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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 401279 matches for " M Kasiram "
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Exploring the bio-psychosocial effects of renal replacement therapy amongst patients in a state hospital in South Africa
B Harilall, M Kasiram
Health SA Gesondheid , 2011,
Abstract: This article described a qualitative study that investigated the bio-psychosocial effects of renal replacement therapy on patients in a state hospital in South Africa. The study aimed to investigate the level of debility experienced by patients undergoing haemodialysis (HD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and to explore how this debility affects their bio-psychosocial functioning. Respondents comprised a small sample of HD and CAPD patients. Using an interview schedule as the research tool allowed rich data to be uncovered. Content analysis and reducing data into themes facilitated data analysis. Although the study was not quantitative and thus did not allow for comparative analysis, themes regarding the levels of stress emerged amongst participants. The HD group voiced greater concerns regarding the degree of debility and psychosocial distress than the CAPD group. Governmental support for holistic kidney disease treatment and careful teaming of key role players to reduce the severity and far-reaching bio-psychosocial effects of HD and CAPD treatment are recommended. Hierdie artikel beskryf ‘n kwalitatiewe studie wat die bio-psigososiale effekte van niervervangingsterapie op pasi nte in ‘n staatshospitaal in Suid-Afrika ondersoek het. Die studie is gemotiveer deur die mate van debiliteit van pasi nte wat hemodialise (HD) en kontinue ambulatoriese peritoneale dialise (KAPD) ondergaan en wat o nskynlik verder strek as bloot die fisieke aspekte van die siekte en die behandeling daarvan. Respondente het bestaan uit ‘n klein groep HD- en KAPD-pasi nte. Deur ‘n onderhoudskedule as die navorsingsinstrument te gebruik, is ryk data onthul. Inhoudanalise en die redusering van data tot temas het die data-analise gefasiliteer. Alhoewel die studie nie kwantitatief was nie en vergelykende analise dus nie moontlik was nie, het temas van spanning onder die respondente voorgekom. Dit was duidelik uit die onderhoude met albei pasi ntgroepe en inhoudanalise dat die HD-groep meer bekommernis oor die graad van debiliteit en psigososiale stres getoon het as die KAPD-groep. Regeringsondersteuning vir holistiese nierbehandeling en versigtige samestelling van ‘n span sleutelrolspelers vir die vermindering van die erns en verreikende gevolge van HD en KAPD word voorgestel.
Social exclusion of students with visual impairments at a tertiary institution in KwaZulu-Natal
M Kasiram, R Subrayen
South African Family Practice , 2013,
Abstract: Objectives: People with visual impairment experience exclusion and marginalisation from family, mainstream school, the community and university. The experience of social exclusion is multistructural, multidimensional and complex. This article is based on a study that aimed to describe the social exclusion of students with visual impairment at a tertiary institution where the authors are employed. Design: The study was qualitative. It used an exploratory design to provide compelling data on the insider perspectives of students. Setting and subjects: Fifteen students participated in the study, of whom nine were men and six women. Eleven students were partially sighted and four were blind. All the subjects were from the university where the authors are employed. Results: The study established that participants’ exclusion from access to opportunities and development left them psychologically, socially, financially and emotionally scarred. Conclusion: The study established that visual impairment and poverty were related and that women experienced oppression on two counts. The first was because of their disabled status and the second was oppression by other female students at the university. Recommendations are for changes within families, schools, communities and universities.
