio Access Technologies (RATs) requires a need for Common Radio Resource Management (CRRM) to support the provision of Quality of Service (QoS) and the efficient utilization of radio resources. The provision of QoS is an important and challenging issue in the design of integrated services packet networks. Call admission control (CAC) is an integral part of the problem. Clearly, without CAC, providing QoS guarantees will be impossible. There is unfairness in allocation of radio resources among heterogeneous mobile terminals in heterogeneous wireless networks. In this paper, an Adaptive-Terminal Modality-Based Joint Call Admission Control (ATJCAC) algorithm is proposed to enhance connection-level QoS and reduce call blocking/dropping probability. The proposed ATJCAC algorithm makes call admission decisions based on mobile terminal modality (capability), network load, adaptive the bandwidth of ongoing call and radio access technology (RAT) terminal support index. Simulation results show that the proposed ATJCAC scheme reduces call blocking/dropping probability.

Inverse Nonnegativity of Tridiagonal M-Matrices under Diagonal Element-Wise Perturbation  [PDF]
Mohamed A. Ramadan, Mahmoud M. Abu Murad
Advances in Linear Algebra & Matrix Theory (ALAMT) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/alamt.2015.52004
Abstract: One of the most important properties of M-matrices is element-wise non-negative of its inverse. In this paper, we consider element-wise perturbations of tridiagonal M-matrices and obtain bounds on the perturbations so that the non-negative inverse persists. The largest interval is given by which the diagonal entries of the inverse of tridiagonal M-matrices can be perturbed without losing the property of total nonnegativity. A numerical example is given to illustrate our findings.
Generating Totally Positive Toeplitz Matrix from an Upper Bidiagonal Matrix  [PDF]
Mohamed A. Ramadan, Mahmoud M. Abu Murad
Advances in Linear Algebra & Matrix Theory (ALAMT) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/alamt.2015.54014
Abstract: In this paper, we construct one of the forms of totally positive Toeplitz matrices from upper or lower bidiagonal totally nonnegative matrix. In addition, some properties related to this matrix involving its factorization are presented.
Spectrophotometric Study for the Reaction of Pentoxifylline Hydrochloride with 1,2-Naphthoquinone-4-Sulphonate: Kinetics, Mechanism and Application for Development of High-Throughput Kinetic Microwell Assay for Pentoxifylline in Quality Control Laboratory  [PDF]
Ashraf M. Mahmoud, Saad A. AlQahtani
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2016.72015
Abstract: Spectrophotometric study was carried out, for the first time, to investigate the reaction between the vasodilator pentoxifylline hydrochloride (POX) and 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate (NQS) reagent. The reaction occurs in alkaline medium to activate the nucleophilic substitution reaction producing an orange-colored product measured spectrophometrically at λmax 472 nm. The variables affecting the reaction were carefully studied and the conditions were optimized. The kinetics of the reaction was investigated and its activation energy was found to be 0.262 cal/mol. Owing to its low activation energy, the reaction proceeded easily and was successfully used for simple and rapid assay of POX. The stoichiometry of the reaction was determined (1:1), and the reaction mechanism was suggested. To develop a high-throughput methodology used in quality control laboratory, a comparative study of the reaction using the conventional spectrophotometric versus microwell assay was applied. Under the optimum reaction conditions, the initial rate and fixed time methods were utilized for constructing the calibration graphs for determination of POX concentrations. The linear range was 10 - 120 μg/ml with good correlation coefficients (0.9987 - 0.9998). The LOD was 2.5 and 3.4 μg/ml for initial rate and fixed time methods, respectively. The intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision of the developed methods were satisfactory, where RSD was ≤3.94%. The present methods have been successfully applied to the determination of POX in its pharmaceutical tablets, and the percentage recovery values were 97.9% - 101.9%. Therefore, we strongly recommend the proposed methods for determination of POX in quality control laboratories.
The Potential Scenarios of the Impacts of Climate Change on Egyptian Resources and Agricultural Plant Production  [PDF]
Mahmoud M. Fawaz, Sarhan A. Soliman
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2016.64027
Abstract: The emissions of greenhouse gasses in Egypt are about 0.58% of the total emissions of the world in the year 2015, although Egypt is one of the countries most affected by the impacts of climate change. By assessment and analysis of the expected economic impacts of climate change by the year 2030, the Egyptian cultivated area will be reduced to about 0.949 million acres, equal to about 8.22% of the Egyptian cultivated area compared with the case of no sinking part of the Delta land, thus reducing crop area in Egypt to about 1.406 million acres, approximately to about 6.25% of crop area compared with the case of no sinking part of the Delta land, in addition to surplus in the Egyptian balance water to about 2.48 billion m3. In this case value of the Egyptian agriculture production will decrease by about 6.19 billion dollars, equal to about 6.19% compared with presumably no sinking of the Delta land. In the case of sinking 15% of Delta lands, with the change of the productivity and water consumption of most crops, the result will be a reduction in the cultivated area to about 0.94 million acres. In addition to decreasing the Egyptian crop area to about 1.39 million acres, with a deficit in the Egyptian balance water to about 4.74 billion m3 compared to the case of no sinking part of the Delta land, the cultivated area will decrease to about 8.17%, and the crop area will decrease 6.18%. Also, the value of the Egyptian agriculture production will decrease by about 12.51%. While compared to sinking part of the Delta land to about 15% of the total Delta area without the other impacts of climate change, the cultivated area will increase by about 0.06%; the crop area will increase by about 0.08%; also, the value of the Egyptian agriculture production will decrease by about 5.57%.
Numerical Investigation of the Tri-Atomic Ions Formation during Laser Ionization Based on Resonance Saturation  [PDF]
M. A. Abdelati, M. A. Mahmoud, Y. E. E. Gamal
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2014.212131

