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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 401131 matches for " M Odiit "
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Focus–Specific Clinical Profiles in Human African Trypanosomiasis Caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense
Lorna M. MacLean ,Martin Odiit,John E. Chisi,Peter G. E. Kennedy,Jeremy M. Sternberg
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000906
Abstract: Background Diverse clinical features have been reported in human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) foci caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (T.b.rhodesiense) giving rise to the hypothesis that HAT manifests as a chronic disease in South-East African countries and increased in virulence towards the North. Such variation in disease severity suggests there are differences in host susceptibility to trypanosome infection and/or genetic variation in trypanosome virulence. Our molecular tools allow us to study the role of host and parasite genotypes, but obtaining matched extensive clinical data from a large cohort of HAT patients has previously proved problematic. Methods/Principal Findings We present a retrospective cohort study providing detailed clinical profiles of 275 HAT patients recruited in two northern foci (Uganda) and one southern focus (Malawi) in East Africa. Characteristic clinical signs and symptoms of T.b.rhodesiense infection were recorded and the degree of neurological dysfunction determined on admission. Clinical observations were mapped by patient estimated post-infection time. We have identified common presenting symptoms in T.b.rhodesiense infection; however, marked differences in disease progression and severity were identified between foci. HAT was characterised as a chronic haemo-lymphatic stage infection in Malawi, and as an acute disease with marked neurological impairment in Uganda. Within Uganda, a more rapid progression to meningo-encephaltic stage of infection was observed in one focus (Soroti) where HAT was characterised by early onset neurodysfunction; however, severe neuropathology was more frequently observed in patients in a second focus (Tororo). Conclusions/Significance We have established focus-specific HAT clinical phenotypes showing dramatic variations in disease severity and rate of stage progression both between northern and southern East African foci and between Ugandan foci. Understanding the contribution of host and parasite factors in causing such clinical diversity in T.b.rhodesiense HAT has much relevance for both improvement of disease management and the identification of new drug therapy.
Estimating the burden of rhodesiense sleeping sickness during an outbreak in Serere, eastern Uganda
Eric M Fèvre, Martin Odiit, Paul G Coleman, Mark EJ Woolhouse, Susan C Welburn
BMC Public Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-8-96
Abstract: The burden of T.b. rhodesiense was estimated during an outbreak of HAT in Serere, Uganda. We identified the unique characteristics affecting the burden of rhodesiense HAT such as age, severity, level of under-reporting and duration of hospitalisation, and use field data and empirical estimates of these to model the burden imposed by this and other important diseases in this study population. While we modelled DALYs using standard methods, we also modelled uncertainty of our parameter estimates through a simulation approach. We distinguish between early and late stage HAT morbidity, and used disability weightings appropriate for the T.b. rhodesiense form of HAT. We also use a model of under-reporting of HAT to estimate the contribution of un-reported mortality to the overall disease burden in this community, and estimate the cost-effectiveness of hospital-based HAT control.Under-reporting accounts for 93% of the DALY estimate of rhodesiense HAT. The ratio of reported malaria cases to reported HAT cases in the same health unit was 133:1, however, the ratio of DALYs was 3:1. The age productive function curve had a close correspondence with the HAT case distribution, and HAT cases occupied more patient admission time in Serere during 1999 than all other infectious diseases other than malaria. The DALY estimate for HAT in Serere shows that the burden is much greater than might be expected from its relative incidence. Hospital based control in this setting appears to be highly cost-effective, highlighting the value of increasing coverage of therapy and reducing under-reporting.We show the utility of calculating DALYs for neglected diseases at the local decision making level, and emphasise the importance of improved reporting systems for acquiring a better understanding of the burden of neglected zoonotic diseases.Human African trypanosomosis (HAT), also known as sleeping sickness, is caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense or T. b. rhodesiense, the former occurring in West
Analysis of risk factors for T. brucei rhodesiense sleeping sickness within villages in south-east Uganda
Thomas Zoller, Eric M Fèvre, Susan C Welburn, Martin Odiit, Paul G Coleman
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-8-88
Abstract: The present study investigates behavioural and occupational risk factors for infection with HAT within villages using a questionnaire-based case-control study conducted in 17 villages endemic for HAT in SE Uganda, and spatial risk factors in 4 high risk villages. For the spatial analysis, the location of homesteads with one or more cases of HAT up to three years prior to the beginning of the study was compared to all non-case homesteads. Analysing spatial associations with respect to irregularly shaped geographical objects required the development of a new approach to geographical analysis in combination with a logistic regression model.The study was able to identify, among other behavioural risk factors, having a family member with a history of HAT (p = 0.001) as well as proximity of a homestead to a nearby wetland area (p < 0.001) as strong risk factors for infection. The novel method of analysing complex spatial interactions used in the study can be applied to a range of other diseases.Spatial risk factors for HAT are maintained across geographical scales; this consistency is useful in the design of decision support tools for intervention and prevention of the disease. Familial aggregation of cases was confirmed for T. b. rhodesiense HAT in the study and probably results from shared behavioural and spatial risk factors amongmembers of a household.Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) or sleeping sickness is a re-emerging disease which poses a major public health problem in certain regions of Africa. The disease occurs in a patchy distribution over 36 countries across sub-Saharan Africa. Although long-term asymptomatic carriers have been described [1] little is known about the natural course of infection; the disease is usually fatal in the absence of treatment. A breakdown in control measures in many areas has been followed by a resurgence of HAT since the 1970s [2,3]. An estimated 300.000 new human infections occur annually, causing an estimated 46.000 deaths per
