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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1091 matches for " Ludovic Kam "
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Lipodystrophy among Children Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus and on Antiretroviral Treatment in Ouagadougou  [PDF]
Caroline Yonaba, A?ssata Ouedraogo, Sylvie Armelle Pingwende Ouédraogo, Bourama Ouattara, Angel Kalmogho, Fla Koueta, Diarra Yé, Ludovic Kam
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2015.53030
Abstract: Management of Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection remains a major challenge in many sub-Saharan African countries. Antiretroviral drugs which have reduced significantly the mortality rate of this pandemic disease are a source of side effects. Among these side effects, adult lipodystrophy has already been described by several authors. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of lipodystrophy and associate factors in children on antiretroviral therapy, managed at Charles De Gaulle Children University Hospital and Yalgado Ouedrago University Hospital in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. This is a cross-sectional study conducted from June 2013 to January 2014. We included children aged 2 to 15 years who had been on antiretroviral treatment for at least six months with no severe acute malnutrition (wasting). Lipodystrophy was diagnosed clinically after assessment of morphological changes. Overall, 323 children complying with the inclusion criteria were examined. The average duration of antiretroviral therapy was 5.3 years. Forty five children had lipodystrophy, i.e. 13.9% prevalence rate. One hundred and twenty seven different lipodystrophic lesions were noted, hence 82.7% lipoatrophy and 17.3% lipohypertrophy. The most common presentations were: face (32%), lower limbs (26%) and upper limbs (15.7%). Factors associated with lipoatrophy were: age above 10 years (P = 0.004); male gender (P = 0.0004); antiretroviral treatment duration of more than 60 months (P < 0.001) and treatment with stavudine (P = 0.01). Our study showed that lipodystrophy is not exceptional in children on antiretroviral therapy in Ouagadougou. However, more researches on lipid profiles of these children are necessary to prevent other common complications related to fat accumulation.
Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Revealed by Ophthalmologic Complications: A Report of One Case in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Caroline Yonaba, Aichatou Djibo, Chantal Zoungrana, Angèle Kalmogho, Ousseine Diallo, Patrice Tapsoba, Noufounikoun Méda, Ludovic Kam
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2015.54044
Abstract: Type 1 neurofibromatosis is an inherited multisystem neurocutaneous disease predisposing to tumors development. Serious skin and ophthalmologic complications, although rare, can occur throughout life. Furthermore in children, unawareness of early symptoms may delay diagnosis. We report the case of A.T. 8 years old, admitted for exophthalmosis and facial deformity dating back to the age of 2 years. The diagnosis of neurofibromatosis was suspected in the presence of light brown skin spots scattered all over the body and subcutaneous nodules. Ophthalmologic examination revealed bilateral exophthalmosis, eyelids neurofibromas, blepharoptosis, Lisch nodules, corneal edema, and optic atrophy. Head CT scan clarified the nature and the extent of ophthalmologic lesions. Treatment was symptomatic. Neurofibromatosis is rarely reported in children in our setting; it is probably under diagnosed. Clinicians should think of this diagnosis in presence of certain specific symptoms and make a clinical assessment.
Ulcerative Colitis in Infant: A Case Report at the University Hospital Yalgado Ouedraogo, Ouagadougou in Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Angèle Kalmogho, Abdoulaye Ouattara, Chantal Zoungrana, Caroline Yonaba, Flore Ouédraogo, Léonce Ilboudo, Laure Toguyeni, Ludovic Kam
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2016.63035
Abstract: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), characterized by acute exacerbations and remissions. We report the clinical case of an infant, an 8 months female baby. The time between disease onset and diagnosis of the disease was 6 months. It was from an unknown etiology. The main clinical picture was weight stagnation, mucoid bloody diarrhea, and rectal bleeding. The macroscopic aspect in anorectoscopy was an erythematous mucosa with healthy beaches intervals. The mucosa was bleeding easily on contact. Pathological examination realized within the various lesions of the association was highly suggestive. The suggested treatment was made of symptomatic, corticosteroids and immunosuppressant’s therapy. Conclusion: Ulcerative colitis is rare in infants and difficult to manage in our tropical context.
Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Revealed by Haemoptysis on a 10-Year-Old Girl at Paediatrics Department of Yalgado Ouedraogo University Hospital  [PDF]
Chantal Zoungrana Ouattara, Caroline Yonaba, Angèle Kalmogho, Flore Ouédraogo, Chantal Bouda, Ousseini Diallo, Ludovic Kam
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2017.71002
Abstract: Thoracic aortic aneurysm is a rather rare disorder in children and difficult to diagnose. It is generally linked to congenital heart defects or connective-tissue diseases. Our case is a 10-year-old girl admitted in the pediatric emergency care unit on January 19th, 2015 for massive haemoptysis and severe anaemia. Examination revealed severe anemia and a silent left lung. The Chest X-Ray revealed an abnormal mass on the upper left side of the mediastinum, and left lower lobe consolidation. The thoracic CT scan highlighted a 64 mm aneurysm of the subisthmic aorta with a thin 5 mm hole. It also showed pseudocoarctation of the aorta. Treatment in intensive care consisted of blood transfusion and iron supplement. She was due to travel abroad for cardio vascular surgery, but died on November 2016. Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm in our setting was discovered incidentally. In spite the fact that it is an extreme surgical emergency, in Burkina Faso, treatment can only be possible abroad upon medical evacuation.
