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Controle de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf com adi??o de ureia à calda do glifosato
Ruas, Renato Adriane Alves;Lima, Júlio Cesar Louren?o;Appelt, Maicon Fábio;Dezordi, Luciel Rauni;
Pesquisa Agropecuária Tropical , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1983-40632012000400013
Abstract: the addition of nitrogen sources to herbicide spray solutions has been related to improvements in phytosanitary treatments. this study aimed at evaluating the control of brachiaria decumbens with urea added to the glyphosate spray solution. treatments consisted of a combination of glyphosate (0.0 g ha-1, 360.0 g ha-1, 720.0 g ha-1 and 1,080.0 g ha-1 of the a.i.) and urea doses (0.0 g l-1, 7.5 g l-1, 15.0 g l-1 and 25.0 g l-1 of the spray solution), and a control with no application, in a randomized blocks design, in a 4x4 factorial scheme, with three replications. applications were carried out with the aid of a co2 constant pressure sprayer, equipped with a bar for two flat jet nozzles, operating at the pressure of 300.0 kpa. densities and coverage percentages of plants leaves, provided by the jet nozzles drops, were evaluated, as well as the instantaneous gas exchanges, at 12 a.m., at 2, 4, 6 and 11 days after application (daa), by using a portable infrared gas analyzer. visual evaluations of control percentage were carried out at 7, 14, 21 and 28 daa. no difference was observed in the density and coverage of leaves, for the different urea concentrations. the addition of urea to the glyphosate spray solution improved the b. decumbens control, regardless the herbicide dose, up to the 25.0 g l-1 spray solution concentration. the gas exchange of b. decumbens was lower after 6 daa, in treatments with higher concentrations of urea in the herbicide spray solution, resulting in a higher control level for these treatments.
S.I.G. para a gest?o de custos por qualidade: estudo de caso em uma cooperativa de café
Oliveira, Luciel Henrique de;
Revista de Administra??o Contemporanea , 1997, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-65551997000300006
Abstract: the executive information systems (eis) used in brazilian coffee co-operatives usually control only the quantitative stock by kind of coffee and do not control specific costs. so they consider the average of the purchases prices in a determined period, thus rendering impossible to know the blends real cost according to their quality. therefore the real result of the operations is known only if a long period is analyzed, because it is influenced by fluctuations of several coffee kinds purchased and sold. the chief purpose of this paper is to investigate a real case in a large brazilian coffee co-operative; it proposes a model for an eis component, aiming to integrate the stock management with management of cost by quality, using the concept of an activity based cost. from an amplified view of the enterprise in the market, we consider that the co-operatives may use associated coffee batches for later purchase or devolution of a same species product. in this way, integrating the co-operative stock control with the correspondent portions of the associated partners, it is possible to get a more efficient control and planning of the market in view of the co-operative risks reduction.
Avalia??o da rela??o entre o déficit de aten??o e o desempenho grafo-motor em estudantes com Síndrome de Down
Macêdo, Luciel;Lima, Iris;Cardoso, Fabrício;Beresford, Heron;
Revista Brasileira de Educa??o Especial , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-65382009000300007
Abstract: this study aimed to evaluate the relationship between attention-deficit disorder and the development of graphomotor skills in language acquisition processes related to reading and writing readiness skills. the participants of the study were five students with down syndrome, both sexes, aged 17-21, enrolled at presidente costa e silva school, belém-pa. the working methodology was a contextual evaluation within a descriptive and correlational study framework. as a methodological strategy, two tests were performed: a mental concentration processing test aimed to evaluate the reaction time to an input stimulus and a graphomotor developmental test was designed to analyze the variables involved in the development of the graphomotor skills. the results indicated that there was a strict relationship between rt (reaction time) and the scores on the graphomotor tests. a low rt implied a low score on the graphomotor developmental test while a high rt implied a high score on the graphomotor developmental test.
Luciel Henrique de Oliveira,Fábio Eiki Ueno
Revista da Universidade Vale do Rio Verde , 2011,
Abstract: Tubaína is the generic name of a tutti-frutti flavored soft drink, produced by Brazilian industries, with many regional variations. These soft drinks are generally popular, very sweet, withlower price and local brand. This research aimed to describe the economic importance of the Brazilian soft drinks, from the point of view of small and medium manufacturers. What strategies used by theseindustries to face the big companies competition? How can these companies survive and grow in such a competitive market? The study had three objectives: (1) know and understand the popular soft drinkindustry, highlighting the participation of regional industries, (2) raise the popular soft drink industries of S o Paulo State, highlighting the most relevant cases, (3) analyze prominent cases, relating them to theories of strategy envisaged. We found that the main strategy of small and mid-sized companies is to prioritize and focus their strength in regional markets where their factories are located. Producers invest in production vertical integration, modern equipment similar to those used by large enterprises, and innovation to reduce costs and gain a competitive advantage. Always they try to follow the trends set by big players hit the market. Combining the lower prices and a quality product to the local tradition of consuming these soft drinks, these companies can compete and annoy the major sector’s industries.
