Abstract:
Schistosomiasis is a blood fluke infection that has affected mankind for over four thousand years. A description of haematuria in agricultural communities of the Great River Valley found in the Gynaecological Papyrus of Kahun circa 1900BC is recognised as the first recorded description of the disease. Its geographical distribution continues to expand, a 5th human pathogenic schistosome, Schistosoma mekongi, having being described in Laos and Cambodia as recently as 1978.

Abstract:
Objectives. To define the patient population at Cape Town’s district-level hospital offering specialist tuberculosis (TB) services, concerning the noted increase in complex, sick HIV-TB co-infected patients requiring increased levels of care. Methods. A cross-sectional study of all hospitalised adult patients in Brooklyn Chest Hospital (a district-level hospital offering specialist TB services) from 27 to 30 October 2008. Outcome measures were: type of TB and drug sensitivity, HIV co-infection, comorbidity, Karnofsky performance score, and frequency and reason for referral to other health care facilities. Results. More than two-thirds of patients in the acute wards were HIV-co-infected, of whom 98% had significant comorbidities and 60% had a Karnofsky performance score ≤30. Twenty-eight per cent of patients did not have a confirmed diagnosis of TB. In contrast, long-stay patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR), pre-extensively (pre-XDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB had a lower prevalence of HIV co-infection, but manifested high rates of comorbidity. Overall, one-fifth of patients required up-referral to higher levels of care. Conclusions. District-level hospitals such as Brooklyn Chest Hospital that offer specialist TB services share the increasing burden of complex, sick, largely HIV-co-infected TB patients with their secondary and tertiary level counterparts. To support these hospitals effectively, outreach, skills transfer through training, and improved radiology resources are required to optimise patient care.

Abstract:
As complex traits evolve, each component of the trait may be under different selection pressures and could respond independently to distinct evolutionary forces. We used comparative methods to examine patterns of evolution in multiple components of a complex courtship signal in darters, specifically addressing the question of how nuptial coloration evolves across different areas of the body. Using spectral reflectance, we defined 4 broad color classes present on the body and fins of 17 species of freshwater fishes (genus Etheostoma) and quantified differences in hue within each color class. Ancestral state reconstruction suggests that most color traits were expressed in the most recent common ancestor of sampled species and that differences among species are mostly due to losses in coloration. The evolutionary lability of coloration varied across body regions; we found significant phylogenetic signal for orange color on the body but not for most colors on fins. Finally, patterns of color evolution and hue of the colors were correlated among the two dorsal fins and between the anterior dorsal and anal fins, but not between any of the fins and the body. The observed patterns support the hypothesis that different components of complex signals may be subject to distinct evolutionary pressures, and suggests that the combination of behavioral displays and morphology in communication may have a strong influence on patterns of signal evolution [Current Zoology 57 (2): 125–139, 2011].

Abstract:
Cutaneous adverse drug reactions are a common complication of antiretroviral therapy and of drugs used to treat opportunistic infections. We present a rare case of acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis secondary to cotrimoxazole or tenofovir.

Abstract:
We obtain a new upper estimate on the Euclidean diameter of the intersection of the kernel of a random matrix with iid rows with a given convex body. The proof is based on a small-ball argument rather than on concentration and thus the estimate holds for relatively general matrix ensembles.

Abstract:
We consider the periodic defocusing cubic nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation in three dimensions in the symplectic phase space $H^{\frac{1}{2}}(\mathbb{T}^3) \times H^{-\frac{1}{2}}(\mathbb{T}^3)$. This space is at the critical regularity for this equation, and in this setting there is no global well-posedness nor any uniform control on the local time of existence for arbitrary initial data. We prove a local-in-time non-squeezing result and a conditional global-in-time result which states that uniform bounds on the Strichartz norms of solutions imply global-in-time non-squeezing. As a consequence of the conditional result, we conclude non-squeezing for certain subsets of the phase space, and in particular, we prove small data non-squeezing for long times. The proofs rely on several approximation results for the flow, which we obtain using a combination of probabilistic and deterministic techniques.

Abstract:
Let $F$ be a class of functions on a probability space $(\Omega,\mu)$ and let $X_1,...,X_k$ be independent random variables distributed according to $\mu$. We establish high probability tail estimates of the form $\sup_{f \in F} |\{i : |f(X_i)| \geq t \}$ using a natural parameter associated with $F$. We use this result to analyze weakly bounded empirical processes indexed by $F$ and processes of the form $Z_f=|k^{-1}\sum_{i=1}^k |f|^p(X_i)-\E|f|^p|$ for $p>1$. We also present some geometric applications of this approach, based on properties of the random operator $\Gamma=k^{-1/2}\sum_{i=1}^k \inr{X_i,\cdot}e_i$, where the $(X_i)_{i=1}^k$ are sampled according to an isotropic, log-concave measure on $\R^n$.

Abstract:
We study the empirical process indexed by F^2=\{f^2 : f \in F\}, where F is a class of mean-zero functions on a probability space. We present a sharp bound on the supremum of that process which depends on the \psi_1 diameter of the class F (rather than on the \psi_2 one) and on the complexity parameter \gamma_2(F,\psi_2). In addition, we present optimal bounds on the random diameters \sup_{f \in F} \max_{|I|=m} (\sum_{i \in I} f^2(X_i))^{1/2} using the same parameters. As applications, we extend several well known results in Asymptotic Geometric Analysis to any isotropic, log-concave ensemble on R^n.

Abstract:
Given a class of functions $F$ on a probability space $(\Omega,\mu)$, we study the structure of a typical coordinate projection of the class, defined by $\{(f(X_i))_{i=1}^N : f \in F\}$, where $X_1,...,X_N$ are independent, selected according to $\mu$. This notion of projection generalizes the standard linear random projection used in Asymptotic Geometric Analysis. We show that when $F$ is a subgaussian class of functions, a typical coordinate projection satisfies a Dvoretzky type theorem.