Ocular Manifestations among HIV Infected Children in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Caroline Yonaba, Angèle Kalmogho, Kongnimissom Apoline Sondo, Madi Nacoulma, Kigocha Okengo, Flore Ouédraogo, Chantal Zoungrana, Aissata Kabore, Fla Koueta, Ludovic Kam
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2016.62027
Abstract: Ocular manifestations among HIV infected children are diverse and global incidence varies from 7% to 75%. At this age, eye lesions are often unnoticed because of the incapacity to express eye discomfort. The purpose of this study is to describe ocular manifestations among HIV-infected children and hence associated factors in the Department of Paediatrics at the Yalgado Ouédraogo Teaching Hospital. This was a cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study conducted between July 2014 and December 2014. A complete ophthalmic examination was systematically done to all HIV-positive children attending the clinic, as part of their routine medical visit. The most recent socio-demographic, clinical, biological and treatment data were registered. Seventy-nine children had an ocular examination and among them 92.4% were on ARV treatment. The incidence of ocular manifestations was 46.7%. Median age was 8 years old (interquartile 6 - 12 years old). Sex ratio was 1.3. The risk of ocular manifestations involvement among boys was twice than that of girls. More than half (59.5%) of children who had ocular problems had not expressed ocular discomfort. Ocular adnexal lesions were more common (35.4%) compared to eye segments (8.9%) lesions. Anterior segment and posterior segment lesions were statistically associated with immune system depression (p = 0.003 and 0.001). However, this relationship was not statistically significant (p = 0.15). Five out of seven children who had eye fundus lesions had CD4 count <350 cells/mm3. Ocular manifestations were very common among HIV infected children in our context. Ophthalmic examination should be systematic at admission and regularly repeated during follow-up.
A Tale of Two Motives: Endogenous Time Preference, Cash-in-Advance Constraints and Monetary Policy  [PDF]
Eric Kam
Modern Economy (ME) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/me.2013.46045

This paper demonstrates the effects of modeling an endogenous rate of time preference and two cash-in-advance constraints. If the constraint is levied on consumption and capital goods, time preference effects are neutral and cash-in-advance constraint effects invert the Tobin Effect. If the constraint applies solely to consumption goods, opposing motives are offsetting and monetary policy is super neutral.

A Note on Dynamic Roy’s Identity  [PDF]
Libo Xu, Kam Yu
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2014.47064
Abstract: We derive two forms of Roy’s identity for a dynamic consumption model. The results are potentially useful in theoretical and empirical studies.
Note-Taking Assisted with Computers—A Practical Method to Build a Connection between Chinese Pinyin & Characters  [PDF]
Wu Yang, Isabella Kam
Chinese Studies (ChnStd) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/chnstd.2018.74026
Abstract: Chinese beginners often find themselves in struggling for learning complicated Chinese characters (also known as Hanzi), after the acquisition of Chinese pronunciation (Chinese Phonetic Alphabets, also called Pinyin). Actual experience of living and studying in China exposes a fact that people on daily basis are not using Pinyin to assist pronunciation. All means of social media only have Hanzi for people to recognize. The connection between Pinyin and Hanzi is a difficult part to accomplish for Chinese language beginners. Based on several years of teaching experience of Chinese language to speakers of other languages and working memory drill in English-Chinese interpretation, the author explores a practical way to build this connection between Pinyin and Hanzi by taking-notes using computers and mobile phones in class. In alliance with fun language teaching methodologies, i.e., the Audiolingual method, Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) to reassure the memory rehearsal drill in association with imaginary situations. The research experiment results show that this method can stimulate beginners’ learning enthusiasm and arouse their confidence and initiative in the long-run Chinese language learning process and it can facilitate Chinese beginners to better communicate in the fast-changing social media.
Stackelberg-Walras and Cournot-Walras Equilibria in Mixed Markets: A Comparison  [PDF]
Ludovic A. Julien
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2012.21013
Abstract: In this note, we compare two strategic general equilibrium concepts: the Stackelberg-Walras equilibrium and the Cournot-Walras equilibrium. We thus consider a market exchange economy embodying atoms and a continuum of traders. It is shown that, when the preferences of the small traders are represented by Cobb-Douglas utility functions, the Stackel-berg-Walras and the Cournot-Walras equilibria can coincide only if 1) the endowments and preferences of atoms are identical and 2) the elasticity of the followers’ best response functions are equal to zero in equilibrium.
Stackelberg-Cournot and Cournot Equilibria in a Mixed Markets Exchange Economy  [PDF]
Ludovic A. Julien
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2012.23056
Abstract: In this note, we compare two strategic general equilibrium concepts: the Stackelberg-Cournot equilibrium and the Cournot equilibrium. We thus consider a market exchange economy including atoms and a continuum of traders, who behave strategically. We show that, when the preferences of the small traders are represented by Cobb-Douglas utility functions and the atoms have the same utility functions and endowments, the Stackelberg-Cournot and the Cournot equilibrium equilibria coincide if and only if the followers’ best responses functions have a zero slope at the SCE.
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