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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 104181 matches for " Luwen Zhang "
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CD20 Antibody Primes B Lymphocytes for Type I Interferon Production
Dongsheng Xu, Andrew Staedman, Luwen Zhang
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067900
Abstract: CD20 is a B cell surface marker that is expressed in various stages in B lymphocytes and certain lymphomas. Clinical administration of CD20 antibody, such as rituximab, is used widely to treat human B-cell lymphomas and other diseases. However, CD20 antibody failed to treat systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE or lupus). The reason for the failure is currently unknown. Type I interferons (IFN) are a major component for the host innate immunity, and a key pathogenic factor in lupus. We found that CD20 antibody potentiated human B cells for its production of IFNs in vitro. This function was specific to CD20-expressing cells and the potentiation function seems to be instant. In addition, ectopic expression of CD20 in non-B-lymphocytes increased the IFN promoter reporter activities. Because IFNs are a key pathogenic factor in lupus, our data suggest that, in the presence of virus infection, the CD20-antibody-mediated enhancement of IFN production might be related to its failure in lupus treatments. This work may provide new insights for CD20-Ab therapeutic applications.
Shape Primitive Histogram: A Novel Low-Level Face Representation for Face Recognition
Sheng Huang,Dan Yang,Haopeng Zhang,Luwen Huangfu,Xiaohong Zhang
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: We further exploit the representational power of Haar wavelet and present a novel low-level face representation named Shape Primitives Histogram (SPH) for face recognition. Since human faces exist abundant shape features, we address the face representation issue from the perspective of the shape feature extraction. In our approach, we divide faces into a number of tiny shape fragments and reduce these shape fragments to several uniform atomic shape patterns called Shape Primitives. A convolution with Haar Wavelet templates is applied to each shape fragment to identify its belonging shape primitive. After that, we do a histogram statistic of shape primitives in each spatial local image patch for incorporating the spatial information. Finally, each face is represented as a feature vector via concatenating all the local histograms of shape primitives. Four popular face databases, namely ORL, AR, Yale-B and LFW-a databases, are employed to evaluate SPH and experimentally study the choices of the parameters. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach outperform the state-of-the-arts.
Mutual Inhibition between Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus and Epstein-Barr Virus Lytic Replication Initiators in Dually-Infected Primary Effusion Lymphoma
Yanjun Jiang, Dongsheng Xu, Yong Zhao, Luwen Zhang
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0001569
Abstract: Background Both Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are members of the human gamma herpesvirus family: each is associated with various human cancers. The majority of AIDS-associated primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) are co-infected with both KSHV and EBV. Dually-infected PELs selectively switch from latency to lytic replication of either KSHV or EBV in response to chemical stimuli. KSHV replication and transcription activator (K-RTA) is necessary and sufficient for the switch from KSHV latency to lytic replication, while EBV BZLF1 gene product (EBV-Z) is a critical initiator for induction of EBV lytic replication. Methodology/Principal Findings We show K-RTA and EBV-Z are co-localized and physically interact with each other in dually-infected PELs. K-RTA inhibits the EBV lytic replication by nullifying EBV-Z-mediated EBV lytic gene activation. EBV-Z inhibits KSHV lytic gene expression by blocking K-RTA-mediated transactivations. The physical interaction between K-RTA and EBV-Z are required for the mutual inhibition of the two molecules. The leucine heptapeptide repeat (LR) region in K-RTA and leucine zipper region in EBV-Z are involved in the physical interactions of the two molecules. Finally, initiation of KSHV lytic gene expression is correlated with the reduction of EBV lytic gene expression in the same PEL cells. Conclusions/Significance In this report, how the two viruses interact with each other in dually infected PELs is addressed. Our data may provide a possible mechanism for maintaining viral latency and for selective lytic replication in dually infected PELs, i.e., through mutual inhibition of two critical lytic replication initiators. Our data about putative interactions between EBV and KSHV would be applicable to the majority of AIDS-associated PELs and may be relevant to the pathogenesis of PELs.
