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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 401012 matches for " M Kruger "
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Leukaemia in childhood
M Kruger
Continuing Medical Education , 2010,
Abstract: Leukaemia means white blood. It is a disease of the white blood cells and was first described by Virchow in 1845.1 Leukaemia can present as an acute disease, occurring more often in the younger age groups, or as a chronic disease, usually in the older age group. Acute leukaemia is rare, but about 1 in 2 000 people will develop the disease.2 The two acute forms in children are acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). The chronic form is chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML).2,3
The ethical approach to evidence-based medicine
M Kruger
South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition , 2010,
Abstract: This paper will explore the role of evidence-based medicine in ethical practice of health care professionals. It will also address some of its limitations and potential for negative impact on health care.
Complications, disease profile and histological yield from percutaneous renal biopsy under real-time US guidance: A retrospective analysis
M Kruger, E Loggenberg
South African Journal of Radiology , 2011,
Abstract: Objective. The objective of the study was to evaluate (i) the technique used at Universitas Hospital in comparison with other international centres also performing renal biopsies, (ii) the disease profile in patients undergoing renal biopsies, (iii) the complications experienced during and/or after the procedure, and (iv) the histological yield of the biopsies (amount of nephrons per biopsy taken) using this technique. Design. A retrospective descriptive analysis of all patients who underwent percutaneous renal biopsy under ultrasound (US) guidance at the Interventional Radiology Unit, Universitas Hospital, Bloemfontein, was undertaken for the period 1 January 2003 - 31 December 2008. Data obtained from the patients’ files and histology reports were statistically analysed. Results. A total of 112 patients qualified for inclusion in the study, all of whom had proof of renal failure and then had percutaneous renal biopsy performed under US guidance. The histology was diagnostic in 111 (99.1%) of the cases, with more than 5 nephrons present in 105 (93.5%) of the cases. Minor complications were found in 29 (25.8%) of the patients, but no major complications were noted. Primary renal disease was found in 67 (59.8%) of patients, and the renal pathology and failure in 45 (40.2%) of the patients were shown histologically to be owing to systemic disease. Conclusion. The technique utilised for performing percutaneous renal biopsy under US guidance at the Interventional Radiology Unit was shown to be safe, with a diagnostic histological yield comparable with international standards. A small majority or patients suffered primary renal disease in comparison with renal failure owing to systemic illness.
The Kingdom of God and those who have not heard the contents of Scripture
M.A. Kruger
In die Skriflig , 2003, DOI: 10.4102/ids.v37i4.485
Abstract: Article 2 of the Belgic Confession deals with the following issue: By what means does God make Himself known to us? The first part of Article 2 that echoes the teaching of Calvin via the Gallic Confession reads as follows: “We know Him [God] by two means: First by the creation, preservation and government of the universe, which is before our eyes as a most elegant book, wherein all creatures, great and small, are characters (read: letters – MAK) leading us to see clearly the invisible things of God, even his everlasting power and divinity, as the apostle Paul says (Rom. 1:20). All which things are sufficient to convince men and leave them without excuse.” This article of 1561 agrees with Calvin’s Institutes of 1559 (1, V, 1) and the early Reformed Confessions before the Canons of Dordt (1618-1619). It seems as though, after Calvin, a doctrine of insufficiency regarding this first means of revelation gradually developed. In the Westminster Confession of 1647 this means of understanding God’s revelation (i.e by receiving God’s communication through the creation, preservation and government of the universe) was explicitly interpreted as insufficient. Man’s inherent ability to know God by means of his own mental capacity, the so-called light of nature, that remained after the Fall, was also regarded as insufficient. The issue of whether the interpretation of Article 2A had not been changed in the first century after Calvin should therefore be seriously considered by Reformed churches. Furthermore, the church of today, situated in a world that experiences such phenomenal scientific and technological changes, should ask what relevance Article 2A of the the Belgic Confession has for the church and the world.
The effect of neighbouring klipspringer on the scent–marking behaviour of a group of klipspringer in the Kruger National Park
M. Kruger,J. du P. Bothma,J.M. Kruger
Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science , 2002, DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v45i1.17
Abstract: Both the male and the female klipspringer scent-mark their ranges. A pair of pre-orbital glands below the eyes produces the scent. The secretion is a sticky, substance that is deposited on a suitable twig. Klipspringer scent marks were surveyed in a specific klipspringer range in the Kruger National Park with the use of a strip transect method. The results showed that klipspringer in the Kruger National Park scent-mark more frequently on the boundaries of their ranges and also more on those sides where there is another resident klipspringer group.
