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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 401491 matches for " M Benno Blumenthal "
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NVODS and the Development of OPeNDAP
Peter Cornillon,Jennifer Adams,M. Benno Blumenthal,Eric Chassignet
Oceanography , 2009,
Abstract: The National Oceanographic Partnership Program (NOPP) funded a project to develop the foundation for a National Virtual Ocean Data System (NVODS) that has resulted in a robust data access framework for the exchange of oceanographic data (the Open source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol, or OPeNDAP) and a broad community of ocean data providers that remains vigorous and growing five years after NOPP funding ended. The project produced a number of "lessons learned" related to the design and implementation of distributed data systems that can inform other related efforts. These lessons are presented along with a brief overview of OPeNDAP and summaries of a number of projects that depend on OPeNDAP for data distribution.
Web-based climate information resources for malaria control in Africa
Emily K Grover-Kopec, M Benno Blumenthal, Pietro Ceccato, Tufa Dinku, Judy A Omumbo, Stephen J Connor
Malaria Journal , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-5-38
Abstract: Malaria remains a major public health threat to the African continent and its control is critical to achieving the Millennium Development Goals in this region. The recently published Global Strategic Plan for Roll Back Malaria 2005–2015 has stated that "Six out of eight Millennium Development Goals can only be reached with effective malaria control in place" [1]. The greatest burden of malaria in Africa is born by populations in regions where the disease pathogen is perennially present in the community. In these regions, the environment is conducive to interactions between the Anopheles mosquito, malaria parasites and human hosts because they contain surface water in which mosquitoes can lay their eggs, humid conditions which facilitate adult mosquito life spans of adequate length, and relative warmth which allows both the mosquito and the malaria parasite to develop rapidly. In addition, housing quality is generally poor and offers little protection from human-mosquito interaction. Those most vulnerable to endemic malaria are young children (<5 years of age) who have yet to acquire disease immunity, pregnant women, whose immunity is reduced, and non-immune migrants or travelers.Epidemic malaria tends to occur along the geographical margins of the endemic regions, when the conditions supporting the equilibrium between the human, parasite and mosquito vector populations are disturbed. This leads to a sharp but temporary increase in disease incidence. More than 124 million Africans live in such areas and experience epidemics causing around 12 million malaria episodes and up to 310,000 deaths annually [2]. In these regions, an individual's exposure to malaria is infrequent and, therefore, little acquired immunity to this life threatening disease is developed. All age groups are, therefore, vulnerable to epidemic malaria [3]. The development of an online product that supports epidemic risk monitoring has been previously reported [4].While economic development has played
An online operational rainfall-monitoring resource for epidemic malaria early warning systems in Africa
Emily Grover-Kopec, Mika Kawano, Robert W Klaver, Benno Blumenthal, Pietro Ceccato, Stephen J Connor
Malaria Journal , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-4-6
Abstract: Rainfall is one of the major factors triggering epidemics in warm semi-arid and desert-fringe areas. Explosive epidemics often occur in these regions after excessive rains and, where these follow periods of drought and poor food security, can be especially severe. Consequently, rainfall monitoring forms one of the essential elements for the development of integrated Malaria Early Warning Systems for sub-Saharan Africa, as outlined by the World Health Organization.The Roll Back Malaria Technical Resource Network on Prevention and Control of Epidemics recommended that a simple indicator of changes in epidemic risk in regions of marginal transmission, consisting primarily of rainfall anomaly maps, could provide immediate benefit to early warning efforts. In response to these recommendations, the Famine Early Warning Systems Network produced maps that combine information about dekadal rainfall anomalies, and epidemic malaria risk, available via their Africa Data Dissemination Service. These maps were later made available in a format that is directly compatible with HealthMapper, the mapping and surveillance software developed by the WHO's Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response Department. A new monitoring interface has recently been developed at the International Research Institute for Climate Prediction (IRI) that enables the user to gain a more contextual perspective of the current rainfall estimates by comparing them to previous seasons and climatological averages. These resources are available at no cost to the user and are updated on a routine basis.It is estimated that more than 110 million Africans live in areas prone to epidemics of malaria. Populations in these areas are infrequently challenged by malaria and, therefore, do not fully develop acquired immunity. As a result, the disease remains life threatening to all age groups. The impact of malaria epidemics could be greatly reduced by timely detection or, ideally, by prediction and prevention through
Translational independence between overlapping genes for a restriction endonuclease and its transcriptional regulator
Meenakshi K Kaw, Robert M Blumenthal
BMC Molecular Biology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2199-11-87
