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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 167947 matches for " Lynne E. Pinkerton "
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Thyroxine and Free Thyroxine Levels in Workers Occupationally Exposed to Inorganic Lead
Michael L. Bledsoe, Lynne E. Pinkerton, Sharon Silver, James A. Deddens and Raymond E. Biagini
Environmental Health Insights , 2012, DOI: 10.4137/EHI.S7193
Abstract: Background: The effects of lead exposure on thyroid function are unclear. Methods: Serum thyroxine (T4) was evaluated among 137 lead-exposed workers and 83 non-exposed workers. Free thyroxine (FT4) was evaluated among a subset of these workers. Exposure metrics included blood lead level (BLL), which reflects recent exposure, zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), a marker of intermediate-duration lead exposure, exposure duration, and estimated cumulative exposure. Multiple linear regression results were adjusted for age, race, and current smoking status. Results: Mean BLLs were 38.9 μg/dL in lead exposed workers and 2.1 μg/dL in non-exposed workers. The adjusted mean T4 and FT4 concentrations among exposed and non-exposed workers were similar. While T4 was not significantly related to any of the exposure metrics, FT4 was inversely related to the logged values of both exposure duration and cumulative exposure, but not to ZPP or BLL. Conclusions: The findings suggest that FT4 levels may be related to long-term lead exposure.
Thyroxine and Free Thyroxine Levels in Workers Occupationally Exposed to Inorganic Lead
Michael L. Bledsoe,Lynne E. Pinkerton,Sharon Silver,James A. Deddens
Environmental Health Insights , 2011,
Effect of Hot Water Extract from Agaricus Blazei Murill on Chemotaxis of Neutrophils  [PDF]
Mayuko Miyagawa, Yuriko Hirono, Ayaka Kawazoe, Eri Shigeyoshi, Masahito Nose, Masaaki Sakura, K. E. Pinkerton, Minoru Takeuchi
Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications (JCDSA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jcdsa.2013.31A003

Hot water extract from the edible Brazilian mushroom, Agaricus Blazei Murill (ABM), is used for both traditional and alternative medicine. ABM is reported to stimulate anti-tumor, anti-infection, and immune activity. However, there are few reports of how ABM affects neutrophils. Therefore, in this study, we examined the effect of hot water ABM extract on neutrophil migration, phagocytosis, and reactive oxygen species production using neutrophils from guinea pig. Migratory direction and velocity as indicators of chemotactic activity of neutrophils were significantly (p < 0.001) increased at concentration of 50 and 100 mg/ml in ABM extract compared with control. Phagocytic activity of neutrophil was significantly (p < 0.01) increased at concentration of 5 mg/ml in ABM extract compared with control. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS: H2O2 or ) by neutrophils was significantly (p < 0.01) increased at concentration of 5 mg/ml in ABM extract compared with control. These results suggest that enhancement in neutrophil chemotactic activity, phagocytic activity and ROS production are mechanisms by which ABM extract inhibits bacterial infection in the skin and dermatitis.

Distributed Intelligence: Overview of the Field and its Application in Multi-robot Systems
Lynne E Parker
Journal of Physical Agents , 2008,
Abstract: This article overviews the concepts of distributed intelligence, outlining the motivations for studying this eld of research. First, common systems of distributed intelligence are classi ed based upon the types of interactions exhibited, since the type of interaction has relevance to the solution paradigm to be used. We outline three common paradigms for distributed intelligence — the bioinspired paradigm, the organizational and social paradigm, and the knowledge-based, ontological paradigm — and give examples of how these paradigms can be used in multi-robot systems. We then look at a common problem in multi- robot systems — that of task allocation — and show how the solution approach to this problem is very different depending upon the paradigm chosen for abstracting the problem. Our conclusion is that the paradigms are not interchangeable, but rather the selection of the appropriate paradigm is dependent upon the speci c constraints and requirements of the application of interest. Further work is needed to provide guidance to the system designer on selecting the proper abstraction, or paradigm, for a given problem.crew, the landing signal of cers, ordnancemen, plane handlers, etc. As humans have clearly learned, these teams can very ef ciently solve complex tasks by making use of specialists who work together productively. The objective of distributed intelligence in computer science (and related elds) is to generate systems of software agents, robots, sensors, computer systems, and even people and ani- mals (such as search and rescue dogs) that can work together with the same level of ef ciency and expertise as human teams. Clearly, such systems could address many important challenges, including not only urban search and rescue, but also military network-centric operations, gaming technologies and simulation, computer security, transportation and logistics, and many others. As a research topic, the study of distributed intelligence
Alveolar macrophage functions and DNA damage in cigarette smoke-exposed mice  [PDF]
Yuriko Hirono, Yasuyuki Tanahashi, Kazuma Sasaki, Kenjiro Konno, Yuki Shirai, Kengo Kobayashi, Azusa Someya, Sumire Inaga, Masaaki Sakura, Kent E. Pinkerton, Minoru Takeuchi
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2013.48A3001

Alveolar macrophages (AM) are known to play an essential role in lung defense through their ability to remove the foreign matters reaching the lung alveoli. Cigarette smoke (CS) is a critical risk factor for many lung diseases. CS is inhaled into the lung by respiretion and affects AM. It has been previously reported that CS induces inhibition of cytokine production, cell surface receptor expression and antigen presentation in AM. However, the relationship of immune suppression and DNA damage caused by CS in AM is still unclear. Therefore, in this study, we investigated AM immune function and DNA damage in CS-exposed mice. Mice were exposed to CS of 20 cigarettes/day during 10 days using a Hambrugsmoking machine. After exposure, AM were obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage. The number of AM was significantly increased in CS-exposed mice compared with non-CS-exposed mice. Phagocytic activity of AM was significantly inhibited by CS exposure. Percentage of CD11b-, CD14-, Toll-like receptor (TLR)2- or TLR4-positive cells was significantly decreased in CS-exposed mice compared with non-CS-exposed mice. Interleukin-1β mRNA expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated AM was significantly inhibited by CS exposure. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) (, H2O2) production of AM was significantly increased, and DNA damage was induced by CS exposure. These results suggest that impaired immune functions by CS exposure may be related to DNA damage via excessive ROS induced by CS. These alterations of AM caused by CS could be associated with infection and development of pulmonary diseases.

