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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 400729 matches for " M Letsoalo "
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Point-of-care estimation of haemoglobin concentration in neonates and infants
E Schapkaitz, JN Mahlangu, M Letsoalo
South African Journal of Child Health , 2012,
Abstract: Objective. The HemoCue is a point-of-care analytical system for haemoglobin concentration (Hb) measurement. Point-of-care testing has been validated in hospitals and outpatient departments to assist with urgent patient management by providing rapid laboratory test results. Method. In this prospective study we compared the analytical performance of the HemoCue with that of the Advia 120 haematology analyser with regard to accuracy, precision and linearity in the measurement of Hb in neonates and infants. Results. Samples from 44 patients were analysed by both instruments and the results compared using difference plots. The mean Hb value for the HemoCue (11.8 g/dl; range 4.8 - 18.7) was comparable to that for the Advia (11.8 g/dl; range 5.2 - 19.2). The Bland-Altman difference plot revealed good agreement. Bias between the two methods was small and the imprecision was within acceptable limits. Hb measurement was linear in the range 4.8 - 20 g/dl. Conclusion. In neonates and infants, the diagnostic accuracy of the HemoCue point-of-care device is comparable with that of the Advia 120 analyser. In neonatal and paediatric units, where the volume of blood available is limited and turnaround time critical, an appropriately quality-assured HemoCue can replace standard haematology analysers in the measurement of Hb.
Disclosure, Multiple Sex Partners, and Consistent Condom Use among HIV Positive Adults on Antiretroviral Therapy in Johannesburg, South Africa  [PDF]
Sphiwe Madiba, Beverley Letsoalo
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2014.41008

Inconsistent condom use among persons on antiretroviral treatment (ART) is a major public health concern because of the risk of HIV transmission. This study examined the association between socio-demographic variables and knowing partners’ HIV status, multiple sex partners, and consistent condom use among 400 HIV-infected adults who had received ART for at least six months in Johannesburg, South Africa. The study used a cross-sectional survey and a structured interviewer administered questionnaire. Over half (n = 225, 56.3%) of participants were on ART for more than two years. Two thirds (n = 234, 63.2%) were aware of partner’s HIV status. Over a third (n = 136, 34.0%) reported having more than one sex partners. Three quarters (n = 279, 75.8%) reported consistent condom use with regular partner. Discussing HIV testing (aOR = 2.28, CI: 1.31 -3.95), awareness of partner’s HIV status (aOR = 2.59, CI: 1.50 -4.46), level of education (aOR = 0.64, CI: 0.42 -0.98), and duration on ART (aOR = 0.71, CI: 1.31 -3.95) were predictors for consistent condom use. Awareness of partner’s HIV status was associated with multiple partnership (aOR = 0.38, CI: 0.21 -0.66), living with partner (aOR = 4.75, CI: 2.86 -7.91), discussing HIV testing (aOR = 2.43, CI: 1.48 -3.99), and duration on ART (aOR = 2.04, CI: 1.43 -2.92). While gender (aOR = 5.68, CI: 3.46 -9.34), marital status (aOR = 0.44, CI: 0.25 -0.77), and awareness of partner’s HIV status (aOR = 0.52, CI: 0.30 -0.89) were associated with multiple partnerships. Risky sexual behaviours occurred in all types of partners and knowing partner’s HIV status was a predictor for consistent condom use with all types of partners. It is essential that HIV prevention strategies create an enabling environment for disclosure and reductions of risky sexual behaviours by HIV-infected persons on ART.