Abstract: Expression levels of lacZ translational fusions to pvuIIR or pvuIIC were determined, with the native pvuII promoter having been replaced by one not controlled by C.PvuII. In-frame pvuIIC insertions did not substantially decrease either pvuIIC-lacZ or pvuIIR-lacZ expression (with or without C.PvuII provided in trans). In contrast, a frameshift mutation in pvuIIC decreased expression markedly in both fusions, but mRNA measurements indicated that this decrease could be explained by transcriptional polarity. Expression of pvuIIR-lacZ was unaffected when the pvuIIC stop codon was moved 21 nt downstream from its WT location, or 25 or 40 bp upstream of the pvuIIR initiation codon. Disrupting the putative hairpins had no significant effects.The initiation of translation of pvuIIR appears to be independent of that for pvuIIC. Direct tests failed to detect regulatory rules for either gene overlap or the putative hairpins. Thus, at least during balanced growth, transcriptional control appears to be sufficiently robust for proper regulation of this RM system.Bacterial type II restriction-modification (RM) systems are abundant in both the bacterial and the archaeal worlds [1]. Many play important roles in defense against phage [2], but they also appear to modulate horizontal gene transfer [3], and to act as "selfish" toxin-antitoxin addiction modules [4,5]. Type II RM systems generally specify separate DNA methyltransferase (MTase) and restriction endonuclease (REase) proteins [6]. Many type II RM systems are on mobile genetic elements, but even chromosomal RM systems can move into new host cells via transduction, transformation or conjugation [7-10].PvuII is a plasmid-borne type II RM system from the Gram-negative bacterium Proteus vulgaris [11]. The MTase (M.PvuII) modifies the cognate DNA sequence CAGCTG by methylating the internal cytosine [12], generating N4-methylcytosine [13]; while the REase (R.PvuII) cleaves the central GpC if this sequence is unmethylated [13-15]. The
A Classification of Collaborative Management Methods
Dana M. Blumenthal,Jean-Luc Jannink
Ecology and Society , 2000,
Abstract: Collaboration among multiple stakeholders can be crucial to the success of natural resource management. In recent years, a wide variety of methods have been developed to facilitate such collaboration. Because these methods are relatively new and come from different disciplines, little attention has been paid to drawing comparisons among them. Thus, it is very difficult for potential users to sort through the increasingly large literature regarding such methods. We suggest the use of a consistent framework for comparing collaborative management methods, and develop such a framework based on five criteria: participation, institutional analysis, simplification of the natural resource, spatial scale, and stages in the process of natural resource management. We then apply this framework to six of the more commonly cited methods: soft systems analysis, adaptive management, ecosystem management, agroecosystem analysis, rapid rural appraisal and participatory rural appraisal. Important differences among methods were found in prescriptions for stakeholder participation, institutional analysis, and simplification of complex natural resources. Despite such differences, the methods are surprisingly similar overall. All methods are applicable at the scale of a watershed. Most of the methods include techniques for understanding complex natural resources, but not complex social institutions, and most include monitoring and assessment as well as planning. Our comparisons suggest that, although much work has been done to improve collaborative management of natural resources, both in the development of collaborative methods and in related social science disciplines, the results have not been shared among disciplines. Further organization and classification of this work is therefore necessary to make it more accessible to both practitioners and students of collaborative management.
Neurodegeneration in Drop-Dead Mutant Drosophila melanogaster Is Associated with the Respiratory System but Not with Hypoxia
Christine Lynn Sansone, Edward M. Blumenthal
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068032
Abstract: Mutations in the gene drop-dead (drd) cause diverse phenotypes in adult Drosophila melanogaster including early lethality, neurodegeneration, tracheal defects, gut dysfunction, reduced body mass, and female sterility. Despite the identification of the drd gene itself, the causes of early lethality and neurodegeneration in the mutant flies remain unknown. To determine the pattern of drd expression associated with the neurodegenerative phenotype, knockdown of drd with various Gal4 drivers was performed. Early adult lethality and neurodegeneration were observed upon knockdown of drd in the tracheal system with two independent insertions of the breathless-Gal4 driver and upon knockdown in the tracheal system and elsewhere with the DJ717-Gal4 driver. Surprisingly, rescue of drd expression exclusively in the tracheae in otherwise mutant flies rescued the neurodegenerative phenotype but not adult lethality. Gut dysfunction, as measured by defecation rate, was not rescued in these flies, and gut function appeared normal upon tracheal-specific knockdown of drd. Finally, the hypothesis that tracheal dysfunction in drd mutants results in hypoxia was tested. Hypoxia-sensitive reporter transgenes (LDH-Gal4 and LDH-LacZ) were placed on a drd mutant background, but enhanced expression of these reporters was not observed. In addition, manipulation of drd expression in the tracheae did not affect expression of the hypoxia-induced genes LDH, tango, and similar. Overall, these results indicate that there are at least two causes of adult lethality in drd mutants, that gut dysfunction and neurodegeneration are independent phenotypes, and that neurodegeneration is associated with tracheal expression of drd but not with hypoxia.
