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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 9360 matches for " Low-Income "
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Fatores socioecon?micos associados ao excesso de peso em popula??o de baixa renda do Nordeste brasileiro
Barbosa,Janine Maciel; Cabral,Poliana Coelho; Lira,Pedro Israel Cabral de; Florêncio,Telma Maria de Menezes Toledo;
Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición , 2009,
Abstract: the purpose of this research was to describe the overweight prevalence and factors potentially associated to it in adults residents in areas of social exclusion. the sample consisted of 3,214 individuals, aged 20 to 69 years, in shanty town in maceió-al, northeast of brazil. body mass index (bmi) was used in the nutritional evaluation. overweight prevalence of 41.2% was found (46,2% females vs. 32,6% males, p<0.001). the analysis indicated there is higher chance of getting overweight, both for males and females, in higher age ranges (prevalence ratio [rp]= 1.62, ci95% 1.37-1.90 and rp= 1.55, ci95% 1.41-1.69, respectively), and among those from rural areas (rp= 1.27, ci95% 1.07-1.51 and rp=2.23, ci95% 2.01-2.47, respectively). in males, the overweight risk is directly associated to the schooling level (rp=0.78, ci95% 0.63-0.97), whereas, in females it is inversely associated (rp=1.40, ci95% 1.17-1.66). a higher overweight risk was evidenced among men of higher income (rp= 1.29, ci95% 1.09-1.53). in general, small improvements in variables related to housing conditions and consumption goods are associated to higher overweight risk. even in populations of low socioeconomic level, improvement in housing conditions can become an overweight risk factor in adults for both genders, whereas education is a protective factor for women and the income a risk factor in men.
Transforming Energy Usage: It’s Not Only about Solar  [PDF]
Melissa Matlock
Open Journal of Energy Efficiency (OJEE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojee.2014.32004

GRID Alternatives, a non-profit solar contractor, installs solar electric systems for low-income families. Part of GRID Alternatives’ program is to provide solar electric systems that are designed to replace 75% of the homeowners’ electricity usage with solar power. This leaves 25% of their bill still to be paid. In order to save our resources, one must first use conservation practices, then energy efficiency, and then follow-up with renewable energy to cover the rest. GRID Alternatives Inland Empire (GRID IE) educates our participating homeowners and community members on this philosophy. However, measuring whether or not our families have been following this philosophy is hard to prove. It may seem obvious that if we want to know whether our homeowners are saving energy, we should look at their energy usage before and after solar. However, this is not the case with our low-income families that could be using electricity to make their lives more comfortable. GRID IE developed a survey to be given before homeowners received their solar systems and started their participation with GRID Alternatives and the same survey to be given after they have received their solar systems. This before and after survey (pre-test/post-test) asked our homeowners to rate their responses to 7 questions on a scale of 1 - 10. The before and after responses for each person were compared, and as a group, their differences were calculated to find out if the differences were statistically significance (within subjects, dependent Z test). 6 out of 7 questions showed statistical significance. The big picture is that change is happening among our low-income homeowners and has happened for many of the varied energy saving methods discussed. It is important to transform energy usage, because the solution is not just solved with solar.

Interven??o com famílias como estratégia de preven??o de problemas de comportamento em crian?as: uma revis?o
Rios, Karyne de Souza Augusto;Williams, Lúcia Cavalcanti de Albuquerque;
Psicologia em Estudo , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-73722008000400018
Abstract: literature on family intervention to prevent the development of behavior problems in children is reviewed. within extant parents' intervention models available, current paper discusses three programs that have been recognized for their effectiveness and their well-structured theoretical and practical parameters: the oregon social learning center, the incredible years and the positive parenting program (triple p). studies that develop and assess family interventions within the brazilian context are presented. the phenomenon of low-income families' low involvement with parental involvement programs is analyzed. the paper points out the need for more research in brazil to increase the theoretical and practical work with families and the development of research that would investigate the low-income families' in the programs.
Um dia na vida de irm?os que cuidam de irm?os
Dellazzana, Letícia Lovato;Freitas, Lia Beatriz de Lucca;
Psicologia: Teoria e Pesquisa , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-37722010000400003
Abstract: the objective of this paper is to describe the daily routines of low-income adolescents, focusing particularly on those who look after their siblings. the description is based on a study conducted with 20 adolescents of 12 to 16 years of age. the instruments were: a record of socio-demographic data, a family genogram, and a semi-structured interview about a typical day. the activities described were organized into: personal care, sibling care, domestic tasks, school tasks, and leisure. the participants were divided into three groups based on type of care: those responsible for sibling care, those who helped their mothers with sibling care, and those without such responsibilities. the results showed that adolescents of both sexes took care of siblings, but females were more likely to take on domestic chores. school and leisure activities of adolescents were prejudiced when they were responsible for care.
