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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 401181 matches for " M Morara "
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Management of Business Challenges Among Small and Micro Enterprises in Nairobi-Kenya
M Bowen, M Morara, M Mureithi
KCA Journal of Business Management , 2009,
Abstract: Small and Micro Enterprises (SMEs) play an important economic role in many countries. In Kenya, for example the SME sector contributed over 50percent of new jobs created in 2005 but despite their significance, SMEs are faced with the threat of failure with past statistics indicating that three out five fail within the first few months. This study sought to understand how SMEs manage the challenges they face. These challenges seem to change (evolve) according to different macro and micro conditions. This study employed stratified random sampling to collect data from 198 businesses using interviews and questionnaires. The data was analysed descriptively and presented through figures, tables and percentages. The findings indicate that SMEs face the following challenges; competition among themselves and from large firms, lack of access to credit, cheap imports, insecurity and debt collection. Credit constraint seems to be easing up when compared to previous researches. Relevant training or education is positively related to business success. The SMEs have the following strategies to overcome the challenges; fair pricing, discounts and special offers, offering a variety of services and products, superior customer service and continuously improving quality of service delivery. The research concludes that business success is a consequence of embracing a mix of strategies.
Consistent Perturbative Light Front Formulation of Yang-Mills Theories
M. Morara,R. Soldati,G. McCartor
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1063/1.1301673
Abstract: It is shown how to obtain the consistent light front form quantization of a non-Abelian pure Yang-Mills theory (gluondynamics) in the framework of the standard perturbative approach. After a short review of the previous attempts in the light cone gauge $A_-=0$, it is explained how the difficulties can be overcome after turning to the anti light cone gauge $A_+=0$. In particular, the generating functional of the renormalized Green's functions turns out to be the same as in the conventional instant form approach, leading to the Mandelstam-Leibbrandt prescription for the free gluon propagator.
Consistent perturbative light-front formulation of quantum electrodynamics
Michele Morara,Roberto Soldati
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.58.105011
Abstract: A new light-front formulation of Q.E.D. is developed, within the framework of standard perturbation theory, in which $x^+$ plays the role of the evolution parameter and the gauge choice is $A_+=0$ (light-front "temporal" gauge). It is shown that this formulation leads to the Mandelstam-Leibbrandt causal prescription for the non-covariant singularities in the photon propagator. Furthermore, it is proved that the dimensionally regularized one loop off-shell amplitudes exactly coincide with the correct ones, as computed within the standard approach using ordinary space-time coordinates.
Solving XCSP problems by using Gecode
Massimo Morara,Jacopo Mauro,Maurizio Gabbrielli
Computer Science , 2011,
Abstract: Gecode is one of the most efficient libraries that can be used for constraint solving. However, using it requires dealing with C++ programming details. On the other hand several formats for representing constraint networks have been proposed. Among them, XCSP has been proposed as a format based on XML which allows us to represent constraints defined either extensionally or intensionally, permits global constraints and has been the standard format of the international competition of constraint satisfaction problems solvers. In this paper we present a plug-in for solving problems specified in XCSP by exploiting the Gecode solver. This is done by dynamically translating constraints into Gecode library calls, thus avoiding the need to interact with C++.
Effect of Community Participation in Access to Social Services: A Case Study of Hazina Ya Maendeleo Ya Pwani Approach in Coastal Kenya  [PDF]
Farida A. Hassan, Hilda A. Ong’ayo, Melckzedeck K. Osore, George N. Morara, Christopher Mulanda Aura
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.511012
Access to essential social services such as education, health, water and sanitation is a challenge to many residents living in coastal Kenya. Kenya Coastal Development Project (KCDP), a World Bank funded multi-sectoral initiative, implemented its Community Development Fund popularly referred to in Swahili as Hazina Ya Maendeleo Ya Pwani-HMP to improve access to social services among the coastal communities in Kenya. The HMP adopted the Community Driven Development (CDD) approach, whose underlying philosophy is community participation in the delivery of social services and the management of coastal natural resources. In this study, therefore, the extent to which community participation improved access to social services among the coastal communities was assessed using four dimensions of access comprising: availability, affordability, geographical accessibility, and acceptability. A total of 285 respondents from community project beneficiary groups were interviewed across the six coastal counties. There was a significant relationship between community participation and affordability of social services. The results also revealed that there was no significant relationship between community participation and the other dimensions of access namely: availability, geographical accessibility and acceptability of social services. The study indicates that community participation in development interventions is effective in enhancing affordability of social services. Conversely, it cautions that community participation in itself is not necessarily a panacea to fully address the challenge of limitation of access to social services, in terms of availability, geographical accessibility and acceptability of these services. The study concludes that other factors exist besides community participation that influences availability, geographical accessibility and acceptability of social services. Hence, it is difficult to attribute the outcomes of any local service delivery initiative singly on citizen participation.