HIV Disclosure to Partners and Family among Women Enrolled in Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV Program: Implications for Infant Feeding in Poor Resourced Communities in South Africa
Sphiwe Madiba,Rosemary Letsoalo
Global Journal of Health Science , 2013, DOI: 10.5539/gjhs.v5n4p1
Abstract: The introduction of routine HIV counselling and testing (HCT) has increased the number of pregnant women being tested and receiving prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) interventions in South Africa. While many women may enroll in PMTCT, there are barriers that hinder the success of PMTCT programmes. The success of the PMTCT is dependent on the optimal utilization of PMTCT interventions which require the support of the woman’s partner, and other members of her family. We conducted focus groups interviews with 25 HIV-positive post-natal women enrolled in PMTCT, in the City of Tshwane, South Africa. The study explored HIV-positive status disclosure to partners and significant family members and assessed the effect of nondisclosure on exclusive infant feeding. Most women disclosed to partners while few disclosed to significant family members. Most women initiated mixed feeding practices as early as one month and reported that they were pressurized by the family to mix feed. Mixed feeding was common among women who had not disclosed their HIV-positive status to families, and women who had limited understanding of mother to child transmission of HIV. Women who disclosed to partners and family were supported to adhere to the feeding option of choice. Health providers have a critical role to play in developing interventions to support HIV pregnant women to disclose in order to avoid mixed feeding. Improving the quality of information provided to HIV-positive pregnant women during counselling will also reduce mixed feeding.
Animal husbandry in Moretele 1 of North-West Province: implications for veterinary training and research
S.S. Letsoalo,R.C. Krecek,C.A.J. Botha,X. Ngetu
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v71i2.686
Abstract: Little is known regarding the keeping of animals in the Moretele 1 area of North-West Province, South Africa. Therefore, the status and dynamics of animal husbandry, as well as a general assessment of the needs of animal owners in this area were researched. Results of the investigation will be used to make recommendations for improved veterinary extension servicing in the area. Semi-structured interviews, based on discussions with relevant stakeholders in the community and a resultant problem conceptualisation, were undertaken at 266 randomly selected households in 51 villages and centres in the area, after which the data was checked and verified before being captured and analysed. The findings reveal that within the field of veterinary extension delivery: 1) there is a demand for visual and written extension material, 2) the extension services must function where clients reside, 3) limitations in terms of infrastructure are present and should be addressed through partnerships and coordination amongst all the role-players in the Moretele 1 area, and 4) cattle and poultry are the most important of the animal species and should be the focus points of extension, but the need to curb zoonotic disease should not be disregarded. In this regard veterinary clinics, private veterinarians and other role-players should be used in partnership with extension workers. Lastly, the veterinary clinic is regarded as helpful in many respects by the community consulted and the service should be upgraded and made available to a wider client base, especially where private and state veterinarians are unavailable or too expensive in such resource-limited communities.
Sensitivity and specificity of typhoid fever rapid antibody tests for laboratory diagnosis at two sub-Saharan African sites
Keddy,Karen H; Sooka,Arvinda; Letsoalo,Maupi E; Hoyland,Greta; Chaignat,Claire Lise; Morrissey,Anne B; Crump,John A;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862011000900010
Abstract: objective: to evaluate three commercial typhoid rapid antibody tests for salmonella typhi antibodies in patients suspected of having typhoid fever in mpumalanga, south africa, and moshi, united republic of tanzania. methods: the diagnostic accuracy of cromotest? (semiquantitative slide agglutination and single tube widal test),tubex?and typhidot? was assessed against that of blood culture. performance was modelled for scenarios with pretest probabilities of 5% and 50%. findings: in total 92 patients enrolled: 53 (57.6%) from south africa and 39 (42.4%) from the united republic of tanzania. salmonella typhi was isolated from the blood of 28 (30.4%) patients. the semiquantitative slide agglutination and single-tube widal tests had positive predictive values (ppvs) of 25.0% (95% confidence interval, ci: 0.6-80.6) and 20.0% (95% ci: 2.5-55.6), respectively. the newer typhoid rapid antibody tests had comparable ppvs: tubex?, 54.1% (95% ci: 36.9-70.5); typhidot? igm, 56.7% (95% ci: 37.4-74.5); and typhidot? igg, 54.3% (95% ci: 36.6-71.2). for a pretest probability of 5%, ppvs were: tubex?, 11.0% (95% ci: 6.6-17.9); typhidot? igm, 9.1% (95% ci: 5.8-14.0); and typhidot? igg, 11.0% (6.3-18.4). for a pretest probability of 50%, ppvs were: tubex?, 70.2% (95% ci: 57.3-80.5); typhidot? igm, 65.6% (95% ci: 54.0-75.6); and typhidot? igg, 70.0% (95% ci: 56.0-81.1). conclusion: semiquantitative slide agglutination and single-tube widal tests performed poorly. tubex? and typhidot? may be suitable when pretest probability is high and blood cultures are unavailable, but their performance does not justify deployment in routine care settings in sub-saharan africa.
Study of Duct Characteristics Deduced from Low Latitude Ground Observations of Day-Time Whistler at Jammu  [PDF]
M. Altaf, M. M. Ahmad
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2013.33032

