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Interferometry with large molecules: exploration of coherence, decoherence and novel beam methods
Arndt, Markus;Hackermüller, Lucia;Reiger, Elisabeth;
Brazilian Journal of Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-97332005000200004
Abstract: quantum experiments with complex objects are of fundamental interest as they allow to quantitatively trace the quantum-to-classical transition under the influence of various interactions between the quantum object and its environment. we briefly review the present status of matter wave interferometry and decoherence studies with large molecules and focus in particular on the challenges for novel beam methods for molecular quantum optics with clusters, macromolecules or nanocrystals.
The wave nature of biomolecules and fluorofullerenes
Lucia Hackermueller,Stefan Uttenthaler,Klaus Hornberger,Elisabeth Reiger,Bjoern Brezger,Anton Zeilinger,Markus Arndt
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.91.090408
Abstract: We demonstrate quantum interference for tetraphenylporphyrin, the first biomolecule exhibiting wave nature, and for the fluorofullerene C60F48 using a near-field Talbot-Lau interferometer. For the porphyrins, which are distinguished by their low symmetry and their abundant occurence in organic systems, we find the theoretically expected maximal interference contrast and its expected dependence on the de Broglie wavelength. For C60F48 the observed fringe visibility is below the expected value, but the high contrast still provides good evidence for the quantum character of the observed fringe pattern. The fluorofullerenes therefore set the new mark in complexity and mass (1632 amu) for de Broglie wave experiments, exceeding the previous mass record by a factor of two.
BRICS, a Multi-Centre “Legal Network”?  [PDF]
Lucia Scaffardi
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2014.52013

The paper analyzes the phenomenon of the BRICS group and its transformation into BRICs. From the first Summit, whose final declarations were mainly centered on economic, financial and commercial themes, the group attention has broadened its horizons, as to encompass health, agriculture, environment, international relations. The BRICS working method seems to suggest a new pattern of inter-state relations, based on peer-to-peer cooperation, experiences sharing and “soft” policy transfer. Given the difficult classification of this new “entity”, the author suggests considering it more as a network, where there is not a singular hegemony power, but where the relevance of the different countries varies according to the issue discussed in the Summit.

Kohei Kishimoto,Ryan P. Lynch,Jamie Reiger,Vanessa R. Yingling
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine , 2012,
Abstract: There have been few studies examining the short-term effect of high-impact activities on bone metabolism measured by bone serum marker concentrations. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of short-term high-impact jump activity on bone turnover in female college-aged non-athletes. Twenty six healthy females were randomly assigned to a control or jump group. The subjects jumped 5 days per week for 2 weeks. The participants completed 10 jumps per session. A general health questionnaire and a bone-specific physical activity assessment instrument (BPAQ) were completed. BPAQ scores were calculated based on the past history of exercise. Blood draws were taken in both groups before and after the two-week experimental period. The vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) of all jumps and jump height were measured for each subject daily and the osteogenic index (OI) was measured. Concentrations of serum osteocalcin (OC), Bone Specific Alkaline Phosphatase (BAP), C-Terminal Telopeptides of Type I Collagen (CTX) and plasma Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase (TRAP5b) were assessed pre and post jump protocol to measure bone formation and resoprtion respectively. A significant interaction (time x group) was found in TRAP5b, and BAP values (p < 0.05). There was a significant decrease in CTX and BAP values in the jump group (p < 0.05) after the two week jump protocol. No significant interactions or changes were observed in OC values for either the jump or the control group. Two weeks of jump activity consisting of 10 jumps/day for 5 days/week with a weekly osteogenic index of 52.6 significantly decreased markers of bone resorption (TRAP5b and CTX) and bone formation (BAP) in young female non- athletes.
A scalable optical detection scheme for matter wave interferometry
Alexander Stibor,Andre Stefanov,Fabienne Goldfarb,Elisabeth Reiger,Markus Arndt
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/7/1/224
Abstract: Imaging of surface adsorbed molecules is investigated as a novel detection method for matter wave interferometry with fluorescent particles. Mechanically magnified fluorescence imaging turns out to be an excellent tool for recording quantum interference patterns. It has a good sensitivity and yields patterns of high visibility. The spatial resolution of this technique is only determined by the Talbot gratings and can exceed the optical resolution limit by an order of magnitude. A unique advantage of this approach is its scalability: for certain classes of nano-sized objects, the detection sensitivity will even increase significantly with increasing size of the particle.
Protective Effects of Many Citrus Flavonoids on Cartilage Degradation Process  [PDF]
Lucia Crascì, Annamaria Panico
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2013.43035
Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of many citrus flavanones, such as neoeriocitrin, naringin and neohesperidin, in cartilage degradation. Degenerative joint disease involved degradation of joints, including articular cartilage and subchondral bone. When bone surfaces become less well protected by cartilage, bone may be exposed and damaged. The degradation cartilage is mediated by alteration of the balance between anabolic and catabolic processes, changes in proteolytic enzyme activity, mechanical disruption of the cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM), or a combination of these processes. We examine the capability of neoeriocitrin, naringin and neohesperidin, to inhibit metalloproteinase (MMP)-13, collagenase involved in degradation of cartilage matrix components. Also, we assay the flavonoids effect on reducing of Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) release, and restore Nitric oxide (NO) levels in explant of human articular cartilage. Our results suggest that neoeriocitrin, naringin and neohesperidin are a potential therapeutic agent to protect cartilage tissue.
Simulating the Seismic Response of Concentrically Braced Frames Using Physical Theory Brace Models  [PDF]
Liang Chen, Lucia Tirca
Open Journal of Civil Engineering (OJCE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojce.2013.32A008