Ankle Blood Pressure and Pulse Pressure as Predictors of Cerebrovascular Morbidity and Mortality in a Prospective Follow-Up Study
Heikki J. Hietanen,Rauni P kk nen,Veikko Salomaa
Stroke Research and Treatment , 2010, DOI: 10.4061/2010/729391
Abstract: Background and Objective. We examined the association of elevated ankle blood pressure (ABP), together with exercise blood pressure, with incident cerebrovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality in a prospective follow-up study of 3,808 patients. The results were compared with pulse pressure, another indicator of arterial stiffness. Methods. Patients with normal ankle and exercise brachial blood pressures were taken as the reference group. Pulse pressure was considered as quartiles with the lowest quartile as the reference category. Results. A total of 170 subjects had a CV event during the follow-up. Multivariate adjusted hazard ratio of a CV event was 2.24 (95% CI 1.43–3.52, <.0001) in patients with abnormal ABP. The pulse pressure was significant only in the model adjusted for age and sex. Conclusion. The risk of a future CV event was elevated already in those patients among whom elevated ABP was the only abnormal finding. As a risk marker, ABP is superior to the pulse pressure.
Ankle blood pressure as a predictor of total and cardiovascular mortality
Heikki Hietanen, Rauni P??kk?nen, Veikko Salomaa
BMC Cardiovascular Disorders , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2261-8-3
Abstract: A prospective follow-up study of 3,858 consecutive ambulatory patients (mean age 51 years, 65,9% male) referred to a symptom-limited exercise test between August 1989 and December 1995. The cohort was followed up for all-cause and CVD mortality until December 31, 2004, by record linkage with the National Causes-of-Death Register. The independent value of ankle blood pressure as a predictor of cardiovascular and total mortality was assessed using Cox proportional hazards modelling.The average follow-up time was 14 years, during which 346 persons died, 108 of them due to CVD. Persons with normal (<140 mmHg) resting brachial blood pressure, ankle blood pressure < 175 mmHg and exercise blood pressure at moderate exercise level ≤215 mmHg at baseline investigation, had the best prognosis and were taken as the reference category. Among persons with elevated ankle blood pressure (≥175 mmHg) but normal or borderline resting brachial pressure and normal exercise blood pressure (≤215 mmHg) at moderate exercise level the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HR, 95% confidence interval) for CVD and total mortality were 2.70 (1.52 – 4.80) and 2.13 (1.58 – 2.85), respectively. Similar and equally significant HRs were observed in persons with both elevated ankle blood pressure and elevated exercise blood pressure, as well as in those persons with elevated exercise blood pressure but ankle blood pressure < 175 mmHg.These results suggest that the ankle blood pressure has an independent value as a marker of arterial stiffness or subclinical atherosclerosis and a risk of future mortality in middle-aged, asymptomatic persons.There are several established procedures for estimating subclinical atherosclerotic changes in human arteries. Increased carotid intima-media thickness is associated with future cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events [1,2]. Pulse wave velocity is related to arterial wall stiffness, future hypertension and cardiovascular diseases [3,4]. Coronary artery calcium scr
Nitrogen Release in Pristine and Drained Peat Profiles in Response to Water Table Fluctuations: A Mesocosm Experiment
Merjo P. P. Laine,Rauni Str?mmer,Lauri Arvola
Applied and Environmental Soil Science , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/694368
Abstract: In the northern hemisphere, variability in hydrological conditions was suggested to increase as a consequence of climate warming, which may result in longer droughts than the area has experienced before. Due to their predominately anoxic conditions, peatlands are expected to respond to changes in hydrological conditions, such as successive drying and rewetting periods. As peatlands are rich in organic matter, any major changes in water table may influence the decomposition of it. The hydrological conditions may also influence release of nutrients from peat profiles as well as affect their transport to downstream ecosystems. In our mesocosm experiment, artificial water table fluctuations in pristine peat profiles caused an increase in dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and ammonium concentrations, while no response was found in drained peat profiles, although originating from the same peatland complex. 1. Introduction High latitudes are expected to experience considerable climatic warming during the 21st century [1]. As a response to climatic change, the position of the water table in boreal and subarctic peatlands will be modified [2], and heavy precipitation events and number of wet days are expected to increase in northern Europe [3]. Climate change predictions for northern Europe, and specifically for Finland, indicate an increase in precipitation by 5–40% and in air temperature by 2–7 degrees Celsius (°C) by the 2080s, depending on the climate model and scenario used [4]. Variation in hydrological processes in both space and time causes changes in nutrient transport from land to surface waters [5]. Modelling studies predict that plausible high climate change scenarios will increase the annual N fluxes in small, forested watersheds in Finland. Increase in 30 years in dissolved inorganic nitrogen can be as high as 25% [6]. Holmberg et al. [7] predicted that an increase in total nitrogen load in 40 years can be 26%. Studies concerning the effects of fluctuating water table on N compounds and their concentrations in soil water in peatlands are scarce. Even though anaerobic bacteria are involved in the nitrogen cycle in various ecosystems [8], N mineralization in peatlands is usually more effective in aerobic than in anaerobic conditions and not least in bogs [9]. Therefore, rewetting after a dry period brings an interesting aspect for understanding nutrient dynamics in a changing climate. Also at high latitudes, where annual rainfall is predicted to increase, there may be heavy rainfall events which follow exceptionally dry seasons. For example, in
Organizational Risk Management: A Case Study in Companies that have won the Brazilian Quatity Award Prize
Di Serio,Luiz Carlos; de Oliveira,Luciel Henrique; Siegert Schuch,Luiz Marcelo;
Journal of technology management & innovation , 2011, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-27242011000200016
Abstract: supply chain optimization, company interdependency and the establishment of global operating networks have all made companies more susceptible to uncertainty and risk. literature on the subject lacks analysis of how companies have implemented these systems and what the results have been. this paper describes the implementation of enterprise risk management (erm) in three brazilian world-class companies and evaluates the hindrances and facilitating factors. it also considers the results achieved in performance and company culture. finally, we propose a model associating the benefits of risk management to the level of organizational transformation.
