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Achieving Sustainable Development in Small Communities via Combined Heat and Power Systems  [PDF]
Olaosebikan A. Olafadehan, Lukumon Salami, Babatunde K. Adeoye, Toluwalase O. Ajayi
Engineering (ENG) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2012.43021
Abstract: The design of a feasible Combined Heat and Power plant for a small community is presented. Of the many alternatives solid-waste disposal methods available, incineration of solid waste is recommended due to its potential energy recovery of the heat released during solid waste incineration and recovery of valuable by-products that can either be reused, re- cycled or marketed, among other advantages. Hence, an attempt is made to use the heat energy released during incin- eration of solid waste to produce steam in a boiler, which in turn powers a turbine for eventual generation of electricity. The two processes involved in the generation of electricity for in-plant use or for a small community via a steam turbine-generator combination and a gas compressor-gas turbine-generator are presented. The analysis of the amount of energy produced from the solid waste energy-conversion system using an incinerator-boiler-steam turbine-electric generator combination with a capacity of 4.5 tons/day is also presented. The net electric power for a small community was found to be 148.24 kW with an overall efficiency of about 21% having taken cognisance of the process power needs and unaccounted process heat losses. Moreover, exergy analysis of the proposed CHP plant was carried out whereby the respective energy and exergy efficiencies of 83.2% and 62.1% were obtained.
Nursing Students’ Medication Errors and Adherence to Medication Best-Practice  [PDF]
Ibrahim Salami
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2018.85024
Abstract: Background: Nursing students are at risk for committing medication administration errors (MAEs), which significantly alter the delivery of safe and effective healthcare. Purpose: To identify the medications most frequently involved in medication errors as reported by Jordanian nursing students, as well as to identify the level of nursing students’ adherence to best-practice when administering high-risk medications. Methods: A cross-sectional design was used among a convenience sample of 74 nurses. Results: A total of 74 of 110 (67.3%) questionnaires were returned. The most frequent medications subjected to MAEs were Dopamine, Dobutamine, and Insulin continuous intravenous infusion (17.2%, 16.0% and 13.5% respectively). Regarding the adherence to best-practice, nursing students adhered the most to the following best-practices: checking the patient armband prior to medication administration with a mean of 3.81 (±0.6) and bringing the MAR sheet with them when preparing a medication with a mean of 3.46 (±1.1). Conclusion: Developing an effective medication training programs in all undergraduate nursing programs in Jordanis is vital to ensure patient safety. Nursing educators in clinical and academic settings need to reinforce the importance of adherence to medication management best-practice in all courses. Close and effective supervision of students needs to be maintained throughout nursing students’ clinical training, especially during medication preparation and administration.
Static Reservoir Modeling Using Well Log and 3-D Seismic Data in a KN Field, Offshore Niger Delta, Nigeria  [PDF]
Lukumon Adeoti, Njoku Onyekachi, Olawale Olatinsu, Julius Fatoba, Musa Bello
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2014.51011

This study focuses on the application of 3D static model using 3-D seismic and well log data for proper optimization and development of hydrocarbon potential in KN field of Niger Delta Province. 3D Seismic data were used to generate the input interpreted horizon grids and fault polygons. The horizon which cut across the six wells was used for the analysis and detailed petrophysical analysis was carried out. Structural and property modeling (net to gross, porosity, permeability, water saturation and facies) were distributed stochastically within the constructed 3D grid using Sequential Gaussian Simulation and Sequential Indicator Simulation algorithms. The reservoir structural model show system of different oriented growth faults F1 to F6. Faults 1 and Fault 4 are the major growth faults, dipping towards south-west and are quite extensive. A rollover anticline formed as a result of deformation of the sediments deposited on the downthrown block of fault F1. The other faults (2, 3, 5 and 6) are minor fault (synthetic and