Assessing and serving families and communities responsibly: challenges posed in an urban, marginalised setting
C Engelbrecht, M Kasiram
South African Family Practice , 2007,
Abstract: Service provision to families and communities has long been recognised as a complex undertaking involving a multiplicity of role players and systems of care. Systems theory and ecological theory provide useful frameworks for understanding and servicing families and communities, yet there is a clear absence of literature and research on how to converge microsystemic with macrosystemic interventions. Using Rojano\'s1 community family therapy model, which is applicable to South American communities, and Kasiram and Oliphant\'s2 strategies for changing traditional family therapy to suit broader contexts in South Africa, the authors used developmental research within a qualitative framework to develop an indigenous community family therapy model in an urban setting in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The authors utilised nursing students as fieldworkers and service providers in this study. The research process involved several steps: a state-of-the-art review of the family and community, achieved through an assessment of the family and community through community profiling and an epidemiological study of the community; family assessment of families with one child under the age of five years; best practice and model development to intervene at the family and community levels, achieved with the help of community and school meetings and workshops to identify and prioritise needs and problems, followed by bio-psychosocial interventions; refining the model achieved by an evaluation of the interventions through report assessment and on-site assessment and recommending model adjustments based on the evaluation. In designing a community family therapy model, the state-of-the-art review of community needs established several core issues requiring services/interventions. These were problems relating to HIV/AIDS; a lack of knowledge of the immunisation programme in South Africa and of the Road to Health chart; teenage pregnancy and its relationship to risky behaviours, HIV/AIDS, poverty and crime; and a lack of communication within the family. The development of the model involved determining interventions with families and the community, using macrosystemic approaches, such as community meetings and workshops, where priorities were established and joint strategies were planned to address the identified problems. Individual and small-group discussions enriched the understanding of problems/needs, which, combined with macrosystemic approaches such as media coverage and community meetings and workshop/events, worked in synchrony to effectively assess and then service the families and communities. The goal of developing a community family therapy model was achieved. Combining microsystemic and macrosystemic approaches to assess and serve families and communities is particularly helpful in the face of apathy. However, once momentum is achieved in securing a community spirit, it needs to be sustained or else it is lost and may require more effort to reclaim in the future
The development of an instrument to measure women’s experience of an aerobic dance class
CJ Patel, MI Kasiram
Health SA Gesondheid , 2011,
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to pilot an instrument to measure women’s experience in an aerobic dance class with regard to their descriptions of the general atmosphere, the music, the dance moves and routines, and the instructor. In addition, the participants were asked to rate a list of exercise benefits in order of personal importance. A sample of 27 women, ranging in age from 25 to 60 years participated in this pilot study. The women responded with positive endorsements for all aspects of the overall dance experience, but their most affirming descriptions revolved around the instructor. There was an almost unanimous agreement amongst the participants about the importance of the instructor’s role in their experience of the class. Their responses to the open‐ended questions supported these sentiments. The mental and physical benefits were rated as important for most of the women whilst a much lower percentage rated the social benefit as important. Two items in the semantic differential posed problems but the instrument showed promise in eliciting key aspects of women’s experience in an aerobics dance class. Die doel van die studie was om ‘n instrument daar te stel wat die ervaring van vroue in ‘n fiksheidsdans‐klas meet: hulle ervaring ten opsigte van die algemene atmosfeer en die musiek, asook hulle opinie oor die dans‐roetines en ‐bewegings en die instrukteur. Die deelnemers is ook gevra om ‘n lys te maak van die voordele van oefening met verwysing na hulleself. ‘n Steekproef van 27 vroue tussen die ouderdomme van 25 tot 60 jaar is in hierdie loodsstudie gebruik. Die vroue het positief gereageer op alle aspekte van die algehele dansondervinding, maar hul mees positiewe ervaring was gesentreer om die instrukteur. Verder was hulle opinie rakende die belangrikheid van die instrukteur se rol in hul ondervinding van die klas byna dieselfde. Hulle antwoorde op die oop‐einde vrae het hierdie sentimente ondersteun. Die psigiese en fisiese voordele is as die belangrikste deur die meeste vroue aangedui, terwyl ‘n veel laer persentasie die sosiale voordeel as belangrik beskou het. Afgesien van twee problematiese items in die semantiese differensiasie, het die instrument belofte getoon om sleutelaspekte van vroue se persepsies van ‘n fiksheidsdansklas te identifiseer.