Factors in Overcoming Barriers to Implementing Co-management in British Columbia Salmon Fisheries
Evelyn Pinkerton
Ecology and Society , 1999,
Abstract: Ten years of research and efforts to implement co-management in British Columbia fisheries have demonstrated that we lack neither good models nor the political will in communities to design and test local and regional institutions for successful involvement in various aspects of management. The barriers lie rather in the distrust and resistance of management agencies and the lack of broadly organized political support. The nature of the barriers and some of the elements of a successful approach to overcoming them are identified and discussed. The analysis is focused around the barriers encountered by two differently situated fishing communities or regions that have launched conservation initiatives through cooperation between local aboriginal and nonaboriginal fishing groups. In attempting to overcome the political barriers, the communities seek to develop expertise in selective fishing technology for more sustainable harvest, principled multi-stakeholder negotiation, marketing, shared databases, and preliminary ecosystem monitoring. The communities exemplify small- and medium-scale bottom-up approaches to adaptive management. The analysis shows the key and possibly unique contributions of processes at these levels, and suggests how they can be scaled up and linked to processes at other levels. Both types of analysis are largely missing in adaptive management theory, which has tended to focus on larger scale processes and to dismiss the potential of smaller scale ones to transform, expand, and link. This analysis focuses on salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) fisheries of British Columbia, Canada, but the literature suggests that the findings have far broader applicability.
Metastasis of a Prostatic Carcinoma along an Omental Graft in a Dog
Terry M. Jacobs,Bruce R. Hoppe,Cathy E. Poehlmann,Marie E. Pinkerton,Milan Milovancev
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/141094
Abstract: An 11-year-old male American Bulldog was presented for hematuria and tenesmus. It had been treated for chronic bacterial prostatitis with abscessation two years earlier and underwent castration and a prostatic omentalization procedure. There was no histologic evidence of prostatic neoplasia at that time. On physical examination, an enlarged prostate was found by rectal palpation, and it was characterized with ultrasonography and computed tomography. Surgical biopsies were obtained, and histopathology identified prostatic adenocarcinoma. It received carprofen and mitoxantrone chemotherapy in addition to palliative radiation therapy; it was euthanized six weeks later due to a progression of clinical signs. Necropsy findings included marked localized expansion of the prostatic tumor and dissemination of prostatic carcinoma cells throughout the peritoneal cavity along the omental graft with infiltration onto the serosal surfaces of most abdominal viscera and fat. This case represents a previously unreported potential complication of the omentalization procedure wherein carcinoma cells from a prostatic tumor that independently arose after omentalization may have metastasized along the surgically created omental graft. 1. Introduction The surgical treatment of canine prostate abscesses was revolutionized by the application of an intracapsular prostatic omentalization technique first reported by White and Williams in 1995 [1]. In this procedure, an omental graft is tunneled through the parenchyma of the prostate after digitally breaking down any loculated abscesses and is sutured to the prostate. The omentum provides vascular and lymphatic drainage to cavitated sites of infection within the prostate gland. Along with systemic antibiotic therapy, prostatic omentalization has enabled the successful management of many refractory cases of prostatitis in dogs. No long-term complications have been reported with this technique. Prostatic carcinoma in dogs is generally an aggressive malignancy characterized by local invasiveness and early metastasis to regional lymph nodes, liver, lung, and bone [2–5]. Clinical signs are variable but typically include hematuria, stranguria, urinary incontinence, tenesmus, and pain, which may be localized if skeletal metastasis has occurred. The presence of an enlarged prostate in a neutered male dog may indicate malignancy; however, the prostate is not enlarged in all cases of prostatic carcinoma [4]. Radiography, ultrasonography, and computed tomography (CT) are useful imaging techniques to assess the prostate for the disease and to
Second-hand Smoke Increases Nitric Oxide and Alters the IgE Response in a Murine Model of Allergic Aspergillosis
Brian W. P. Seymour,Janice L. Peake,Kent E. Pinkerton,Viswanath P. Kurup,Laurel J. Gershwin
Clinical and Developmental Immunology , 2005, DOI: 10.1080/17402520500116806