Metastatic malignant melanoma arising in the ovary: A case report and review of the literature  [PDF]
Amani Harris, Norman Blumenthal
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2013.37A1002

Introduction: This article is a case report of metastatic malignant melanoma to the ovary and a review of the current literature on recommendations for diagnosis and management. Background: Metastatic involvement of the ovary from malignant melanoma is relatively uncommon and represents a diagnostic challenge. There are 74 cases of malignant melanoma metastasing to the ovary reported in the English literature. Malignant melanoma in the ovary is often found at autopsy, as a part of an extensive multisystemic spread of the disease and is rarely diagnosed during life. Most cases reported in the literature thus far occurred in women of reproductive age. Commonly, the history of a primary cutaneous melanoma lesion is remote, and in some cases, absent [1]. Most cases are associated with disseminated disease and carried a dismal prognosis [2].

Mastering style – Effects of explicit style-related information, art knowledge and affective state on appreciation of abstract paintings
Psychology Science , 2006,
Abstract: Recently, Leder, Belke, Oeberst, and Augustin (2004) have proposed a model of aesthetic experience in which stylistic processing is central for aesthetic experiences of art. Here we present an empirical study which investigates predictions derived from the model. Using modern and contemporary abstract paintings we investigated how their appreciation is affected by style information generalized onto new exemplars of paintings by the same artists. In accordance with the model’s predictions, effects of style processing depend on the affective states of the viewers as well as their ability for cognitive mastery, measured by amount of expertise. The experiment reveals that the examination of style-related cognitive processes is important to psychologically understand the affective, cognitive and presumably self-rewarding aspects of aesthetic experiences.
Potential of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Antagonist Compounds as Therapeutic Agents for a Wide Range of Cancer Types
Jack D. Burton,David M. Goldenberg,Rosalyn D. Blumenthal
PPAR Research , 2008, DOI: 10.1155/2008/494161
Abstract: PPAR is a therapeutic target that has been exploited for treatment of type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with agonist drugs. Since PPAR is expressed by many hematopoietic, mesodermal and epithelial cancers, agonist drugs were tested and shown to have both preclinical and clinical anticancer activities. While preclinical activity has been observed in many cancer types, clinical activity has been observed only in pilot and phase II trials in liposarcoma and prostate cancer. Most studies address agonist compounds, with substantially fewer reports on anticancer effects of PPAR antagonists. In cancer model systems, some effects of PPAR agonists were not inhibited by PPAR antagonists, suggesting noncanonical or PPAR-independent mechanisms. In addition, PPAR antagonists, such as T0070907 and GW9662, have exhibited antiproliferative effects on a broad range of hematopoietic and epithelial cell lines, usually with greater potency than agonists. Also, additive antiproliferative effects of combinations of agonist plus antagonist drugs were observed. Finally, there are preclinical in vivo data showing that antagonist compounds can be administered safely, with favorable metabolic effects as well as antitumor effects. Since PPAR antagonists represent a new drug class that holds promise as a broadly applicable therapeutic approach for cancer treatment, it is the subject of this review.
Weed Control as a Rationale for Restoration: The Example of Tallgrass Prairie
Dana M. Blumenthal,Nicholas R. Jordan,Elizabeth L. Svenson
Ecology and Society , 2003,
Abstract: The potential weed control benefits of ecological restoration are rarely cited and largely unstudied. Nevertheless, the nature of many restoration target communities, i.e., diverse, late-successional communities, suggests that restoration may control weeds and that the invasibility of plant communities may decrease with both diversity and successional age. Given the high cost of weed control in nonagricultural land, weed control benefits could be a strong incentive for restoration efforts. We examined the cumulative effects of restoration on weed populations 7 yr after tallgrass prairie restoration on a Minnesota sand plain. The numbers and biomass of volunteer weeds were compared among randomized plots with (1) no restoration, (2) prairie seed addition, and (3) site preparation plus prairie seed addition. After 7 yr, comparison with unrestored sites showed that site preparation plus prairie seed addition had reduced weed biomass by 94%, total weed stem number by 76%, and the stem numbers of four individual weed species. Prairie seed addition alone had no significant effect on weed biomass but reduced weed stem number by 45%. Restoration also reduced available light, which is consistent with the hypothesis that restoration may limit weed invasion by decreasing resource availability.
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