Dual Functions of Interferon Regulatory Factors 7C in Epstein-Barr Virus–Mediated Transformation of Human B Lymphocytes
Yong Zhao,Dongsheng Xu,Yanjun Jiang,Luwen Zhang
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009459
Abstract: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is associated with several human malignancies. Interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 7 (IRF-7) has several splicing variants, and at least the major splicing variant (IRF-7A) has oncogenic potential and is associated with EBV transformation processes. IRF-7C is an alternative splicing variant with only the DNA-binding domain of IRF-7. Whether IRF-7C is present under physiological conditions and its functions in viral transformation are unknown. In this report, we prove the existence of IRF-7C protein and RNA in certain cells under physiological conditions, and find that high levels of IRF-7C are associated with EBV transformation of human primary B cells in vitro as well as EBV type III latency. EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) stimulates IRF-7C expression in B lymphocytes. IRF-7C has oncogenic potential in rodent cells and partially restores the growth properties of EBV-transformed cells under a growth-inhibition condition. A tumor array experiment has identified six primary tumor specimens with high levels of IRF-7C protein—all of them are lymphomas. Furthermore, we show that the expression of IRF-7C is apparently closely associated with other IRF-7 splicing variants. IRF-7C inhibits the function of IRF-7 in transcriptional regulation of IFN genes. These data suggest that EBV may use splicing variants of IRF-7 for its transformation process in two strategies: to use oncogenic properties of various IRF-7 splicing variants, but use one of its splicing variants (IRF-7C) to block the IFN-induction function of IRF-7 that is detrimental for viral transformation. The work provides a novel relation of host/virus interactions, and has expanded our knowledge about IRFs in EBV transformation.
Identifying Tmem59 related gene regulatory network of mouse neural stem cell from a compendium of expression profiles
Luwen Zhang, Xiangchun Ju, Yumin Cheng, Xiuyun Guo, Tieqiao Wen
BMC Systems Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1752-0509-5-152
Abstract: We identified regulators of tmem59 during the differentiation of mouse NSCs from a compendium of expression profiles. Based on the microarray experiment, we developed the parallelized SWNI algorithm to reconstruct gene regulatory networks of mouse neural stem cells. From the inferred tmem59 related gene network including 36 genes, pou6f1 was identified to regulate tmem59 significantly and might play an important role in the differentiation of NSCs in mouse brain. There are four pathways shown in the gene network, indicating that tmem59 locates in the downstream of the signalling pathway. The real-time RT-PCR results shown that the over-expression of pou6f1 could significantly up-regulate tmem59 expression in C17.2 NSC line. 16 out of 36 predicted genes in our constructed network have been reported to be AD-related, including Ace, aqp1, arrdc3, cd14, cd59a, cds1, cldn1, cox8b, defb11, folr1, gdi2, mmp3, mgp, myrip, Ripk4, rnd3, and sncg. The localization of tmem59 related genes and functional-related gene groups based on the Gene Ontology (GO) annotation was also identified.Our findings suggest that the expression of tmem59 is an important factor contributing to AD. The parallelized SWNI algorithm increased the efficiency of network reconstruction significantly. This study enables us to highlight novel genes that may be involved in NSC differentiation and provides a shortcut to identifying genes for AD.One of the main goals of systems biology is to determine the biological networks by high performance computing methods and integrating high-throughput data [1,2]. Compared to the traditional biology, which basic strategy is to decypher biological functions by concentrating efforts on a very limited set of molecules, this system-centric approach has an enormous success in producing complex biological networks composed of various types of molecules (genes, proteins, MicroRNAs, etc) from large amounts of data [3].The microarray technology facilitates large-scale surveys o
Sparse Graph-based Transduction for Image Classification
Sheng Huang,Dan Yang,Jia Zhou,Luwen Huangfu,Xiaohong Zhang
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: Motivated by the remarkable successes of Graph-based Transduction (GT) and Sparse Representation (SR), we present a novel Classifier named Sparse Graph-based Classifier (SGC) for image classification. In SGC, SR is leveraged to measure the correlation (similarity) of each two samples and a graph is constructed for encoding these correlations. Then the Laplacian eigenmapping is adopted for deriving the graph Laplacian of the graph. Finally, SGC can be obtained by plugging the graph Laplacian into the conventional GT framework. In the image classification procedure, SGC utilizes the correlations, which are encoded in the learned graph Laplacian, to infer the labels of unlabeled images. SGC inherits the merits of both GT and SR. Compared to SR, SGC improves the robustness and the discriminating power of GT. Compared to GT, SGC sufficiently exploits the whole data. Therefore it alleviates the undercomplete dictionary issue suffered by SR. Four popular image databases are employed for evaluation. The results demonstrate that SGC can achieve a promising performance in comparison with the state-of-the-art classifiers, particularly in the small training sample size case and the noisy sample case.