Association Between Physical Activity and Proximity to Physical Activity Resources Among Low-Income, Midlife Women
Stephanie B. Jilcott, PhD,Kelly R. Evenson, PhD,Barbara A. Laraia, PhD, MPH, RD,Alice S. Ammerman, DrPH, RD
Preventing Chronic Disease , 2007,
An interventional pilot study on obesity among low-income patients using a computer-based weight management module
Tracey Doering,Susan Harwell,Cheryl Fassler,Kesley Burr
Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives , 2013, DOI: 10.3402/jchimp.v3i1.20072
Abstract: Primary care physicians infrequently address lifestyle modification with their obese patients, among whom those of lower economic means are disproportionately represented. To enhance patients’ access to education on lifestyle modification, a clinic-based computer kiosk was installed at our residency clinic for the purpose of healthy lifestyle education. While posttest scores improved and were maintained after completion of lifestyle modification education, body mass index (BMI) was essentially unaffected. Computer-based education without intensive counseling on lifestyle modification appears ineffective in reducing BMI amongst obese patients of lower economic means. Accountable care organization-sponsored health coaching may represent a potential means by which intensive counseling is accomplished among such patients.
Analysis of Low-Income Single Women’s Cognitive of Poverty

陈羿君, 陈翠, 顾艳
Advances in Psychology (AP) , 2011, DOI: 10.12677/ap.2011.13016
Abstract: 低收入单亲女性对于贫穷的认知直接导致其单亲后适应生活的情况,本研究采用深度访谈法,探讨23名苏州地区低收入单亲女性对贫穷的认知情况。结果发现:1) 单亲女性所认知导致其贫穷的原因为经济条件原本不好,失去主要家计负担者,收入低、开销大及支持少;2) 单亲后面临首要困扰为经济问题,其次为照顾子女的困扰,缺乏支持及精神困扰;3) 大部分低收入能够坦然面对低收入且单亲双重弱势,但小部分认为离婚或者贫穷会让别人看不起;4) 经济状况的改善主要依靠开源和节流,部分低收入单亲女性通过改善心态适应目前状况;5) 给予单亲女性社会协助的机构主要有政府福利机构、儿童少儿基金会及学校“成功班”;6) 低收入单亲女性脱贫的期待主要通过工作改善,寄希望于子女或希望得到政府关注。
The cognition of poverty of low-income single women affect their adaptation of life directly. This research adopts depth interview method to discuss with 23 low-income single mother in sochoow erea to discover their cognition of poverty. The results showed that: 1) The reason that cause single-mother poor is that economic conditions originally is bad, the manly economical bearer have gone, and their income is low, but the spending is big, and they 2) The primary troubling that the single mother faced is economical problems, fo- llowed by the worry of take care of children, and lack of support and mental distress. 3) Most of them could face the double vulnerable——low-income and single undisguisedly, but a few of them fell despised when others mention about low-income or single parent. 4) Increasing income and reducing expenditure are the main methods to improve economic conditions, some of the single mother adapt to their present situation through change their attitude.5) There are some community to assist single mother such as Government, Children and Teenagers’ Fund and the measures of help poor students in school. 6) Low income single mother always want to get rid of poor through work to improve the income, counting on children or hope to get government attention.
Salário mínimo, benefício previdenciário e as famílias de baixa renda
Dedecca, Cláudio Salvadori;Rosandiski, Eliane Navarro;Barbieri, Carolina Veríssimo;Jungbluth, Adriana;
Revista Brasileira de Estudos de Popula??o , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-30982006000200008
Abstract: this article discusses families with per capita income of up to ? of the minimum monthly wage in brazil. the conditions of participation in the labor market and the influence of social security benefits on the pattern of income earned are analyzed. the concern, therefore, is with the importance of social security benefits in attenuating the fragility of the income of these families and the consequences of the gap between their income and the minimum wage for this pattern of income. characteristics of the members of low-income families showed that, in view of the structural changes in the production process and the current juncture of the brazilian economy, persons of active working age lack the pre-requisites for participating with dignity in the world of labor. a study of the composition of the income of the poorest families shows that the income of inactive members (retired persons and pension receivers) is essential in preventing these families from falling below the poverty line. the profile of the members of such families is analyzed on the basis of microdata from the national household survey by sample (pnad/ibge) of 2004, according to age, educational level, color or ethnic group, and participation in the labor market, strictly speaking. factors studied include the type of work exercised and the position in the occupation. the comparison of the profile of members of the poorest families with that of all families shows that the income of retired members and pension receivers are essential not only in reducing the fall in inequality, but basically in reducing poverty itself.
