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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 146337 matches for " Lynn B. Bailey "
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Defying birth defects through diet?
Krista S Crider, Lynn B Bailey
Genome Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/gm223
Abstract: The initial formation of many major structures of the human embryo takes place during a very narrow window of time in the first weeks after conception, often before a woman even knows she is pregnant. Any change in the early embryonic environment, including nutrient availability, has the potential to adversely or positively affect the developing embryo. Evidence is evolving that specific components of maternal diet can play a critical role in modifying the risk for birth defects.The best example of the influence of maternal diet on birth defect risk is the intake of folic acid for prevention of neural tube defects (NTDs) [1]. Randomized controlled folic acid intervention trials demonstrating the effectiveness of folic acid for NTD risk reduction have led to the current public health recommendation, as well as folic acid fortification of the food supply [1]. Prevention of NTDs with supplemental folic acid is likely to involve a complex interaction between folic acid and multiple genetic factors; this is the focus of ongoing investigations [1].The success of folic acid supplementation in reducing NTDs has led researchers to evaluate the association of other dietary components, such as fat, with a risk for birth defects. Researchers have found that pre-pregnancy diabetes and obesity are associated with an increased risk for numerous birth defects (for example, specific heart defects, NTDs and cleft palate) [2]. A recent meta-analysis revealed that certain aspects of preconception care reduced the risk for some birth defects among women with diabetes: the risk reductions were associated with changes in behavior, such as increased folic acid use or improved glycemic control, or both (depending on the study) [2]. Both diabetes and obesity are related etiologically to high-fat diets, although the mechanisms by which these conditions are or might be teratogenic during pregnancy are unclear. A high-fat western diet has been shown in a retrospective case-control study to be a
Folic Acid Food Fortification—Its History, Effect, Concerns, and Future Directions
Krista S. Crider,Lynn B. Bailey,Robert J. Berry
Nutrients , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/nu3030370
Abstract: Periconceptional intake of folic acid is known to reduce a woman’s risk of having an infant affected by a neural tube birth defect (NTD). National programs to mandate fortification of food with folic acid have reduced the prevalence of NTDs worldwide. Uncertainty surrounding possible unintended consequences has led to concerns about higher folic acid intake and food fortification programs. This uncertainty emphasizes the need to continually monitor fortification programs for accurate measures of their effect and the ability to address concerns as they arise. This review highlights the history, effect, concerns, and future directions of folic acid food fortification programs.
Implementation of Response to Intervention for English Language Learners
Lynn R. Bailey
Christian Perspectives in Education , 2009,
Abstract: Response to Intervention is utilized to provide parents, teachers, and specialists with the data needed to implement and measure the effectiveness of evidence-based instructional and behavioral strategies matched to student needs. English Language Learners are in particular need of research-based instruction paired with progress monitoring as they seek to meet state standards in a new language. Parents, students, and school personnel all benefit from seeing Christ-like consideration for foreigners modeled through Response to Intervention.
Hypomethylation of Serum Blood Clot DNA, but Not Plasma EDTA-Blood Cell Pellet DNA, from Vitamin B12-Deficient Subjects
Eoin P. Quinlivan, Krista S. Crider, Jiang-Hui Zhu, David R. Maneval, Ling Hao, Zhu Li, Sonja A. Rasmussen, R. J. Berry, Lynn B. Bailey
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065241
Abstract: Vitamin B12, a co-factor in methyl-group transfer, is important in maintaining DNA (deoxycytidine) methylation. Using two independent assays we examined the effect of vitamin B12-deficiency (plasma vitamin B12<148 pmol/L) on DNA methylation in women of childbearing age. Coagulated blood clot DNA from vitamin B12-deficient women had significantly (p<0.001) lower percentage deoxycytidine methylation (3.23±0.66%; n = 248) and greater [3 H]methyl-acceptance (42,859±9,699 cpm; n = 17) than DNA from B12-replete women (4.44±0.18%; n = 128 and 26,049±2,814 cpm; n = 11) [correlation between assays: r = –0.8538; p<0.001; n = 28]. In contrast, uncoagulated EDTA-blood cell pellet DNA from vitamin B12-deficient and B12-replete women exhibited similar percentage methylation (4.45±0.15%; n = 77 vs. 4.47±0.15%; n = 47) and [3 H]methyl-acceptance (27,378±4,094 cpm; n = 17 vs. 26,610±2,292 cpm; n = 11). Therefore, in simultaneously collected paired blood samples, vitamin B12-deficiency was associated with decreased DNA methylation only in coagulated samples. These findings highlight the importance of sample collection methods in epigenetic studies, and the potential impact biological processes can have on DNA methylation during collection.
Genomic DNA Methylation Changes in Response to Folic Acid Supplementation in a Population-Based Intervention Study among Women of Reproductive Age
Krista S. Crider, Eoin P. Quinlivan, Robert J. Berry, Ling Hao, Zhu Li, David Maneval, Thomas P. Yang, Sonja A. Rasmussen, Quanhe Yang, Jiang-Hui Zhu, Dale J. Hu, Lynn B. Bailey
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028144
Abstract: Folate is a source of one-carbons necessary for DNA methylation, a critical epigenetic modification necessary for genomic structure and function. The use of supplemental folic acid is widespread however; the potential influence on DNA methylation is unclear. We measured global DNA methylation using DNA extracted from samples from a population-based, double-blind randomized trial of folic acid supplementation (100, 400, 4000 μg per day) taken for 6 months; including a 3 month post-supplementation sample. We observed no changes in global DNA methylation in response to up to 4,000 μg/day for 6 months supplementation in DNA extracted from uncoagulated blood (approximates circulating blood). However, when DNA methylation was determined in coagulated samples from the same individuals at the same time, significant time, dose, and MTHFR genotype-dependent changes were observed. The baseline level of DNA methylation was the same for uncoagulated and coagulated samples; marked differences between sample types were observed only after intervention. In DNA from coagulated blood, DNA methylation decreased (?14%; P<0.001) after 1 month of supplementation and 3 months after supplement withdrawal, methylation decreased an additional 23% (P<0.001) with significant variation among individuals (max+17%; min-94%). Decreases in methylation of ≥25% (vs. <25%) after discontinuation of supplementation were strongly associated with genotype: MTHFR CC vs. TT (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 12.9, 95%CI 6.4, 26.0). The unexpected difference in DNA methylation between DNA extracted from coagulated and uncoagulated samples in response to folic acid supplementation is an important finding for evaluating use of folic acid and investigating the potential effects of folic acid supplementation on coagulation.