Abstract: This study was performed to determine the effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) on nitric oxide (NO) and immunoglobulin (Ig) production in a murine model of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). Adult BALB/c mice were exposed to aged and diluted sidestream cigarette smoke from day 0 through day 43 to simulate “second-hand smoke”. During exposure, mice were sensitized to soluble Aspergillus fumigatus (Af) antigen intranasally between day 14 and 24. All Af sensitized mice in ambient air (Af
Perinatal Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Enhances Susceptibility to Viral and Secondary Bacterial Infections
Jocelyn A. Claude,Amy Grimm,Hannah P. Savage,Kent E. Pinkerton
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph9113954
Abstract: Studies suggest childhood exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) leads to increased incidence of infections of the lower respiratory tract. The objective of this study was to determine whether perinatal exposure to ETS increases the incidence, morbidity and severity of respiratory influenza infection and whether a secondary bacterial challenge at the peak of a pre-existing viral infection creates an enhanced host-pathogen susceptibility to an opportunistic infection. Timed-pregnant female Balb/c mice were exposed to either ETS for 6 h/day, 7 d/week beginning on gestation day 14 and continuing with the neonates to 6 weeks of age. Control animals were exposed to filtered air (FA). At the end of exposure, mice were intranasally inoculated with a murine-adapted influenza A. One week later, an intranasal inoculation of S. aureus bacteria was administered. The respective treatment groups were: bacteria only, virus only or virus+bacteria for both FA and ETS-exposed animals for a total of six treatment groups. Animal behavior and body weights were documented daily following infection. Mice were necropsied 1-day post-bacterial infection. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cell analysis demonstrated perinatal exposure to ETS, compared to FA, leads to delayed but enhanced clinical symptoms and enhanced total cell influx into the lungs associated with viral infection followed by bacterial challenge. Viral infection significantly increases the number of neutrophils entering the lungs following bacterial challenge with either FA or ETS exposure, while the influx of lymphocytes and monocytes is significantly enhanced only by perinatal ETS exposure. There is a significant increase in peribronchiolar inflammation following viral infection in pups exposed to ETS compared with pups exposed to FA, but no change is noted in the degree of lung injury between FA and ETS-exposed animals following bacterial challenge. The data suggests perinatal exposure to ETS alters the response of neonates to the timing and severity of infection as well as ETS alters the pattern of inflammation and cellular influx into the lungs due to viral and bacterial infection.
Characterisation of the proximal airway squamous metaplasia induced by chronic tobacco smoke exposure in spontaneously hypertensive rats
Sarah J Bolton, Kate Pinnion, Victor Oreffo, Martyn Foster, Kent E Pinkerton
Respiratory Research , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1465-9921-10-118
Abstract: SH rats were exposed to TS for 6 hours/day, 3 days/week for 14 weeks, and the lung tissues examined by immunohistochemistry.TS induced a CK13-positive squamous metaplasia in proximal airways, which also stained for Ki67 and p63. We hypothesise that this lesion arises by basal cell proliferation, which differentiates to a squamous cell phenotype. Differences in staining profiles for the functional markers CC10 and surfactant D, but not phospho-p38, indicated loss of ability to function appropriately as secretory cells. Within the parenchyma, there were also differences in the staining profiles for CC10 and surfactant D, indicating a possible attempt to compensate for losses in proximal airways. In human COPD sections, areas of CK13-positive squamous metaplasia showed sporadic p63 staining, suggesting that unlike the rat, this is not a basal cell-driven lesion.This study demonstrates that although proximal airway metaplasia in rat and human are both CK13+ and therefore squamous, they potentially arise by different mechanisms.Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised pathologically by loss of lung elasticity, airspace enlargement, small airway remodelling and inflammation [1]. It is widely acknowledged that tobacco smoke (TS) is linked to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in humans. The epithelial mucosa of the lung is the primary site of initial exposure to TS. Repeated cycles of damage and repair to this mucosa in response to chronic TS exposure can result in bronchial epithelial squamous metaplasia, a histopathological feature of COPD, particularly in moderate to severe disease [2,3]. Squamous metaplasia of the airways is seen as a rapid repair mechanism akin to wound healing to maintain barrier integrity, that is reversible given appropriate conditions, and mediates restitution of the normal airway phenotype [4]. Normal pulmonary (bronchial) epithelial repair mechanisms in response to injury involve the dedifferenti
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