Treatment for Substance Abuse in the 21st century: A South African Perspective
MI Kasiram, A Jeewa
South African Family Practice , 2008,
Abstract: Background: It has become increasingly difficult to assist an individual to maintain long-term recovery from substance abuse. Irre-spective of which treatment centre the individual has been to, none guarantees a successful recovery. This is frustrating to individuals, their families and service providers. The reason for this trend is not absolutely clear. Many treatment centres are rigid in the use of their programmes and depend on aftercare to improve recovery rates.1 Service providers are increasingly acknowledging that there is no one “best treatment” option, as there are too many variations and complexities in reaching the goal of freedom from dependence and social reintegration.2 Hence the focus of this article is on research that has been undertaken to identify the strengths and weak- nesses of the different models/programmes used in different residential treatment centres in South Africa with a view to recommen-ding changes to accommodate such complexities and sustain recovery. Methods: Qualitative methodology was used to assess the strengths and weaknesses of programmes at three key residential rehabilitation centres in South Africa. The sample comprised both patients and service providers at each centre and the research instrument was focus group discussions with the former and individual, semi-structured interviews with the latter. Non-probability criterion sampling was employed to secure the participation of the required categories3 of treatment centres, and probability sampling was used thereafter, based on availability of respondents (both patients and staff) and easy access to them. Results: Despite tradition dictating a fairly rigid programme, most of the centres' staff and patients requested attention to the full biopsychosocial self of the patient, instead of being unidimensional such as paying more attention to one aspect at the expense of another such as to the physical as in the case of the disease model. A key finding was the need for a paradigm shift away from the disease model, with its accompanying helplessness, to that of a holistic approach that emphasises empowerment, embraces alternative strategies such as massage, sauna for detoxification, dietary improvements and physical activity, and uses language that is consistent with power and control. The centres also employed a multidisciplinary team, consistent with a focus on the “mind, body and spirit”, albeit requesting additional staff to comprehensively and effectively address all aspects of the holistic approach. Thus, they accorded importance to the spiritual dimension of the patient, although this did not always translate to action or programme content. Conclusion: The weakness of existing programmes was clearly found to lie in a unidimensional philosophy and a programme that was repetitive and unchanging. Staff and students identified the need for more holistic, comprehensive and creative approaches. These had to complement traditional strategies, rather than replac
Exploring the bio-psychosocial effects of renal replacement therapy amongst patients in a state hospital in South Africa
Madhubala Kasiram,Bharita Harilall
Health SA Gesondheid , 2011, DOI: 10.4102/hsag.v16i1.497
Abstract: This article described a qualitative study that investigated the bio-psychosocial effects of renal replacement therapy on patients in a state hospital in South Africa. The study aimed to investigate the level of debility experienced by patients undergoing haemodialysis (HD)and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and to explore how this debility affects their bio-psychosocial functioning. Respondents comprised a small sample of HD and CAPD patients. Using an interview schedule as the research tool allowed rich data to be uncovered. Content analysis and reducing data into themes facilitated data analysis. Although the study was not quantitative and thus did not allow for comparative analysis,themes regarding the levels of stress emerged amongst participants. The HD group voiced greater concerns regarding the degree of debility and psychosocial distress than the CAPD group. Governmental support for holistic kidney disease treatment and careful teaming of key role players to reduce the severity and far-reaching bio-psychosocial effects of HD and CAPD treatment are recommended. Opsomming Hierdie artikel beskryf ‘n kwalitatiewe studie wat die bio-psigososiale effekte van niervervangingsterapie op pasi nte in ‘n staatshospitaal in Suid-Afrika ondersoek het. Die studie is gemotiveer deur die mate van debiliteit van pasi nte wat hemodialise (HD) en kontinue ambulatoriese peritoneale dialise (KAPD) ondergaan en wat o nskynlik verder strek as bloot die fisieke aspekte van die siekte en die behandeling daarvan. Respondente het bestaan uit ‘n klein groep HD- en KAPD-pasi nte. Deur ‘n onderhoudskedule as die navorsingsinstrument te gebruik, is ryk data onthul. Inhoudanalise en die redusering van data tot temas het die data-analise gefasiliteer. Alhoewel die studie nie kwantitatief was nie en vergelykende analise dus nie moontlik was nie, het temas van spanning onder die respondente voorgekom. Dit was duidelik uit die onderhoude met albei pasi ntgroepe en inhoudanalise dat die HD-groep meer bekommernis oor die graad van debiliteit en psigososiale stres getoon het as die KAPD-groep.Regeringsondersteuning vir holistiese nierbehandeling en versigtige samestelling van ‘n span sleutelrolspelers vir die vermindering van die erns en verreikende gevolge van HD en KAPD word voorgestel.How to cite this article: Harilall, B. & Kasiram,M., 2011, ‘Exploring the bio-psychosocial effects of renal replacement therapy amongst patients in a state hospital in South Africa’,Health SA Gesondheid 16(1), Art. #497, 10 pages. doi:10.4102/hsag.v16i1.497