Differences in Platelet Indices between Healthy Han Population and Tibetans in China
Qian Niu, Ruke Zhang, Min Zhao, Sugen Zeng, Xunbei Huang, Hong Jiang, Youfang An, Luwen Zhang
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067203
Abstract: Introduction The present data on the evaluation of platelet (PLT) parameters in Chinese Han population and Tibetans are still limited. The objective of this study was to determine the differences in common PLT indices between Han population and Tibetans in China, through a large-scale investigation of healthy people. Methods 2131 Han people from Chengdu Plain, 1099 Tibetans from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and 956 Plateau Han migrants were included in this study. All the subjects were healthy people through the health screening. PLT indices were measured with Sysmex XE-2100 and XT-1800i blood cell automatic analyzer. Results Compared with Han people in Chendu Plain, Tibetans had higher PLT count (P<0.01) but lower mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW) and platelet-large cell ratio (P-LCR) (P<0.01); while Plateau Han migrants had lower PLT count, MPV and P-LCR (P<0.05). When compared with Tibetans, Plateau Han migrants had lower levels of mean PLT count but higher PDW and P-LCR (P<0.05). Conclusions There are ethnic differences in PLT indices between Chinese Han population and Tibetans. Based on this finding, it would be reasonable to conduct formal prospective studies to determine the clinical significance of these differences and to explore the effects of genetic background on these indices.
Type I Interferons and Interferon Regulatory Factors Regulate TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) in HIV-1-Infected Macrophages
Yunlong Huang, Angelique Walstrom, Luwen Zhang, Yong Zhao, Min Cui, Ling Ye, Jialin C. Zheng
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0005397
Abstract: TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a member of the TNF family that participates in HIV-1 pathogenesis through the depletion of CD4+ T cells. TRAIL is expressed on the cell membrane of peripheral immune cells and can be cleaved into a soluble, secreted form. The regulation of TRAIL in macrophages during HIV-1 infection is not completely understood. In this study, we investigated the mechanism(s) of TRAIL expression in HIV-1-infected macrophages, an important cell type in HIV-1 pathogenesis. A human monocyte-derived macrophage (MDM) culture system was infected with macrophage-tropic HIV-1ADA, HIV-1JR-FL, or HIV-1BAL strains. TRAIL, predominantly the membrane-bound form, increased following HIV-1 infection. We found that HIV-1 infection also induced interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-1, IRF-7 gene expression and signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (STAT1) activation. Small interfering RNA knockdown of IRF-1 or IRF-7, but not IRF-3, reduced STAT1 activation and TRAIL expression. Furthermore, the upregulation of IRF-1, IRF-7, TRAIL, and the activation of STAT1 by HIV-1 infection was reduced by the treatment of type I interferon (IFN)-neutralizing antibodies. In addition, inhibition of STAT1 by fludarabine abolished IRF-1, IRF-7, and TRAIL upregulation. We conclude that IRF-1, IRF-7, type I IFNs, and STAT1 form a signaling feedback loop that is critical in regulating TRAIL expression in HIV-1-infected macrophages.
