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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5341 matches for " Luca Marchiol "
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Towards Green Remediation: Metal Phytoextraction and Growth Analysis of Sorghum bicolor under Different Agronomic Management  [PDF]
Guido Fellet, Luca Marchiol
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2011.23018
Abstract: The role agronomy plays in the management of phytotechnologies is a significant example of the answers that the agrosciences can offer to the issues of society in the field of Green Remediation. This paper reports a study designed to test how the principles of classical plant growth analysis can be used in the field of phytoremediation. In the framework of a phytoremediation field trial set up in Torviscosa (Udine, Italy), Sorghum bicolor was grown receiving mineral fertilization, organic amendment, or neither as control. Crop growth was examined following classical functional growth analysis. Leaf area index (LAI), relative growth-rate (RGR) and shoot to weight ratio (SWR) showed how plants behaved in response to the treatments. Sorghum bicolor showed a poor potential for phytoremediation under our experimental conditions. However, some parameters of classical crop growth analysis resulted potentially useful also in the field of phytoremediation.
Synthesis of metal nanoparticles in living plants
Luca Marchiol
Italian Journal of Agronomy , 2012, DOI: 10.4081/ija.2012.e37
Abstract: In recent years, nanotechnologies have evolved from a multidisciplinary research concept to a primary scientific field. Rapid growth of new technologies has led to the development of nanoscale device components, advanced sensors, and novel biomimetic materials. In addition to chemical and physical approaches a new, simple and cheaper strategy to synthesize metal nanoparticles utilizes biological tools such as bacteria, yeasts, fungi, and plants. The majority of research has investigated ex vivo synthesis of nanoparticles in plants, proving that this method is very cost effective, and can therefore be used as an economic and valuable alternative for the large-scale production of metal nanoparticles. Instead, very few studies have been devoted to investigating the potential of living plants. The synthesis of metal nanoparticles using living plants is discussed in this review. So far, metal NPs formation in living plants has been observed for gold, silver, copper and zinc oxide. To date the results achieved demonstrate the feasibility of this process; however several aspects of the plant physiology involved should be clarified in order to be able to gain better control and modulate the formation of these new materials. Plant sciences could significantly contribute to fully exploring the potential of phyto-synthesis of metal nanoparticles.
Agronomy towards the Green Economy. Optimization of metal phytoextraction
Luca Marchiol,Guido Fellet
Italian Journal of Agronomy , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/ija.2011.e30
Abstract: Traditional techniques for remediation of polluted soils are based on a physical-chemical approach; such techniques are expensive, have adverse effects on soil quality and are often highly expensive. In the scenario of the Green Economy, low cost and impact technologies should be promoted. Phytotechnologies are remediation technologies that use plants for the containment, degradation or removal of contaminants from polluted matrices for the restoration of degraded ecosystems. The process of phytoextraction is substantially based on plant-soil interactions that involves the mass transfer of an inorganic pollutant from the bulk soil to the plant biomass. This implies that the management of the two elements of the system (plant and soil) should have effects on the efficiency of the process. As phytoremediation is essentially an agronomic approach, its success depends ultimately on standard agronomic practices. The present paper aims give an overview on the role of agronomy in the optimization of metal phytoextraction is focused.
Agronomy towards the Green Economy: optimization of phytoremediation
Luca Marchiol,Guido Fellet
Italian Journal of Agronomy , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/ija.2011.e30
Abstract: Traditional techniques for remediation of polluted soils are based on a physical-chemical approach; such techniques are expensive, have adverse effects on soil quality and are often highly expensive. In the scenario of the Green Economy, low cost and impact technologies should be promoted. Phytotechnologies are remediation technologies that use plants for the containment, degradation or removal of contaminants from polluted matrices for the restoration of degraded ecosystems. The process of phytoextraction is substantially based on plant-soil interactions that involves the mass transfer of an inorganic pollutant from the bulk soil to the plant biomass. This implies that the management of the two elements of the system (plant and soil) should have effects on the efficiency of the process. As phytoremediation is essentially an agronomic approach, its success depends ultimately on standard agronomic practices. The present paper aims give an overview on the role of agronomy in the optimization of metal phytoextraction is focused.
Phytoremediation of soils polluted by heavy metals and metalloids using crops: (i) the state of the art
Luca Marchiol,Guido Fellet,Giuseppe Zerbi
Italian Journal of Agronomy , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/ija.2010.s2.3
Abstract: Phytoremediation has a strong potential as a natural, solar-energy driven remediation approach for the treatment of soils and sediments polluted. Research has focused several aspects of the process of uptake, translocation and storage of heavy metals in plants. However we can not predict when the technique could find practical application on large scale. Beyond the evaluation of the best suited species, little has been inquired on the multiple aspects of the agronomic management of phytoextraction. This review provides a synthesis of current knowledge on phytoextraction of metals from soils and their accumulation in plants.