The development of an instrument to measure women’s experience of an aerobic dance class
Cynthia J. Patel,Madhubala I. Kasiram
Health SA Gesondheid , 2011, DOI: 10.4102/hsag.v16i1.523
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to pilot an instrument to measure women’s experience in an aerobic dance class with regard to their descriptions of the general atmosphere, the music, the dance moves and routines, and the instructor. In addition, the participants were asked to rate a list of exercise benefits in order of personal importance. A sample of 27 women, ranging in age from 25 to 60 years participated in this pilot study. The women responded with positive endorsements for all aspects of the overall dance experience, but their most affirming descriptions revolved around the instructor. There was an almost unanimous agreement amongst the participants about the importance of the instructor’s role in their experience of the class. Their responses to the open‐ended questions supported these sentiments. The mental and physical benefits were rated as important for most of the women whilst a much lower percentage rated the social benefit as important. Two items in the semantic differential posed problems but the instrument showed promise in eliciting key aspects of women’s experience in an aerobics dance class. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om ‘n instrument daar te stel wat die ervaring van vroue in ‘n fiksheidsdans‐klas meet: hulle ervaring ten opsigte van die algemene atmosfeer en die musiek, asook hulle opinie oor die dans‐roetines en ‐bewegings en die instrukteur. Die deelnemers is ook gevra om ‘n lys te maak van die voordele van oefening met verwysing na hulleself. ‘n Steekproef van 27 vroue tussen die ouderdomme van 25 tot 60 jaar is in hierdie loodsstudie gebruik. Die vroue het positief gereageer op alle aspekte van die algehele dansondervinding, maar hul mees positiewe ervaring was gesentreer om die instrukteur. Verder was hulle opinie rakende die belangrikheid van die instrukteur se rol in hul ondervinding van die klas byna dieselfde. Hulle antwoorde op die oop‐einde vrae het hierdie sentimente ondersteun. Die psigiese en fisiese voordele is as die belangrikste deur die meeste vroue aangedui, terwyl ‘n veel laer persentasie die sosiale voordeel as belangrik beskou het. Afgesien van twee problematiese items in die semantiese differensiasie, het die instrument belofte getoon om sleutelaspekte van vroue se persepsies van ‘n fiksheidsdansklas te identifiseer. How to cite this article: Patel, C.J. & Kasiram, M.I., 2011, ‘The development of an instrument to measure women’s experience of an aerobic dance class’, Health SA Gesondheid 16(1), Art. #523, 7 pages. doi:10.4102/hsag.v16i1.523
Study of Duct Characteristics Deduced from Low Latitude Ground Observations of Day-Time Whistler at Jammu  [PDF]
M. Altaf, M. M. Ahmad
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2013.33032
Abstract:

Propagation characteristics of low latitude whistler duct characteristics have been investigated based on day-time measurements at Jammu. The morphogical characteristics of low latitude whistlers are discussed and compared with characteristics of middle and high latitude whistlers. The Max. electron density (Nm) at the height of the ionosphere obtained from whistler dispersion comes out to be higher than that of the background which is in accordance with the characteristics of whistler duct. The equivalent width is found to be close to the satellite observations and the characteristics of whistler duct in low latitude ionosphere are similar to those in middle and high latitude ionosphere. The width of ducts estimated from the diffuseness of the whistler track observed during magnetic storm is found to lie in the range of 50 - 200 Km.

Review Article: Immobilized Molecules Using Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology  [PDF]
Magdy M. M. Elnashar
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2010.11008
Abstract: Immobilized molecules using biomaterials and nanobiotechnology is a very interesting topic that touching almost all aspects of our life. It uses the sciences of biology, chemistry, physics, materials engineering and computer science to develop instruments and products that are at the cutting edge of some of today’s most promising scientific frontiers. In this review article, the author based on his experience in this arena has tried to focus on some of the supports for im-mobilization; the most important molecules to be immobilized such as DNA, cells, enzymes, metals, polysaccharides, etc and their applications in medicine, food, drug, water treatment, energy and even in aerospace. He specified a special section on what is new in the arena of supports and technologies used in enzyme immobilization and finally a recommendation by the author for future work with a special attention to up-to-date references.
Using of the generalized special relativity (GSR) in estimating the neutrino masses to explain the conversion of electron neutrinos  [PDF]
M. H. M. Hilo
Natural Science (NS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2011.34044
Abstract: In this work the Generalized Special Relativity (GSR) is utilized to estimate masses of some elementary particles such as, neutrinos. These results are found to be in conformity with experimental and theoretical data. The results obtained may explain some physical phenomena, such as, conversion of neutrinos from type to type when solar neutrino reaches the Earth.
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