antithetic). The trapping mechanism is a fault assisted anticlinal closure. Results from well log analysis and petrophysical models classified sand 9 reservoir as a moderate to good reservoir in terms of facies, with good porosity, permeability, moderate net to gross and low water saturation. The volumetric calculation of modeled sand 9 horizon reveals that the (STOIIP) value at the Downthrown and Ramp segment are 15.7 MMbbl and 3.8 MMbbl respectively. This implies that the mapped horizon indicates hydrocarbon accumulation in economic quantity. This study has also demonstrated the effectiveness of 3-D static modeling technique as a tool for better understanding of spatial distribution of discrete and continuous reservoir properties, hence, has provided a framework for future prediction of reservoir performance and production behavior of sand 9 reservoir. However, more horizontal wells should be drilled to enhance optimization of

Total Harmonic Distortion Minimization of Multilevel Converters Using Genetic Algorithms  [PDF]
A. Salami, B. Bayat
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/am.2013.47139

This paper presents a genetic algorithm (GA) optimization technique to find the optimum switching angles of 11-level inverter with minimum number of dc sources and switches in comparison with the cascade multilevel inverter in order to minimize the total harmonic distortion (THD) of their output voltage waveform. Theoretical and simulation results for an 11-level converter show the efficiency of the proposed algorithm to determine the optimum angles in order to decrease the undesired harmonics and produce very high quality output voltage waveform.

Design Factors Influencing Quality of Building Projects in Nigeria: Consultants' Perception
Lukumon Oyedele,Babatunde Jaiyeoba,Moshood Fadeyi
Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building , 2012,
Abstract: Various factors identified from the literature that caninfluence quality of building projects in Nigeria have beenstudied by means of questionnaire survey sent to architects,engineers and quantity surveyors in the industry. From atotal response of 107 consultants, the importance of eachfactor was obtained via severity and frequency responsesof the factors. Data analysis includes comparisons ofranking among consultants using severity, frequency andimportance indexes, correlation analysis, and percentagerank agreement factor (PRAF) to measure the agreement inthe importance ranking among the consultants.Correlation results between the professionals are architects/quantity surveyors (0.75), architects/engineers (0.21 ),and engineers/quantity surveyors (0.24). The percentagerank agreement factor (PRAF) shows that the five mostimportant factors affecting quality are 'design changes'(78.9%); 'inadequate involvement of other professionalsduring the design stage' (78.9%); 'insufficient andunrealistic constraints of project cost' (71.1 %); 'poor levelof commitment to quality improvement among designprofessionals' (63.2%); and 'making design decisions oncost and not value of work' (55.3%). The results of this studywould provide feedback for the clients, project and qualitymangers and all the consultants in the industry, so thateffective management of quality can be ensured from theconceptual-design stage of the project.
Solid state transformation of cis and trans methylcyclopentadienyl molybdenumdicarbonyltriphenylphosphineiodide on pelleting utilizing different diluents  [PDF]
Olalere G. Adeyemi, Umaru Salami
Open Journal of Inorganic Chemistry (OJIC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojic.2012.22005
Abstract: [(η5-C5H4Me)Mo(CO)2PPh3I] undergoes solid state transformation on the formation of a good pellet for FT IR measurement. There was a formation of the products mixture on pelleting using different diluents of group I metal salts on either the cis or the trans isomer of the [(η5-C5H4Me)Mo(CO)2PPh3I] complex. The cis or the trans isomer gave the same IR spectra i.e. a mixture of cis and trans isomer of the complex. It does not matter the isomer started with in the course of solid state transformation reaction, an equilibrium ratio of 30/70 (trans/cis) will still be achieved. The solid state IR spectra show very strong peaks at νco 1957, 1947 and strong peaks at 1867, 1853 cm–1. The individual IR cis/trans isomer will therefore show at 1947 and 1853/1957 and 1867 cm–1. The solution IR spectra gave, cis = 1961, 1875 and trans = 1963, 1882 cm–1 in dry CHCl3. Hence, most of the solid state IR measurement of the organometallic complex of the type (η5-C5H4Me)Mo(CO)2(PPh3)I on pelleting will give isomer mixture.