Multivariate polynomial interpolation and sampling in Paley-Wiener spaces
B. A. Bailey
Mathematics , 2010,
Abstract: In this paper, an equivalence between existence of particular exponential Riesz bases for multivariate bandlimited functions and existence of certain polynomial interpolants for these bandlimited functions is given. For certain classes of unequally spaced data nodes and corresponding $\ell_2$ data, the existence of these polynomial interpolants allows for a simple recovery formula for multivariate bandlimited functions which demonstrates $L_2$ and uniform convergence on $\mathbb{R}^d$. A simpler computational version of this recovery formula is also given, at the cost of replacing $L_2$ and uniform convergence on $\mathbb{R}^d$ with $L_2$ and uniform convergence on increasingly large subsets of $\mathbb{R}^d$. As a special case, the polynomial interpolants of given $\ell_2$ data converge in the same fashion to the multivariate bandlimited interpolant of that same data. Concrete examples of pertinant Riesz bases and unequally spaced data nodes are also given.
An asymptotic equivalence between two frame perturbation theorems
B. A. Bailey
Mathematics , 2010,
Abstract: In this paper, two stability results regarding exponential frames are compared. The theorems, (one proven herein, and the other in \cite{SZ}), each give a constant such that if $\sup_{n \in \mathbb{Z^d}}\| \epsilon_n \|_\infty < C$, and $(e^{i \langle \cdot , t_n \rangle})_{n \in \mathbb{Z}^d}$ is a frame for $L_2[-\pi,\pi]^d$, then $(e^{i \langle \cdot , t_n +\epsilon_n \rangle})_{n \in \mathbb{Z}^d}$ is a frame for $L_2[-\pi,\pi]^d$. These two constants are shown to be asymptotically equivalent for large values of $d$.
Prediction of lightning flash density with the WRF model
B. Lynn,Y. Yair
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO) , 2010,
Abstract: The Lightning Potential Index (LPI) is a measure of the potential for charge generation and separation that leads to lightning flashes in convective thunderstorms. It is calculated from model simulated updraft and microphysical fields. It was designed to predict the potential of lightning occurrence in operational weather forecasting models, but could possibly be used to improve short-range forecasts of heavy rain. The index is modified here to be model grid-scale transparent between 1 and 4 km (the approximate upper limit of explicit microphysical weather forecasts). Two case studies show that the modification appears to work quite well, and that LPI can be calculated on both an extremely high resolution research-grid (i.e., 1.33 km) and high resolution (i.e., 4 km) operationally compatible forecast grid. Analytical expressions are presented to use the LPI to predict the hourly lightning flash density.
Consistent prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intakes across six years of second-year medical school students  [PDF]
Lynn Seabolt, Taren B. Spence, Heidi J. Silver
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.47058
Abstract: Background: The dietary behaviors of physicians and medical students are strongly associated with their nutrition counseling practices. Little research to date describes their dietary intakes and no recent studies have assessed the adequacy of their micronutrient intakes. As micronutrient imbalances are associated with a variety of chronic diseases, public guidelines target increasing dietary nutrient density. The purpose of this study was to identify micronutrient imbalances in the diets of medical students and determine whether intakes are becoming more compliant with dietary guidelines over time. Methods: From 2000 to 2006, 409 second-year Vanderbilt University medical students completed the Block Brief 2000 food frequency questionnaire prior to the required “Introduction to Clinical Nutrition” course. Nutrient data were compared to Dietary Reference Intake values. Results: Dietary intakes of male students were consistently inadequate for vitamin E, vitamin D, calcium, magnesium and potassium across the six cohorts. Despite a significant increase over time in the number of vegetable servings consumed, the intakes of female students revealed the same inadequacies, as well as inadequate folate and iron intakes. Multivitamin and multimineral supplementation, consumed regularly by 51% of students, closed the gap in meeting estimated micronutrient requirements, except vitamin E. Conclusions: These data can be used to inform the content of nutrition interventions for medical students focused on making optimal food selection choices as well as the content of nutrition education in the medical school curriculum. It is important to enhance medical students’ preparedness as fu- ture health care providers—not only to serve as role models for healthy dietary behaviors, but also to better recognize the nutrition needs of their future patients.
Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue characterizations
Paul B. Bailey,Anton Zettl
Electronic Journal of Differential Equations , 2012,
Abstract: We study the relationship between the eigenvalues of separated self-adjoint boundary conditions and coupled self-adjoint conditions. Given an arbitrary real coupled boundary condition determined by a coupling matrix K we construct a one parameter family of separated conditions and show that all the eigenvalues for K and -K are extrema of the eigencurves of this family. This characterization makes it possible to use the well known Prufer transformation which has been used very successfully, both theoretically and numerically, for separated conditions, also in the coupled case. In particular, this characterization makes it possible to compute the eigenvalues for any real coupled self-adjoint boundary condition using any code which works for separated conditions.
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