The aim of this paper is to assess the accuracy of brace models formulated in Drain 2DX and OpenSees by comparing the simulated results with those obtained from experimental tests. Both, Drain 2DX and OpenSees rely on the physical theory brace model. In this study, experimental tests conducted on the behaviour of structural hollow section braces subjected to symmetric and asymmetric quasi-static cyclic loading were selected for calibrating the numerical model. In addition, the predicted failure strain parameter resulted from a proposed empirical equation as a function of slenderness ratio, width-to-thickness ratio and steel properties was used to define the low-cycle fatigue material that was assigned to model braces in OpenSees. It is concluded that both Drain 2DX and OpenSees brace models give a good prediction in terms of maximum tensile and buckling force, as well as interstorey drift. However, in Drain 2DX, the brace model is not able to replicate the out-of-plan buckling and the braced frame model cannot provide an accurate response when the system experiences highly nonlinear demand. To emphasise the differences in performance between Drain 2DX and OpenSees, the behaviour of a 4-storey concentrically braced frame with zipper bracing configuration, located in Victoria, BC, was investigated.

Effects of Water Distribution Uniformity on Waxy Corn (Zea mays L.) Yield: Preliminary Results  [PDF]
Lucia Bortolini, Marco Martello
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.611098

To face climatic changes, the increase of frequency and severity of droughts, and economic development pressures, Water Management Institutions point at the necessity of water conserving. A sustainable demand-led approach is the most viable option, focusing on achieving more efficient irrigation practices instead of less sustainable expansion of supply. The aim of this work is to investigate on some aspects of the rational water management for the irrigation of corn in order to evaluate the actual possibility of introduction of drip irrigation systems on the Venetian Plain. Trials were carried out on a farm located in Isola della Scala (Verona, Italy) in an area of about 13 ha (12 ha with a drip irrigation system and 1 ha with a solid-set sprinkler system); the effects of the performance of the two systems on waxy corn yield were considered. In particular, water distribution uniformity, water use efficiency, and yield performance of irrigation systems were evaluated. DUlq and CU coefficients for distribution uniformity and IWUe and WUEb indexes for water use efficiency were calculated. To visualize and better analyze the distribution uniformity, the crop yield and the efficiency parameters, ArcGIS 10 (ESRI?) with IDW interpolation were used to create maps. First results show a good water uniformity distribution in the drip irrigation system but only with a careful and proper design of the entire system. As regards the water use efficiency, drip irrigation values are lower than those of sprinkler irrigation (-46% for IWUe and -25% for WUEb), probably due to different irrigation management and water volumes used: in fact, drip irrigation was scheduled every three days, while only supplemental operations were done for sprinkler irrigation. No statistical correlation was found between application rate and yield for both

Virginia Woolf’s History of Sexual Victimization: A Case Study in Light of Current Research  [PDF]
Lucia C. A. Williams
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.510128

Virginia Woolf’s history of sexual victimization is presented in a case study format, and reviewed in light of the present literature on the impact of child sexual abuse (CSA) to human development. The methodology to compose the case study involved reviewing the works of Woolf’s main biographers, the author’s memoirs, and the groundbreaking work of Louise DeSalvo, presenting data from Woolf’s diaries and letters, in which sexual abuse is disclosed. Woolf was sexually abused by her two older half-brothers. The abuse was extremely traumatic, and lasted several years. The various mental health symptoms that Woolf experienced are consistent with the literature of CSA. Woolf also presented some adequate coping skills by disclosing the CSA publicly, keeping records of her depressive episodes, and seeking help. Like many incest survivors, Woolf’s sexual abuse was minimized and questioned by biographers. In addition to Woolf’s enormous literary legacy, her knowledge of psychology was impressive. She was a feminist, as well as a visionary in exploring the effects of CSA before other incest survivors. Understanding her life influences is advantageous, not only to literary scholars but to most readers, and mainly clinicians and researchers are interested in the dynamics of sexual abuse.

Multicriteria Partial Cooperative Games  [PDF]
Graziano Pieri, Lucia Pusillo
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/am.2015.612186
Abstract: In this paper, we study an approach to environmental topics, through multicriteria partial cooperative games. In general, not all players wish to cooperate to solve a common problem, so we consider a model where only some decision-makers cooperate. Starting from the transformation of a coalition game into a strategic one, we give a new concept of solution for partial cooperative models proving an existence theorem.
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