Silicon-based micro direct methanol fuel cell with an N-inputs-N-outputs anode flow pattern
YuFeng Zhang,LuWen Wang,ZhenYu Yuan,ShiBo Wang,JianMin Li,XiaoWei Liu
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2011, DOI: 10.1007/s11434-010-4335-5
Abstract: A micro direct methanol fuel cell (μDMFC) is suitable for use in notebook computers, mobile phones, and other digital products. To resolve the poor mass-transport efficiency problem in the anode flow channel, this paper presents an N-inputs-N-outputs parallel flow pattern with rectangular convexes to reinforce methanol mass transport and reduce concentration polarization. The simulation results show that the N-inputs-N-outputs parallel flow channels with the rectangle convexes improve the performance. μDMFCs, which have four anode flow patterns, are fabricated using MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) technology. The experimental results show that the μDMFC with the rectangle convexes has a performance better than previously reported systems, and has a peak power density of 19.96 mW/cm2. The simulation and experimental results are in good agreement.
Impact of GLP-1 Receptor Agonists on Major Gastrointestinal Disorders for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Mixed Treatment Comparison Meta-Analysis
Feng Sun,Kai Yu,Zhirong Yang,Shanshan Wu,Yuan Zhang,Luwen Shi,Linong Ji,Siyan Zhan
Journal of Diabetes Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/230624
Abstract: Aim. We aimed to integrate evidence from all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and assess the impact of different doses of exenatide or liraglutide on major gastrointestinal adverse events (GIAEs) in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Methods. RCTs evaluating different doses of exenatide and liraglutide against placebo or an active comparator with treatment duration ≥4 weeks were searched and reviewed. A total of 35, 32 and 28 RCTs met the selection criteria evaluated for nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, respectively. Pairwise random-effects meta-analyses and mixed treatment comparisons (MTC) of all RCTs were performed. Results. All GLP-1 dose groups significantly increased the probability of nausea, vomiting and diarrhea relative to placebo and conventional treatment. MTC meta-analysis showed that there was 99.2% and 85.0% probability, respectively, that people with exenatide 10?μg twice daily (EX10BID) was more vulnerable to nausea and vomiting than those with other treatments. There was a 78.90% probability that liraglutide 1.2?mg once daily (LIR1.2) has a higher risk of diarrhea than other groups. A dose-dependent relationship of exenatide and liraglutide on GIAEs was observed. Conclusions. Our MTC meta-analysis suggests that patients should be warned about these GIAEs in early stage of treatment by GLP-1s, especially by EX10BID and LIR1.2, to promote treatment compliance. 1. Introduction Diabetes is a major public health problem. In 2000, there were 171 million patients with diabetes mellitus worldwide, and the number is predicted to increase to 366 million by 2030 [1]. As the number of people with diabetes has increased, so too has the availability of treatments for managing the disease. In recent years, glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists (GLP-1s) [2], as an innovative generation of antidiabetic drugs administered by injection under the skin, have been introduced into clinical practice and offer new possibilities for treating hyperglycemia in people with T2DM [3]. GLP-1s regulate glucose levels by stimulating glucose-dependent insulin secretion and biosynthesis and by suppressing glucagon secretion, delaying gastric emptying and promoting satiety [4–6]. Various GLP-1s are in use or in the licensing process, including exenatide [7], liraglutide [8], albiglutide [9], taspoglutide [10], lixisenatide [11], and LY2189265 [12]; these latter 4 drugs are now in Phase II or III clinical trials. At present, the GLP-1s are routinely administered once or twice daily or once weekly. As for native GLP-1, the most frequently reported treatment-related adverse event (AE)
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