Level and intensity of objectively assessed physical activity among pregnant women from urban Ethiopia
Mads F Hjorth, Stine Kloster, Tsinuel Girma, Daniel Faurholt-Jepsen, Gregers Andersen, Pernille K?stel, S?ren Brage, Henrik Friis
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2393-12-154
Abstract: Physical activity was measured for seven consecutive days in 304 women using a combined uniaxial accelerometer and heart rate sensor. Activity energy expenditure was determined using a group calibration in a branched equation model framework. Type and duration of activities were reported using a 24-hour physical activity recall and grip strength was assessed using a dynamometer.Median (interquartile-range, IQR) activity energy expenditure was 31.1 (23.7-42.0) kJ/kg/day corresponding to a median (IQR) physical activity level of 1.46 (1.39-1.58). Median (IQR) time in sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous intensity was 1100 (999–1175), 303 (223–374) and 40 (22–69) min/day, respectively. Mean (standard deviation) sleeping heart rate was 73.6 (8.0) beats/min and grip strength was 21.6 (4.5) kg. Activity energy expenditure was 14% higher for every 10 cm2 difference in arm muscle area and 10% lower for every 10 cm2 difference in arm fat area and 10-week difference in gestational age.The level and intensity of physical activity among pregnant women from urban Ethiopia is low compared to non-pregnant women from other low income countries as well as pregnant European women from high-income countries.Women in low-income countries are generally considered to have a high physical workload [1-4], which is sustained during pregnancy [2,5], and may contribute to the high incidence of low birth weight [5-7]. However, there are only few published studies on physical activity among pregnant women in low-income countries, and most have been based on questionnaires. In a recent meta-analysis it was suggested that women from developing countries perform similar amounts of physical activity as women from developed countries when assessed by doubled labeled water [8] raising questions about the actual physical workload. However, these data provide no insight into the patterns of physical activity. Thus, there is a need for more studies with objective methods for assessing physical act
National intensive care unit bed capacity and ICU patient characteristics in a low income country
Arthur Kwizera, Martin Dünser, Jane Nakibuuka
BMC Research Notes , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-5-475
Abstract: A retrospective audit was conducted in a general ICU in a university hospital in Uganda. Demographic data, admission diagnosis, and ICU length of stay were recorded for the 1,774 patients who presented to the ICU in the period January 2003 to December 2009. Their mean age was 35.5?years. Males accounted for 56.5% of the study population; 92.8% were indigenous, and 42.9% were referrals from upcountry units. The average mortality rate over the study period was 40.1% (n?=?715). The highest mortality rate (44%) was recorded in 2004 and the lowest (33.2%) in 2005. Children accounted for 11.6% of admissions (40.1% mortality). Sepsis, ARDS, traumatic brain injuries and HIV related conditions were the most frequent admission diagnoses. A telephonic survey determined that there are 33 adult ICU beds in the whole country.Mortality was 40.1%, with sepsis, head injury, acute lung injury and HIV/AIDS the most common admission diagnoses. The country has a very low ICU bed capacity. Prioritising infectious diseases poses a challenge to ensuring that critical care is an essential part of the health care package in Uganda.The prevalence of critical illness in developing countries is disproportionately high in view of the disproportionate burden of diseases such as HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis and trauma. Sub-Saharan Africa bears 25% of the global burden of disease [1]. Management of critically ill patients requires significant human, infrastructural, and financial resources. These resources are typically limited in low-income countries. Major intensive care units (ICUs) are mostly found in large hospitals in urban or metropolitan areas [2]. The most common admission criteria to these units are post-operative treatment, infectious diseases, trauma and obstetric complications [2,3].A recent review highlighted the paucity of knowledge regarding critical care in the developing world [4]. Knowledge of the characteristics and outcomes of critically ill patients admitted to ICUs in low-
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