Metabolic profiles in five high-producing Swedish dairy herds with a history of abomasal displacement and ketosis
Lena Steng?rde, Madeleine Tr?vén, Ulf Emanuelson, Kjell Holtenius, Jan Hultgren, Rauni Niskanen
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1751-0147-50-31
Abstract: Body condition score and metabolic profiles around calving in five high-producing herds with high incidences of abomasal displacement and ketosis were assessed using linear mixed models (94 cows, 326 examinations). Cows were examined and blood sampled every three weeks from four weeks ante partum (ap) to nine weeks postpartum (pp). Blood parameters studied were glucose, fructosamine, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), insulin, β-hydroxybutyrate, aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase, haptoglobin and cholesterol.All herds had overconditioned dry cows that lost body condition substantially the first 4–6 weeks pp. Two herds had elevated levels of NEFA ap and three herds had elevated levels pp. One herd had low levels of insulin ap and low levels of cholesterol pp. Haptoglobin was detected pp in all herds and its usefulness is discussed.NEFA was the parameter that most closely reflected the body condition losses while these losses were not seen in glucose and fructosamine levels. Insulin and cholesterol were potentially useful in herd profiles but need further investigation. Increased glutamate dehydrogenase suggested liver cell damage in all herds.At the onset of lactation the nutrient demand increases dramatically and faster than the increase in feed intake. Thus most dairy cows face negative energy balance (NEB) in early lactation. Postpartum (pp) feed intake is lower in cows with higher body condition scores (BCS) ante partum (ap), leaving them in NEB for a longer period than cows with normal or low BCS [1,2]. Most diseases in dairy cows occur during the first two weeks pp [3]. Metabolic disorders are highly multi-factorial and a wide range of animal, management and feed factors may lead to such problems. Fatty liver may occur around calving when the cow is in NEB and blood levels of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) increase as the cow mobilizes adipose tissue. Fatty liver has been shown to be associated with other diseases in the periparturient perio
Uneven distribution of ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome
Christian Rylander, Ulf Tylén, Rauni Rossi-Norrlund, Peter Herrmann, Michael Quintel, Bj?rn Bake
Critical Care , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/cc3058
Abstract: A prospective, descriptive study was performed of 25 sedated and paralysed ARDS patients, mechanically ventilated with a positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 5 cmH2O in a multidisciplinary intensive care unit of a tertiary university hospital. The volume of poorly ventilated or non-ventilated gas was assumed to correspond to a difference between the ventilated gas volume, determined as the end-expiratory lung volume by rebreathing of sulphur hexafluoride (EELVSF6), and the total gas volume, calculated from computed tomography images in the end-expiratory position (EELVCT). The methods used were validated by similar measurements in 20 healthy subjects in whom no poorly ventilated or non-ventilated gas is expected to be found.EELVSF6 was 66% of EELVCT, corresponding to a mean difference of 0.71 litre. EELVSF6 and EELVCT were significantly correlated (r2 = 0.72; P < 0.001). In the healthy subjects, the two methods yielded almost identical results.About one-third of the total pulmonary gas volume seems poorly ventilated or non-ventilated in sedated and paralysed ARDS patients when mechanically ventilated with a PEEP of 5 cmH2O. Uneven distribution of ventilation due to airway closure and/or obstruction is likely to be involved.Decreased functional residual capacity (FRC) and increased pulmonary resistance are hallmarks of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) [1]. Pathophysiological mechanisms include alveolar flooding and/or collapse, which contribute to shunting of blood and to hypoxaemia [2]. Whether true alveolar collapse or intraluminar oedema with increased impedance dominates is a matter of debate [3]. Furthermore, the expiratory flow limitation observed in ARDS patients has been attributed to the closure of small airways [4]. Pulmonary gas distal to such an airway closure/obstruction may be poorly ventilated or non-ventilated. If so, it might not be included in FRC measurements based on tracer gas dilution. The end-expiratory lung volume determined by
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