Factors influencing breastfeeding practices in Edo state, Nigeria
LI Salami
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2006,
Abstract: The superiority of breast milk compared to other types of milk for the nourishment of the human infant offering better health benefits, has been established by various research publications. Early childhood is characterized by rapid growth, maturation of tissues and remodeling of organs. Breastfeeding is the optimal method for feeding infants. All the nutritional needs for most of these children are provided by breast milk in the right amounts and duration. In Nigeria however, young infants may not benefit from such a practice as a result of poor early initiation and the use of other liquids undermining breast milk. The purpose of this study was to determine factors influencing breastfeeding practices in Edo State, Nigeria. A questionnaire and group interviewed were the instruments used. Data was collected from 600 randomly selected mothers of children aged 4–24 months, who visited four antenatal and children clinics. The data obtained were analysed using percentiles, means and standard deviations. Although the findings indicated that 82 per cent of the mothers practiced breastfeeding, 66 per cent supplemented with corn gruel and glucose water, and 14 per cent used herbal brew. Only 20 per cent practiced exclusive breastfeeding. Of the possible variables affecting breastfeeding practices, proximity to baby with a mean score of 4.63 (SD ± 0.66) out of 5.00 was the most influential, and the least, family background, had a mean score of 2.32 (SD ± 0.92). The findings of the study have implications for health education programmes and breastfeeding practices. Efforts must be intensified to educate prospective mothers on the need and benefits of breastfeeding, and that the UNICEF-WHO Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative must go beyond the designated University Teaching Hospitals to other public and privately owned hospitals. The provision of crèches at the work place or market place will reduce the distance between babies and their mothers and subsequently increase the levels of breastfeeding.
HIV-TB co-infection: pathogenesis, diagnosis and management in adults
AK Salami
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology , 2006,
Taxation, revenue allocation and fiscal federalism in Nigeria: Issues, challenges and policy options
Salami Adeleke
Economic Annals , 2011, DOI: 10.2298/eka1189027s
Abstract: Taxation is one of the most important and easy sources of revenue to any government, as the government possesses inherent power to impose taxes and levies. Nigeria tax system has been weak due largely to inadequate data of the tax base and heavy reliance on oil revenue. With the volatility in oil prices and excruciating impacts of the recent global financial crisis, taxation deserves more attention now than ever before in Nigeria. One issue that is critical to domestic resource mobilization and utilization is the issue of fiscal federalism. Nigeria operates three tiers of government; Federal, State and Local Governments with separate revenue, expenditure, and assigned responsibilities each. However, all decisions including resources are controlled from the centre and the vertical revenue allocations tilt more towards the direction of federal government, contrary to the tenets of federalism the country is practicing. Both vertical and horizontal revenue in Nigeria is engulfed in controversy. The paper presents key issues, trend and challenges of taxation and fiscal federalism in Nigeria. In addition, the paper highlights a number of suggestions that would stimulate increase in tax revenue and guarantee fiscal assignment acceptable to the federal and sub-national government.
The Contradictory Nature of the Ghost in Hamlet
Ismail Salami
Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: The present study shows how Shakespeare seeks to manipulate the reader's response in Hamlet by using contradictions and ambiguities and how the reader eventually reconstructs a palpable world in the impalpable world of the text. These contradictions compel the reader to participate in the composition of the text and make him keep changing his own approach to the work with the result that the more he reads the play, the deeper he finds himself entrenched in contradictions. As he fails to grasp the logic of events, the reader relates his own world to the text instead of relating the events to his world and recreates his own world. Therefore, he can easily detach himself from the text and let his imagination run loose as the play proves too vague for him to comprehend. Eventually, the reality achieved by the reader in the course of reading the play is only the reality, which dwells in the innermost recesses of his mind.
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