Modelling chelate-Induced phytoextraction: functional models predicting bioavailability of metals in soil, metal uptake and shoot biomass
Pasqualina Sacco,Fabrizio Mazzetto,Luca Marchiol
Italian Journal of Agronomy , 2006, DOI: 10.4081/ija.2006.271
Abstract: Chelate-induced phytoextraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils requires special care to determine, a priori, the best method of chelate application, in terms of both dose and timing. In fact, the chelate dose must assure the bioavailability of the metal to the plant without increasing leaching risk and giving toxic effects. Three mathematical models are here proposed for usefully interpreting the processes taking place: a) increased soil bioavailability of metals by chelants; b) metal uptake by plants; c) variation in plant biomass. The models are implemented and validated using data from pot and lysimeter trials. Both the chelate dose and the time elapsed since its application affected metal bioavailability and plant response. Contrariwise, the distribution strategy (single vs. split application) seems to produce significant differences both in plant growth and metal uptake, but not in soil metal bioavailability. The proposed models may help to understand and predict the chelate dose – effect relationship with less experimental work.
Modelling chelate-Induced phytoextraction: functional models predicting bioavailability of metals in soil, metal uptake and shoot biomass
Pasqualina Sacco,Fabrizio Mazzetto,Luca Marchiol
Italian Journal of Agronomy , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/ija.2006.271
Abstract: Chelate-induced phytoextraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils requires special care to determine, a priori, the best method of chelate application, in terms of both dose and timing. In fact, the chelate dose must assure the bioavailability of the metal to the plant without increasing leaching risk and giving toxic effects. Three mathematical models are here proposed for usefully interpreting the processes taking place: a) increased soil bioavailability of metals by chelants; b) metal uptake by plants; c) variation in plant biomass. The models are implemented and validated using data from pot and lysimeter trials. Both the chelate dose and the time elapsed since its application affected metal bioavailability and plant response. Contrariwise, the distribution strategy (single vs. split application) seems to produce significant differences both in plant growth and metal uptake, but not in soil metal bioavailability. The proposed models may help to understand and predict the chelate dose – effect relationship with less experimental work.
Phytoremediation of soils polluted by heavy metals and metalloids using crops: (i) the state of the art
Luca Marchiol,Guido Fellet,Giuseppe Zerbi
Italian Journal of Agronomy , 2008, DOI: 10.4081/ija.2010.s2.3
Abstract: Phytoremediation has a strong potential as a natural, solar-energy driven remediation approach for the treatment of soils and sediments polluted. Research has focused several aspects of the process of uptake, translocation and storage of heavy metals in plants. However we can not predict when the technique could find practical application on large scale. Beyond the evaluation of the best suited species, little has been inquired on the multiple aspects of the agronomic management of phytoextraction. This review provides a synthesis of current knowledge on phytoextraction of metals from soils and their accumulation in plants.
Phytoremediation of soils polluted by heavy metals and metalloids using crops: (ii) early results from the in situ experiment of torviscosa (udine)
Luca Marchiol,Guido Fellet,Domenico Perosa,Patrizia Zaccheo
Italian Journal of Agronomy , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/ija.2010.s2.15
Abstract: Two annual high biomass yield crops – Sorghum bicolor and Helianthus annuus – were grown in a soil polluted by pyrite cinders. Specific aims of this work were: to observe the concentration of metals in plants during the crop cycle and to establish the amount of metal removal by the crops. The field trial was arranged in a randomized block design. The concentrations of heavy metals in the soil were: As 309, Cd 4.90, Co 50.9, Cu 1527, Pb 233 and Zn 980 mg kg-1. The crops received respectively mineral fertilization and organic amendment while plants in control soil did not receive any input. The phytoextraction potential of crops was estimated during the whole growth cycle; the concentration of the metals in the plant roots and in the harvestable biomass and two bioconcentration factors are reported. The amelioration of the nutritive status of soil resulted highly effective for the biomass yield but not in the concentration of metals in plant fractions. The evaluation of the potential of phytoremediation of our plants compared to other crops in terms of metal removal, was positive. Sorghum performed better than sunflower removing from the soil 220 g ha-1 of As, 5.6 g ha-1 of Cd, 30.2 g ha-1 of Co, 820 g ha-1 of Cu, 107 g ha-1 of Pb and 1944 g ha-1 of Zn.
Germination and seedling growth of Indian mustard exposed to cadmium and chromium
Luca Marchiol,Silvia Assolari,Guido Fellet,Giuseppe Zerbi
Italian Journal of Agronomy , 2013, DOI: 10.4081/ija.2006.45
Abstract: To make phytoremediation a technically viable option for large-scale applications we need plants that are able to guarantee high biomass yield as well as high accumulation of heavy metals in their aerial parts. The aim of this investigation was to study the performance of aquacultured plants of Indian mustard in the presence of different concentrations of cadmium and chromium since seed germination. The effects on germination and growth of seedlings of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern) cv. WNFP, Varuna and Barton, were investigated in/under hydroponic conditions during a 4-week experiment. Cadmium and chromium were provided since germination as cadmium nitrate Cd(NO3)2 and chromium bichromate K2Cr2O7 (0.5, 1 and 1.5 M). Plant biomass growth measured at the end of the experiments varied with the different metal concentrations in the nutrient solution and the accumulation of the elements in the plant fractions differed significantly among/between cultivars. Ability in the uptake of metals and their mobilization and storage in the aerial plant biomass, expressed by the bioconcentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF), respectively, are the most important traits of plants with phytoextraction potential. Brassica juncea was confirmed as being a highly tolerant species, but poor metal translocation values were registered, therefore the high amount of Cd and Cr concentrated in the root systems did not migrate to the aerial, harvestable, part of the plant.
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