Propagation characteristics of low latitude whistler duct characteristics have been investigated based on day-time measurements at Jammu. The morphogical characteristics of low latitude whistlers are discussed and compared with characteristics of middle and high latitude whistlers. The Max. electron density (Nm) at the height of the ionosphere obtained from whistler dispersion comes out to be higher than that of the background which is in accordance with the characteristics of whistler duct. The equivalent width is found to be close to the satellite observations and the characteristics of whistler duct in low latitude ionosphere are similar to those in middle and high latitude ionosphere. The width of ducts estimated from the diffuseness of the whistler track observed during magnetic storm is found to lie in the range of 50 - 200 Km.

Review Article: Immobilized Molecules Using Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology  [PDF]
Magdy M. M. Elnashar
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2010.11008
Abstract: Immobilized molecules using biomaterials and nanobiotechnology is a very interesting topic that touching almost all aspects of our life. It uses the sciences of biology, chemistry, physics, materials engineering and computer science to develop instruments and products that are at the cutting edge of some of today’s most promising scientific frontiers. In this review article, the author based on his experience in this arena has tried to focus on some of the supports for im-mobilization; the most important molecules to be immobilized such as DNA, cells, enzymes, metals, polysaccharides, etc and their applications in medicine, food, drug, water treatment, energy and even in aerospace. He specified a special section on what is new in the arena of supports and technologies used in enzyme immobilization and finally a recommendation by the author for future work with a special attention to up-to-date references.
Using of the generalized special relativity (GSR) in estimating the neutrino masses to explain the conversion of electron neutrinos  [PDF]
M. H. M. Hilo
Natural Science (NS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2011.34044
Abstract: In this work the Generalized Special Relativity (GSR) is utilized to estimate masses of some elementary particles such as, neutrinos. These results are found to be in conformity with experimental and theoretical data. The results obtained may explain some physical phenomena, such as, conversion of neutrinos from type to type when solar neutrino reaches the Earth.
Postischemic Lower Extremity Wounds Treated with and without Negative Pressure Dressing  [PDF]
Surgical Science (SS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2012.37075
Abstract: Background: Vacuum-assisted dressing is a noninvasive closure system of the wound, which makes localized and controlled negative pressure. Its mechanical tension reduces edema, stimulates granulation tissue formation and angiogenesis, and prepares the wound bed for closure. In this study, a patient has been presented, who suffered from serious lower extremity wounds due to arterial emboli, one of her wounds has been treated with vacuum-assisted dressing and the other with conventional dressing to evaluate the efficacy of vacuum-assisted dressing in acute ischemic wounds. Methods: A 65-year-old female patient was admitted to the emergency clinic, due to complaint of severe pain in her right lower extremity which suggested an acute arterial occlusion. She immediately underwent an embolectomy operation; however, a few days later, severe ischemia on the leg and foot became appearant. All of the necrosis was sharply debrided under sterile conditions in the operating room, and then lower leg wound was covered with vacuum-assisted dressing, also calcaneal wound was dressed with silver sulphadiazine. Results: Eighteen days after the first dressing with negative pressure, distal leg wound became ready for closure, whereas, enough granulation tissue over the calcaneal area developed merely thirty-four days later. Calcaneal wound closed spontaneously within fifty-three days. Conclusions: When dealing with this experience, using the negative pressure dressing in patient with severe lower limb wounds following arterial emboli, accelerates wound healing by means of developing the granulation tissue, and rapidly prepares the wound for closure, so it may reduce the risk of amputation.
Laplace Transform Method for Unsteady Thin Film Flow of a Second Grade Fluid through a Porous Medium  [PDF]
M. Ali, M. Awais
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.53017

In this article, we have effectively used the Numerical Inversion of Laplace transform to study the time-dependent thin film flow of a second grade fluid flowing down an inclined plane through a porous medium. The solution to the governing equation is obtained by using the standard Laplace transform. However, to transform the obtained solutions from Laplace space back to the original space, we have used the Numerical Inversion of Laplace transform. Graphical results have been presented to show the effects of different parameters involved and to show how the fluid flow evolves with time.

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