Rainfall Variability and Droughts in the Drylands of Baringo County, Kenya  [PDF]
Richard Ochieng, Charles Recha, Bockline Omedo Bebe, George Morara Ogendi
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103827
The study was undertaken to determine rainfall variability and droughts in arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs) of Baringo County. The study used rainfall data for Perkerra Agricultural Research Station (LM5) and Nginyang rainfall station (IL6) for the period 1970-2008 and 1974-2013 respectively. Standardized anomalies were calculated and plotted to establish trends of drought events across the study period. Plots of rainfall data from the two stations displayed an oscillating trend with major rainfall peaks being observed in 1977 and 2007 for Perkerra, 1982 and 1997 for Nginyang. Analysis of rainfall data from the two stations indicates four catastrophic drought periods recognized with standard anomalies of less than-0.9 (SA (t) <-0.9) as a function of the time scales. The study findings reveal that MAM seasonal drought index plots for both Perkerra and Nginyang rainfall stations had a declining long-term MAM seasonal rainfall trend. Perkerra OND Seasonal Drought Index plot indicates a constant trend in the long-term OND seasonal rainfall while Nginyang long-term OND seasonal drought trend shows a gentle upward trend, an indication that the conditions are improving. The study recommends the strengthening of uptake of seasonal climate forecast to inform appropriate decision making regarding response to rainfall variability and drought events.
Multimodal Imaging in Hereditary Retinal Diseases
Francesco Pichi,Mariachiara Morara,Chiara Veronese,Paolo Nucci,Antonio P. Ciardella
Journal of Ophthalmology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/634351
Abstract: Introduction. In this retrospective study we evaluated the multimodal visualization of retinal genetic diseases to better understand their natural course. Material and Methods. We reviewed the charts of 70 consecutive patients with different genetic retinal pathologies who had previously undergone multimodal imaging analyses. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and genotyped at the known locus for the different diseases. Results. The medical records of 3 families of a 4-generation pedigree affected by North Carolina macular dystrophy were reviewed. A total of 8 patients with Stargardt disease were evaluated for their two main defining clinical characteristics, yellow subretinal flecks and central atrophy. Nine male patients with a previous diagnosis of choroideremia and eleven female carriers were evaluated. Fourteen patients with Best vitelliform macular dystrophy and 6 family members with autosomal recessive bestrophinopathy were included. Seven patients with enhanced s-cone syndrome were ascertained. Lastly, we included 3 unrelated patients with fundus albipunctatus. Conclusions. In hereditary retinal diseases, clinical examination is often not sufficient for evaluating the patient’s condition. Retinal imaging then becomes important in making the diagnosis, in monitoring the progression of disease, and as a surrogate outcome measure of the efficacy of an intervention. 1. Introduction Evaluation of the retina is a critical step in understanding and diagnosing genetic disease. Because ophthalmologists can view the retina directly, they are often able to make diagnoses without additional testing. In a number of diseases, however, the clinical examination is not sufficient for evaluating the patient’s condition. Retinal imaging then becomes important in making the diagnosis and in monitoring the progression of disease. It may be used to document and quantify a patient’s symptoms; it may help in making a differential diagnosis of some retinal disorders, in distinguishing localized macular disorders from diffuse retinal disorders, and in distinguishing optic nerve disease from retinal disease. Early alteration of retinal imaging might serve as a surrogate outcome measure of the efficacy of an intervention, rather than waiting for years to determine if a disease has progressed clinically. Diagnostic imaging procedures used for evaluation and followup of retinal genetic disease include colour fundus photography, blue fundus autofluorescence (FAF) [1–3], fluorescein angiography (FA) [4, 5], indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) [6], and
Study of Duct Characteristics Deduced from Low Latitude Ground Observations of Day-Time Whistler at Jammu  [PDF]
M. Altaf, M. M. Ahmad
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2013.33032

Propagation characteristics of low latitude whistler duct characteristics have been investigated based on day-time measurements at Jammu. The morphogical characteristics of low latitude whistlers are discussed and compared with characteristics of middle and high latitude whistlers. The Max. electron density (Nm) at the height of the ionosphere obtained from whistler dispersion comes out to be higher than that of the background which is in accordance with the characteristics of whistler duct. The equivalent width is found to be close to the satellite observations and the characteristics of whistler duct in low latitude ionosphere are similar to those in middle and high latitude ionosphere. The width of ducts estimated from the diffuseness of the whistler track observed during magnetic storm is found to lie in the range of 50 - 200 Km.

Review Article: Immobilized Molecules Using Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology  [PDF]
Magdy M. M. Elnashar
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2010.11008
Abstract: Immobilized molecules using biomaterials and nanobiotechnology is a very interesting topic that touching almost all aspects of our life. It uses the sciences of biology, chemistry, physics, materials engineering and computer science to develop instruments and products that are at the cutting edge of some of today’s most promising scientific frontiers. In this review article, the author based on his experience in this arena has tried to focus on some of the supports for im-mobilization; the most important molecules to be immobilized such as DNA, cells, enzymes, metals, polysaccharides, etc and their applications in medicine, food, drug, water treatment, energy and even in aerospace. He specified a special section on what is new in the arena of supports and technologies used in enzyme immobilization and finally a recommendation by the author for future work with a special attention to up-to-date references.
Using of the generalized special relativity (GSR) in estimating the neutrino masses to explain the conversion of electron neutrinos  [PDF]
M. H. M. Hilo
Natural Science (NS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2011.34044
Abstract: In this work the Generalized Special Relativity (GSR) is utilized to estimate masses of some elementary particles such as, neutrinos. These results are found to be in conformity with experimental and theoretical data. The results obtained may explain some physical phenomena, such as, conversion of neutrinos from type to type when solar neutrino reaches the Earth.
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