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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 401180 matches for " M Mureithi "
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A Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Flow over a Vertical Wall in a Porous Medium, with Exponentially Varying Fluid Viscosity  [PDF]
Eunice Mureithi
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2014.28087

This study investigates a mixed convection boundary layer flow over a vertical wall embedded in a highly porous medium. The fluid viscosity is assumed to decrease exponentially with temperature. The boundary layer equations are transformed into a non-similar form using an appropriate non-similar variable ξ and a pseudo-similar variable η. The non-similar equations are solved using an efficient local non-similarity method. The effect of viscosity variation parameter on the heat transfer, skin friction and the velocity and temperature distribution within the boundary layer is investigated. The viscosity variation parameter, the viscous dissipation parameter and non-simi-larity variable are shown to have a significant effect on velocity and thermal boundary layer and also on the skin friction coefficient and heat transfer at the wall.

Management of Business Challenges Among Small and Micro Enterprises in Nairobi-Kenya
M Bowen, M Morara, M Mureithi
KCA Journal of Business Management , 2009,
Abstract: Small and Micro Enterprises (SMEs) play an important economic role in many countries. In Kenya, for example the SME sector contributed over 50percent of new jobs created in 2005 but despite their significance, SMEs are faced with the threat of failure with past statistics indicating that three out five fail within the first few months. This study sought to understand how SMEs manage the challenges they face. These challenges seem to change (evolve) according to different macro and micro conditions. This study employed stratified random sampling to collect data from 198 businesses using interviews and questionnaires. The data was analysed descriptively and presented through figures, tables and percentages. The findings indicate that SMEs face the following challenges; competition among themselves and from large firms, lack of access to credit, cheap imports, insecurity and debt collection. Credit constraint seems to be easing up when compared to previous researches. Relevant training or education is positively related to business success. The SMEs have the following strategies to overcome the challenges; fair pricing, discounts and special offers, offering a variety of services and products, superior customer service and continuously improving quality of service delivery. The research concludes that business success is a consequence of embracing a mix of strategies.
Response of French Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to Intra-row Spacing in Maseno Division, Kenya
D.M. Mureithi,M.O.A. Onyango,P. Jeruto,B.M. Gichimu
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of intra-row spacing on growth of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Maseno Division, Kenya. The study was carried out at Maseno University Horticultural Farm. Intra-row spacing of 10, 15, 20 and 30 cm were evaluated in a randomized complete block design. Growth parameters of plant height, leaf number and branch number were measured on a weekly basis starting two weeks after sowing up to the sixth week. Leaf area and plant dry weight were measured once at six weeks after sowing. The data was subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and differences declared significant at 5% level. Increasing intra-row spacing from 10 to 15 to 20 cm resulted in significant (p<0.05) increase in all the growth parameters that were measured except plant height. Increasing the spacing further to 30 cm between plants resulted in significant decrease in growth rate. Although intra-row spacing of 20 cm produced the highest growth rate, cost benefit analysis could be ideal to justify its recommendation over intra-row spacing of 15 cm.
On the Boundary Layer Flow over a Moving Surface in a Fluid with Temperature-Dependent Viscosity  [PDF]
E. W. Mureithi, J. J. Mwaonanji, O. D. Makinde
Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics (OJFD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojfd.2013.32017
Abstract:  This paper examines a boundary layer flow over a continuously moving heated flat surface with velocity\"\"  in a streaming flow with velocity\"\"  and with temperature dependent viscosity\"\". The momentum and the energy equations are coupled through the viscous dissipation term. The coupled boundary layer equations are transformed into a self-similar form using an appropriate similarity variable. An efficient numerical technique is used to solve the self-similar boundary layer equations. It is shown that at low enough values for the velocity ratio\"\" , an increase in viscous dissipation enhances greatly the local heat transfer leading to temperature overshoots adjacent to the wall. The viscosity variation parameter is shown to have significant effects on the temperature dependent viscosity and the velocity and temperature distribution within the boundary layer.