We present a theoretical investigation of plasma generation in sodium vapor induced by laser radiation tuned to the first resonance line (3S-3P) at λ = 589 ns. A set of rate equations that describe the rate of change of the ground and excited states population as well as the temporal variation of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF), beside the formed atomic ion Na+, molecular ion  and tri-atomic ions are solved numerically. The calculations are carried out at different laser energy and different sodium atomic vapor densities under the experimental conditions of Tapalian and Smith (1993) to test the existence of the formed tri-atomic ions. The numerical calculations of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) show that a deviation from the Maxwellian distribution due to the super elastic collisions effect. In

Enhancement in Mechanical Properties of Polystyrene Filled with Carbon Nano-Particulates (CNPS)  [PDF]
Ayman A. Aly, Moustafa M. Mahmoud, Adel A. Omar
World Journal of Nano Science and Engineering (WJNSE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wjnse.2012.22013
Abstract: The idea of adding reinforcing materials, or fillers, to polymers has been around for many decades. The reason for the creation of polymer composite materials came about due of the need for materials with specific properties for specific applications. For example, composite materials are unique in their ability to allow brittle and ductile materials to become softer and stronger. It is expected that good tribological properties can be obtained for polymers filled with nano-scale fillers. A soft plastic can become harder and stronger by the addition of a light weight high stiffness material. In the present work, the effect of adding different percentages of carbon nano-particulates to polystyrene (PS) on the mechanical properties of nano-composites produced was investigated. Based on the experimental observations, it was found that as the percentage of the carbon nano-particulates (CNPS) increased hardness increased and consequently friction coefficient remarkably decreased.
A Robust Fuzzy Tracking Control Scheme for Robotic Manipulators with Experimental Verification  [PDF]
Abdel Badie Sharkawy, Mahmoud M. Othman, Abouel Makarem A. Khalil
Intelligent Control and Automation (ICA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ica.2011.22012
Abstract: The performance of any fuzzy logic controller (FLC) is greatly dependent on its inference rules. In most cases, the closed-loop control performance and stability are enhanced if more rules are added to the rule base of the FLC. However, a large set of rules requires more on-line computational time and more parameters need to be adjusted. In this paper, a robust PD-type FLC is driven for a class of MIMO second order nonlin- ear systems with application to robotic manipulators. The rule base consists of only four rules per each de- gree of freedom (DOF). The approach implements fuzzy partition to the state variables based on Lyapunov synthesis. The resulting control law is stable and able to exploit the dynamic variables of the system in a lin- guistic manner. The presented methodology enables the designer to systematically derive the rule base of the control. Furthermore, the controller is decoupled and the procedure is simplified leading to a computationally efficient FLC. The methodology is model free approach and does not require any information about the sys- tem nonlinearities, uncertainties, time varying parameters, etc. Here, we present experimental results for the following controllers: the conventional PD controller, computed torque controller (CTC), sliding mode con- troller (SMC) and the proposed FLC. The four controllers are tested and compared with respect to ease of design, implementation, and performance of the closed-loop system. Results show that the proposed FLC has outperformed the other controllers.
Factor and Cluster Analysis as a Tool for Patient Segmentation Applied to Hospital Marketing in Jordan  [PDF]
Lamees M. Al-Durgham, Mahmoud A. Barghash
American Journal of Operations Research (AJOR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2015.54023
Abstract: Hospital marketing is becoming important for the survival and the prosperity of the health service. In addition, it indirectly acts as a formal feedback channel for the customer requirements, preferences, suggestions and complaints. In this work we have undertaken a survey based marketing study for two main objectives: The first being to better understand the patient clusters through k-means clustering and the second to understand customer perception of the different known quality perspectives through factor rotated and unrotated analysis. All of the questionnaires were designed according to international studies. Based on general descriptive statistics, items classified with higher variance but important, are: clean environment, doctors and nurses capabilities, and specialized doctors. Items that are less important with low variance are: food type, lighting and insurance. Also, items classified as more important with low variance are: recommended, no mistakes, and the cost. Using factor analysis rotated and unrotated reduced the variables into five main variables described as: medical aspects, psychological aspects, cost aspects, hospital image and ease of access and procedures. Using k-means clustering, the customers can be clustered into four main clusters with two of them described as general patient with wide variety of interest, serious cases interested in specialized doctors and food, and very serious case with high stress on equipment, no mistakes.
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