Sleeping sickness in Uganda: revisiting current and historical distributions
L Berrang-Ford, M Odiit, F Maiso, D Waltner-Toews, J McDermott
African Health Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: Background: Sleeping sickness is a parasitic, vector-borne disease, carried by the tsetse fly and prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. The disease continues to pose a public health burden in Uganda, which experienced a widespread outbreak in 1900-1920, and a more recent outbreak in 1976-1989. The disease continues to spread to uninfected districts. Objectives: This paper compares the spatial distributions of sleeping in Uganda for the 1900-1920 outbreak period with current disease foci, and discusses information gaps and implications arising for future research, prevention and control. Methods: Population census records for 1911 and sleeping sickness records from Medical and Sanitary Reports of the Ugandan Protectorate for 1905-1936 were extracted from the Uganda Archives. Current sleeping sickness distribution data were provided by the Ministry of Health, Uganda. These were used to develop sleeping sickness distribution maps for comparison between the early 1900s and the early 2000s. Results: The distribution of sleeping sickness from 1905-1920 shows notable differences compared to the current distribution of disease. In particular, archival cases were recorded in south-west and central Uganda, areas currently free of disease. The disease focus has moved from lakeshore Buganda (1905-1920) to the Busoga and south-east districts. Conclusions: Archival sleeping sickness distributions indicate the potential for a much wider area of disease risk than indicated by current disease foci. This is compounded by an absence of tsetse distribution data, continued political instability in north-central Uganda, continued spread of disease into new districts, and evidence of the role of livestock movements in spreading the parasite. These results support concerns as to the potential mergence of the two disease foci in the south-east and north-west of the country. > African Health Sciences Vol. 6 (4) 2006: pp. 223-231
Effect of mass measles vaccination on numbers of measles cases: A hospital experience
A Odiit, S Kiguli
South African Journal of Child Health , 2008,
Abstract: Background. Low measles vaccine coverage has been a characteristic of child health indices in Uganda. A countrywide mass measles vaccination of children from 6 months to 15 years old was undertaken in October 2003 and again in October 2006. Objective. To describe the effect of mass measles vaccination on the number of measles cases admitted to Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. Methods. The study involved a review of documents including ward admission books, patients’ case notes, discharge summaries, measles surveillance records, and laboratory reports. Measles cases admitted during the study period were identified by using the World Health Organization (WHO) clinical case definition of measles during epidemic times but, during non-epidemic periods, the case definition had to be supported by positive testing for measles antibodies. The number of measles cases admitted before and after each mass vaccination was documented. Results. Prior to mass measles campaigns, the mean number of measles cases admitted to Mulago Hospital was 120 per month. Seventy-three per cent of the patients were between 9 and 60 months of age. Two weeks after a campaign, the number of measles cases started falling. Four months after each of the mass campaigns, only a few mild measles cases presented; and, for 2 years subsequently, there were no cases severe enough to warrant hospital admission. The number of measles deaths dropped by 54% and 62%, after the first and second mass immunisations, respectively. Conclusion. Mass measles vaccinations appear to significantly reduce the number of measles cases admitted to Mulago Hospital. However, the retrospective nature of the study and the lack of serological confirmation of the diagnosis of measles might have introduced bias. The results need confirmation by means of prospective studies.
Detection of trypanosomes in suspected sleeping sickness patients in Uganda using the polymerase chain reaction
Kyambadde,J.W; Enyaru,J.C.K; Matovu,E; Odiit,M; Carasco,J.F;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862000000100018
Abstract: diagnosis of sleeping sickness (trypanosomiasis) is difficult because of the fluctuating levels of parasitaemia encountered in patients. in the present study we found that the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) demonstrated trypanosome infection in 20 out of 35 (57.1%) blood samples and in 21 out of 34 (61.7%) cerebrospinal fluid (csf) samples collected from an area endemic for sleeping sickness in north-west uganda. a total of 14 blood samples and 13 csf samples that were positive for trypanosomes by double centrifugation were also positive by pcr, demonstrating good concordance between the two methods. however, 6 (28.6%) of the 21 blood samples that were parasitologically negative were positive by pcr, while 8 (38.0%) out of 21 csf samples that were negative by double centrifugation were positive by pcr. these 14 negative samples could therefore be from sleeping sickness cases even though a positive pcr test is not evidence for the presence of trypanosomes. furthermore, of these 8 csf samples, 4 had been designated as early cases, based on the absence of trypanosomes and on a count of < 5 white blood cells (wbc) per ml. this suggests that some late-stage cases could potentially be missed according to the present criteria, and it is therefore important to perform clinical trials to determine whether these cases could be treated successfully with the first-stage drug alone. the remaining four csf samples had been classified as late-stage cases, based on a count of > 6 wbc per ml, even though trypanosomes could not be detected in these samples by either double centrifugation or pcr. a cut-off point of 5 wbc per ml, which is used as a rule of thumb to stage sleeping sickness patients, seems to leave some late-stage cases undetected since trypanosomes were detected in four csf samples from suspected cases with < 5 wbc per ml.
