Abstract:
In an altruistic DISH protocol, additional nodes called "altruists" are deployed in a multi-channel ad hoc network to achieve energy efficiency while still maintaining the original throughput-delay performance. The responsibility of altruists is to constantly monitor the control channel and awaken other (normal) nodes when necessary (to perform data transmissions). Altruists never sleep while other nodes sleep as far as possible. This technical report proves three properties related to this cooperative protocol. The first is the conditions for forming an unsafe pair (UP) in an undirected graph. The second is the necessary and sufficient conditions for full cooperation coverage to achieve the void of multi-channel coordination (MCC) problems. The last is the NP-hardness of determining the minimum number and locations of altruistic nodes to achieve full cooperation coverage.

Abstract:
The chiral two-dimensional electron gas in Landau levels $\left\vert N\right\vert >0$ of a Bernal-stacked graphene bilayer has a valley-pseudospin Ising quantum Hall ferromagnetic behavior at odd filling factors $\nu _{N}=1,3$ of these fourfold degenerate states. At zero interlayer electrical bias, the ground state at these fillings is spin polarized and electrons occupy one valley or the other while a finite electrical bias produces a series of valley pseudospin-flip transitions. In this work, we extend the Ising behavior to chirally-stacked multilayer graphene and discuss the hysteretic behavior of the Ising quantum Hall ferromagnets. We compute the transport gap due to different excitations: bulk electron-hole pairs, electron-hole pairs confined to the coherent region of a valley-pseudospin domain wall, and spin or valley-pseudospin skyrmion-antiskyrmion pairs. We determine which of these excitations has the lowest energy at a given value of the Zeeman coupling, bias, and magnetic field.

Abstract:
We propose a weakly coupled two-band model with $d_{x^2-y^2}$ pairing symmetry to account for the anomalous temperature dependence of superfluid density $\rho_s$ in electron-doped cuprate superconductors. This model gives a unified explanation to the presence of a upward curvature in $\rho_s$ near $T_c$ and a weak temperature dependence of $\rho_s$ in low temperatures. Our work resolves a discrepancy in the interpretation of different experimental measurements and suggests that the pairing in electron-doped cuprates has predominately $d_{x^2-y^2}$ symmetry in the whole doping range.

Abstract:
At half filling of the fourfold degenerate Landau levels |n| \geq 1 in graphene, the ground states are spin polarized quantum Hall states that support spin skyrmion excitations for |n| =1,2,3. Working in the Hartree-Fock approximation, we compute the excitation energy of an unbound spin skyrmion-antiskyrmion excitation as a function of the Zeeman coupling strength for these Landau levels. We find for both the bare and screened Coulomb interactions that the spin skyrmion-antiskyrmion excitation energy is lower than the excitation energy of an unbound spin 1/2 electron-hole pair in a finite range of Zeeman coupling in Landau levels |n| =1,2,3. This range decreases rapidly for increasing Landau level index and is extremely small for |n| =3. For valley skyrmions which should be present at 1/4 and 3/4 fillings of the Landau levels |n| =1,2,3, we show that screening corrections are more important in the latter case. It follows that an unbound valley skyrmion-antiskyrmion excitation has lower energy at 3/4 filling than at 1/4. We compare our results with recent experiments on spin and valley skyrmion excitations in graphene.

Abstract:
Recent work showed that the exact exchange-correlation potential of time-dependent density functional theory generically displays dynamical step structures. These have a spatially non-local and time-non-local dependence on the density in real time dynamics. The steps are missing in the usual approximations which consequently yield inaccurate dynamics. Yet these same approximations typically yield good linear response spectra. Here we investigate whether the steps appear in the linear response regime, when the response is calculated from a real-time dynamics simulation, by examining the exact correlation potential of model two-electron systems at various times. We find there are no step structures in regions where the system response is linear. Step structures appear in the correlation potential only in regions of space where the density response is non-linear; these regions, having exponentially small density, do not contribute to the observables measured in linear response.

Abstract:
It is well known that the nonlinear filtering problem has important applications in both military and civil industries. The central problem of nonlinear filtering is to solve the Duncan-Mortensen-Zakai (DMZ) equation in real time and in a memoryless manner. In this paper, we shall extend the algorithm developed previously by S.-T. Yau and the second author to the most general setting of nonlinear filterings, where the explicit time-dependence is in the drift term, observation term, and the variance of the noises could be a matrix of functions of both time and the states. To preserve the off-line virture of the algorithm, necessary modifications are illustrated clearly. Moreover, it is shown rigorously that the approximated solution obtained by the algorithm converges to the real solution in the $L^1$ sense. And the precise error has been estimated. Finally, the numerical simulation support the feasibility and efficiency of our algorithm.

Abstract:
In this paper, we investigate the Hermite spectral method (HSM) to numerically solve the forward Kolmogorov equation (FKE). A useful guideline of choosing the scaling factor of the generalized Hermite functions is given in this paper. It greatly improves the resolution of HSM. The convergence rate of HSM to FKE is analyzed in the suitable function space and has been verified by the numerical simulation. As an important application and our primary motivation to study the HSM to FKE, we work on the implementation of the nonlinear filtering (NLF) problem with a real-time algorithm developed in [17]. The HSM to FKE is served as the off-line computation in this algorithm. The translating factor of the generalized Hermite functions and the moving-window technique are introduced to deal with the drifting of the posterior conditional density function of the states in the on-line experiments. Two numerical experiments of NLF problems are carried out to illustrate the feasibility of our algorithm. Moreover, our algorithm surpasses the particle filter as a real-time solver to NLF.

Abstract:
It is well-known that sparse grid algorithm has been widely accepted as an efficient tool to overcome the "curse of dimensionality" in some degree. In this note, we first give the error estimate of hyperbolic cross (HC) approximations with generalized Hermite functions. The exponential convergence in both regular and optimized hyperbolic cross approximations has been shown. Moreover, the error estimate of Hermite spectral method to high-dimensional linear parabolic PDEs with HC approximations has been investigated in the properly weighted Korobov spaces. The numerical result verifies the exponential convergence of this approach.

Abstract:
We introduce a numerical scale to quantify to which extent a planar continuum is not locally connected. For a locally connected continuum, the numerical scale is zero; for a continuum like the topologist's sine curve, the scale is one; for an indecomposable continuum, it is infinite. Among others, we shall pose a new problem that may be of some interest: can we estimate the scale from above for the Mandelbrot set $\mathcal{M}$ ?

Abstract:
The singular parabolic problem $u_t-\triangle u=\lambda{\frac{1+\delta|\nabla u|^2}{(1-u)^2}}$ on a bounded domain $\Omega$ of $\mathbb{R}^n$ with Dirichlet boundary condition, models the Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) device with fringing field. In this paper, we focus on the quenching behavior of the solution to this equation. We first show that there exists a critical value $\lambda_\delta^*>0$ such that if $0<\lambda<\lambda_\delta^*$, all solutions exist globally; while for $\lambda>\lambda_\delta^*$, all the solution will quench in finite time. The estimate of the quenching time in terms of large voltage $\lambda$ is investigated. Furthermore, the quenching set is a compact subset of $\Omega$, provided $\Omega$ is a convex bounded domain in $\mathbb{R}^n$. In particular, if the domain $\Omega$ is radially symmetric, then the origin is the only quenching point. We not only derive the one-side estimate of the quenching rate, but also further study the refined asymptotic behavior of the finite quenching solution.