Effects of Over-Harvesting and Drought on a Predator-Prey System with Optimal Control  [PDF]
Alanus Mapunda, Eunice Mureithi, Nyimvua Shaban, Thadei Sagamiko
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2018.88028
Abstract: In this paper, a two species predator-prey model is developed where prey is affected by over-harvesting and drought and predator is affected by drought. The intention is to investigate the impact of over-harvesting and drought on predator-prey system, and suggest control strategies to alleviate the problem of loss of prey and predator species due to over-harvesting and drought. The control strategies suggested are creation of reserve areas with restriction of harvesting for controlling over-harvesting and construction of dams for mitigating drought effects. The results obtained from theoretical and numerical simulation of the predator-prey model with harvesting and drought without control strategies showed that, both harvesting and drought affect the predator-prey population negatively. However, the results obtained from numerical simulations of the model with control measures showed that, the use of control strategies one at a time encourages the increase of the prey and predator species to the optimal population size. Furthermore, the best result is obtained when control strategies, creation of reserve areas with restriction of harvesting and construction of dams are applied simultaneously.
Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile of Metallo-β-Lactamase Producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates at Kenyatta National Hospital  [PDF]
Jane Njeri Karuitha, Odera Susan Akinyi, Maina Anne Njeri, Mureithi Marianne
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2018.811059
Abstract: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major cause of nosocomial infections with high mortality rates. The organism is highly resistant to most classes of drugs used and can develop resistance during treatment. One of the resistance mechanisms of P. aeruginosais is Metallo-β-Lactamase (MBL) production. MBL producing P. aeruginosa is a major health concern given it’s resistance to almost all available drugs. The prevalence of this resistant strain is unknown since there is no standardized method for testing MBL production. This was a laboratory based cross-sectional prospective study that was carried out from September 2015 to March 2016 at Kenyatta National Hospital. Ninety-nine isolates of P. aeruginosa were collected during the period and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and isolates found to be resistant to imipenem tested for MBL production. The results indicated high resistance of P. aeruginosa to commonly used drugs. Of the isolates tested 69.7% were resistant to piperacillin, 63.6% were resistant to aztreonam, 58.6% were resistant to levofloxacin, 55.6% were resistant to cefipime, 65.7% were resistant to ceftazidime, 68.7% were resistant to ticarcillin-clavulanate, 72.2% were resistant to meropenem, 64.9% were resistance to imipenem while 86.4% of urine isolates were resistant to ofloxacin. Of the isolates resistant to imipenem 87.3% were found to be MBL producers. In conclusion, P. aeruginosais highly resistant to the drugs currently is used for treatment and resistance to carbapenems is largely due to MBL production.
Factors Associated with HIV Infection in Married or Cohabitating Couples in Kenya: Results from a Nationally Representative Study
Reinhard Kaiser,Rebecca Bunnell,Allen Hightower,Andrea A. Kim,Peter Cherutich,Mary Mwangi,Tom Oluoch,Sufia Dadabhai,Patrick Mureithi,Nelly Mugo,Jonathan Mermin
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017842
Abstract: In order to inform prevention programming, we analyzed HIV discordance and concordance within couples in the Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS) 2007.
Estimating HIV Incidence among Adults in Kenya and Uganda: A Systematic Comparison of Multiple Methods
Andrea A. Kim,Timothy Hallett,John Stover,Eleanor Gouws,Joshua Musinguzi,Patrick K. Mureithi,Rebecca Bunnell,John Hargrove,Jonathan Mermin,Reinhard K. Kaiser,Anne Barsigo,Peter D. Ghys
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017535
Abstract: Several approaches have been used for measuring HIV incidence in large areas, yet each presents specific challenges in incidence estimation.
Study of Duct Characteristics Deduced from Low Latitude Ground Observations of Day-Time Whistler at Jammu  [PDF]
M. Altaf, M. M. Ahmad
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2013.33032

Propagation characteristics of low latitude whistler duct characteristics have been investigated based on day-time measurements at Jammu. The morphogical characteristics of low latitude whistlers are discussed and compared with characteristics of middle and high latitude whistlers. The Max. electron density (Nm) at the height of the ionosphere obtained from whistler dispersion comes out to be higher than that of the background which is in accordance with the characteristics of whistler duct. The equivalent width is found to be close to the satellite observations and the characteristics of whistler duct in low latitude ionosphere are similar to those in middle and high latitude ionosphere. The width of ducts estimated from the diffuseness of the whistler track observed during magnetic storm is found to lie in the range of 50 - 200 Km.

Review Article: Immobilized Molecules Using Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology  [PDF]
Magdy M. M. Elnashar
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2010.11008
Abstract: Immobilized molecules using biomaterials and nanobiotechnology is a very interesting topic that touching almost all aspects of our life. It uses the sciences of biology, chemistry, physics, materials engineering and computer science to develop instruments and products that are at the cutting edge of some of today’s most promising scientific frontiers. In this review article, the author based on his experience in this arena has tried to focus on some of the supports for im-mobilization; the most important molecules to be immobilized such as DNA, cells, enzymes, metals, polysaccharides, etc and their applications in medicine, food, drug, water treatment, energy and even in aerospace. He specified a special section on what is new in the arena of supports and technologies used in enzyme immobilization and finally a recommendation by the author for future work with a special attention to up-to-date references.
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