The diagnosis of trypanosome infections: applications of novel technology for reducing disease risk
K. Picozzi, A. Tilley, E.M. Fèvre, P.G. Coleman, J.W. Magona, M. Odiit, M.C. Eisler, S.C. Welburn
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2002,
Abstract: Reliable DNA based methodologies to determine prevalence of trypanosome species in domestic livestock have been available for over 10 years. Despite this, they are rarely used to generate baseline data for control operations for these diseases in the field. Rather, such operations tend to rely on data which can be generated using low technology methods such as direct observation of parasites by light microscopy. Here we show the pitfalls of relying on such low tech methodology which, although simple in its application, can provide inaccurate and inadequate data on which to base control methodologies. Our analysis of 61 cattle selected for trypanosome carrier status by either microscopy, low PCV or poor condition score, showed that 90% were infected with trypanosomes while 84% of the total were infected with T. brucei. Diagnosis by PCR on buffy coat preparations on Whatman FTA matrices was the most sensitive methodology relative to the gold standard, whereas microscopy was the least sensitive. (African Journal of Biotechnology: 2002 1(2): 39-45)
Isoniazid Preventive Therapy Associated Hepatotoxicity among Children Living with HIV: Descriptive Case Series at Mildmay Uganda HIV/AIDS Clinic, Uganda  [PDF]
Lawrence Nsobya, Henry Nsobya, Jane Nakaweesi, Esther Kawuma, Mary Odiit, Yvonne Karamagi, Barbara Mukasa
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2015.66050
Provision of Isoniazid Preventive Therapy (IPT) as part of the comprehensive TB/HIV prevention intervention for people living with HIV & AIDS was recommended by WHO in 2011. Literature shows that Isoniazid (INH) associated hepatotoxicity is a common drug adverse event among people taking INH, and that it’s associated with a high risk of mortality. These case series document INH associated hepatotoxicity in HIV-infected children receiving IPT in a resource constrained setting. They also further describe the challenges and lessons learnt while providing routine IPT among HIV-infected children in a resource-limited setting where laboratory tests for liver function monitoring are not performed routinely. The case series describe observed cases which presented to the Mildmay Uganda HIV/AIDS clinic between December 2013 and March 2014. The findings demonstrate that: 1) there was a 1.5% INH related hepatotoxicity incidence among children of four to ten years old; 2) 20% death rate—one out of the five children died and; 3) hepatotoxicity events on average occurred at 10.8 weeks after INH initiation while at the same time, all the cases had liver enzymes elevated above 10 times the upper normal limit values and reported late for medical intervention. The insidious onset of symptoms and signs of INH related hepatotoxicity coupled with lack of adequate resources needed to manage the condition were the major challenges to provision of routine IPT among children living with HIV in resource-limited settings in sub-Sahara Africa. Clinical vigilance, continuous education of clients and caretakers about the side effects or adverse events of INH and routine laboratory examination of liver function tests during follow-up of IPT in HIV-infected children are recommended to enhance early detection and prompt management of IPT associated hepatotoxicity.
Study of Duct Characteristics Deduced from Low Latitude Ground Observations of Day-Time Whistler at Jammu  [PDF]
M. Altaf, M. M. Ahmad
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2013.33032

Propagation characteristics of low latitude whistler duct characteristics have been investigated based on day-time measurements at Jammu. The morphogical characteristics of low latitude whistlers are discussed and compared with characteristics of middle and high latitude whistlers. The Max. electron density (Nm) at the height of the ionosphere obtained from whistler dispersion comes out to be higher than that of the background which is in accordance with the characteristics of whistler duct. The equivalent width is found to be close to the satellite observations and the characteristics of whistler duct in low latitude ionosphere are similar to those in middle and high latitude ionosphere. The width of ducts estimated from the diffuseness of the whistler track observed during magnetic storm is found to lie in the range of 50 - 200 Km.

Review Article: Immobilized Molecules Using Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology  [PDF]
Magdy M. M. Elnashar
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2010.11008
Abstract: Immobilized molecules using biomaterials and nanobiotechnology is a very interesting topic that touching almost all aspects of our life. It uses the sciences of biology, chemistry, physics, materials engineering and computer science to develop instruments and products that are at the cutting edge of some of today’s most promising scientific frontiers. In this review article, the author based on his experience in this arena has tried to focus on some of the supports for im-mobilization; the most important molecules to be immobilized such as DNA, cells, enzymes, metals, polysaccharides, etc and their applications in medicine, food, drug, water treatment, energy and even in aerospace. He specified a special section on what is new in the arena of supports and technologies used in enzyme immobilization and finally a recommendation by the author for future work with a special attention to up-to-date references.
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