Science support within the South African National Parks adaptive management framework
Judith M. Kruger,Sandra MacFadyen
Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science , 2011, DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v53i2.1010
Abstract: ‘Behind all good science is good science support.’ Implementing a successful strategic adaptive management (SAM) framework requires an effective science support structure. This structure must be effective in all areas of data management, starting with data collection and ending with the dissemination of knowledge, to facilitate timeous management decisions and associated actions. Accordingly, South African National Parks has embraced the use of various technologies to enable the effective implementation of a functional support structure. This paper described these technologies and discussed how they benefit the implementation of the SAM framework. Conservation implications: The importance of functional support structures in science and conservation management is frequently undervalued in a system where emphasis is placed on scientific products. In order to promote research and facilitate analysis, sound data management practices are essential to integrating knowledge into an organisation’s institutional memory. How to cite this article: Kruger, J.M. & MacFadyen, S., 2011, ‘Science support within the South African National Parks adaptive management framework’, Koedoe 53(2), Art. #1010, 7 pages. doi:10.4102/koedoe.v53i2.1010
Does loyalty pay? First-time versus repeat visitors at a national arts festival
M Kruger, M Saayman, SM Ellis
Southern African Business Review , 2010,
Abstract: The aim of this research is to segment visitors to one of South Africa’s biggest arts festivals based on the frequency of visits in order to distinguish between fi rst-time and repeat festival attendees. Both fi rst-time and repeat visitor groups play a fundamental role in the overall well-being and success of a festival, and festival organisers must strive to achieve a balance between fi rst-time and repeat visitors. Festival managers should therefore be aware of the festival attributes that diff erentiate between the fi rst-time visitor group and repeat visitors attending the festival. These diff erences include socio-demographics, behavioural characteristics, destination perception, perceived value and travel motivations. This article therefore compares fi rst-time and repeat visitors to the Klein Karoo National Arts Festival based on these categories. A questionnaire survey (N = 555) was conducted at the festival, and the findings indicate that there are signifi cant diff erences between fi rst-time and repeat visitors at the festival. First-time visitors spend a signifi cant amount of money during the festival and are mainly motivated by Relaxation and socialisation and Festival shows/productions ,while repeat visitors are loyal visitors who stay longer and spend more money, especially on tickets supporting the festival’s shows/productions. Results reveal that both fi rst-time and repeat visitor groups are important for the long-term sustainability of the festival. This method of segmentation has proved to be successful and is used as the basis for proposing managerial and marketing implications for the festival organisers.
Malnutrition in paediatric oncology patients: Malnutrition at the diagnosis of cancer is not an uncommon finding in childhood cancer in the developing world
J Schoeman, A Dannhauser, M Kruger
Continuing Medical Education , 2010,
False-positive HIV DNA PCR testing of infants: Implications in a changing epidemic
U Feucht, B Forsyth, M Kruger
South African Medical Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Aim. To examine false-positive HIV DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test results in children, and the potential implications for the paediatric HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods. A review was done of records over a 6-year period of children less than 18 months old at an HIV treatment site in South Africa, to evaluate those with an initial ‘false’-positive HIV DNA PCR result, but later proven to be HIV-uninfected with HIV DNA PCR and/or quantitative HIV RNA PCR tests. We calculated the influence of changing HIV transmission rates on predictive values (PV) of HIV DNA PCR tests in a hypothetical population of all HIV-exposed infants over a 1-year period. (Positive PV: proportion of individuals with a positive test with disease; negative PV: proportion of individuals with negative test and no disease). Results. Of 718 children, 40 with an initial positive HIV DNA PCR test were subsequently proven to be HIV-uninfected, resulting in a positive PV of 94.4%. Most (75%) uninfected children had PMTCT interventions and were asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic (77.5%). Calculations using a test specificity of 99.4%, as reported previously, show a decrease in positive PV using a single-test strategy from 98.6% at 30% HIV transmission rate, to 94.8% at 10% transmission, to 62.5% at 1% transmission. Reduction in test specificity further decreases positive PV at low transmission rates. Conclusion. Decreasing mother-to-child HIV transmission rates reduce the positive predictive value of a single HIV DNA PCR test result, necessitating adaptations to diagnostic algorithms to avoid misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment, especially with early initiation of antiretroviral therapy in asymptomatic infants.
Young breast cancer patients in the developing world: incidence, choice of surgical treatment and genetic factors
W M Kruger, J P Apffelstaedt
South African Family Practice , 2007,
Abstract: Carcinoma of the breast is the most common cause of cancer in women in Western society. Although breast cancer occurs predominantly in older premenopausal and postmenopausal women, it also occurs in young women. Literature defines breast cancer in a young woman (or early onset breast cancer) as occurring in a woman less than 35 years of age. A diagnosis of breast cancer in a young woman impacts severely on all aspects of her life, as well as on those around her. In Africa and other developing countries, the breast cancer burden is increasing and poor reporting and data availability may underestimate the exact numbers. The average age of diagnosis may be younger for women in developing countries than for women in developed countries. African patients are more likely to be premenopausal at diagnosis and the breast cancers tend to be more advanced at presentation than in other population groups in a country such as South Africa. The choice of surgical treatment in early onset cancer depends on various factors. Young age is an independent risk factor for worse outcome regardless of whether a patient had a mastectomy or breast conserving therapy. Breast conserving treatment is an option for treatment of breast cancer in a young patient given the correct indications and that the patient is fully informed about the high risk of local recurrence. The extent of genetic factors such as mutations on BRCA 1 and 2 (BReast CAncer 1 and 2) genes is still largely unknown on the continent of Africa, and much research still needs to be done. In the USA, only 5-10% of early onset breast cancers are attributable to mutations on BRCA 1 and 2 genes, and another 15-20% of early onset breast cancers are due to gene polimorphisms and environmental factors. General breast awareness among women of all age groups in Africa should be promoted. This includes how to perform self breast examinations and to seek urgent medical attention when a breast lump is discovered. In time, given the resources, good screening programmes on this continent to detect breast cancer at its earliest presentation would be the ideal. South African Family Practice Vol. 49 (9) 2007: pp. 18-24
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