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Impact of Irrigation on Food Security in Bangladesh for the Past Three Decades  [PDF]
M. Wakilur RAHMAN, Lovely PARVIN
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2009.13027
Abstract: Bangladesh has made impressive progress in agriculture sector in the last three decades and has almost be-come self-sufficient in food grain production. This is a tremendous achievement owing to its small territory and huge population and this was achieved through agricultural mechanization and modernization. Irrigation is one of the leading inputs has direct influence to increase yield, food grains production and plays vital role for ensuring food security in Bangladesh. The present study examined the growth of irrigated area and its impact on food grain production during last three decades. Time series data were used for the study. Differ-ent statistical methods such as mean, percentage, linear and exponential growth model were applied for get-ting meaningful findings. Various technologies have been used for irrigating crops which have contributed to rapid expansion of irrigated area. The conventional irrigation methods (Low Lift Pump, Dhone, Swing Bas-ket, Treadle Pump etc.) were replaced by modern methods (i.e Deep Tube Well and Shallow Tube Well). In addition, surface water irrigation also sharply declined, losing its importance due to lack of new surface irri-gation project and the ineffectiveness of earlier project. Groundwater covered 77 percent of total irrigated area and major (62%) extractions occurred through Shallow Tube Wells (STWs). The rapid expansion of ground water irrigation in respect to STWs irrigation was due to government’s withdrawal on restrictions on tube well setting rule, encouraging private sector and the cost effectiveness of Chinese engine which have been affordable to the small and medium farmers. Irrigated area thus, increased by about three times and cropping intensity also increased from 154 to 176 percent. Boro rice, an irrigated crop, consumed 73 percent of the total crop irrigation and contributed to a greater extent in total rice production in Bangladesh. Boro rice alone contributed to 55 percent of total food grain and was also highest (3.44 MT per hectare) compared to aus rice (1.66 MT per hectare) and aman rice (1.99 MT per hectare) per unit production. Consequently, the cultivated area of boro rice increased by 1168 to 4068 thousand hectares. The higher productivity of boro rice has almost helped the nation to meet her food requirements (about 24 Million MT). Boro rice production was highly correlated (r = .978) with irrigated area. Expansion of one hectare of irrigated area added 3.22 MT of boro rice in Bangladesh. Finally, the study suggested for expansion of irrigated areas (ground water and surface water),
Determinates of Women Micro-entrepreneurship Development: An Empirical Investigation in Rural Bangladesh
Lovely Parvin,M. Wakilur Rahman,Jinrong Jia
International Journal of Economics and Finance , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ijef.v4n5p254
Abstract: The paper investigates the influencing factors of women micro-entrepreneurship development in rural Bangladesh. The analysis based on empirical investigation carried out in northern part of Bangladesh. Data were collected from 248 women micro-entrepreneurs and 132 non-entrepreneurs. Present study adopts three basic aspects such as personal attributes, family affairs and external environment to evaluate their contribution towards women entrepreneurship. Applying “probit” model, the study finds among various personal attributes, freedom of work and desire for higher social status significantly influenced to participate in micro-entrepreneurship. Family hardship also turns likely to be involved in micro-entrepreneurship. Among various external factors, access to credit, access to entrepreneurship training, membership with development organizations, access to information and favorable infrastructure depicts inspiring factors in participating micro-entrepreneurship. Study also indentifies several challenging factors toward smooth development of women micro-entrepreneurship. The paper provides suggestions for strengthening women entrepreneurship development process in rural Bangladesh.
The Rate of Decline and Trend Line Analysis of Groundwater underneath Dhaka and Gazipur City  [PDF]
Mithila Parvin
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2019.113020
Abstract: Groundwater is reported to account for 87% of all drinking water resources in Dhaka which has suffered a decline of up to 75 m in some specific location. Over-extraction of groundwater is an extensive social problem in Dhaka and Gazipur city which needs to be investigating thoroughly. This study presents the diagnosis of groundwater depletion pattern and the yearly rate of decline over the last three decades for Dhaka and Gazipur metropolitan area. Groundwater data were collected from the relevant institutions in order to analyse the trend line and the rate of decline of groundwater levels for more than 30 years period to understand the long-time variability. Ten individual stations datasets for GWL have been analyzed for Dhaka and Gazipur within a selected reference time period (1980-2012). The highest depleted GWL were found in the Mirpur station which is now 68 m below ground. To find out the time span when the depletion rate is highest, the rate of decline of all datasets has been computed which shows that 1998-2005 is the consecutive eight years time span with the fastest depletion rate. On the other hand, the annual trend-line analysis shows rapid depletion pattern after the year 2000.
Learners’ Strategies for Transliterating English Loanwords into Katakana
Esther Lovely
New Voices : A Journal for Emerging Scholars of Japanese Studies in Australia and New Zealand , 2011,
Abstract: Post-World War II, the Japanese language has experienced massive influxes of foreign words and expressions into its lexicon, known as “loanwords” or borrowings. These lexical items are commonly written in Japanese using katakana symbols. Transliterating these words into katakana accurately is a primary source of difficulty for foreign learners of Japanese. Previous studies in the field of learners’ transliteration of foreign loanwords have focused mainly on error analysis and no formal study has investigated the basis for learners’ methods of transliteration.Using a combination of interviews and think-aloud procedures, 21 students at the University of Queensland, who were studying 1st year Japanese courses, were surveyed. The students transliterated a list of selected loanwords and expressions into katakana, while responding to inquiries about their transliterations and verbalising their mental processes. These interviews were then analysed for evidence of strategies. The students also completed a short survey on their learning background and exposure to the Japanese language outside the classroom. Strategies were subsequently identified and the answers to the surveys were analysed for evidence of correlations between students with a higher level of accuracy in transliteration and their strategies and extra-curricular exposure.
A Classifier Ensemble of Binary Classifier Ensembles
Hamid Parvin,Sajad Parvin
International Journal of Electronics Communication and Computer Technology , 2011,
Abstract: This paper proposes an innovative combinational algorithm to improve the performance in multiclass classification domains. Because the more accurate classifier the better performance of classification, the researchers in computer communities have been tended to improve the accuracies of classifiers. Although a better performance for classifier is defined the more accurate classifier, but turning to the best classifier is not always the best option to obtain the best quality in classification. It means to reach the best classification there is another alternative to use many inaccurate or weak classifiers each of them is specialized for a sub-space in the problem space and using their consensus vote as the final classifier. So this paper proposes a heuristic classifier ensemble to improve the performance of classification learning. It is specially deal with multiclass problems which their aim is to learn the boundaries of each class from many other classes. Based on the concept of multiclass problems classifiers are divided into two different categories: pairwise classifiers and multiclass classifiers. The aim of a pairwise classifier is to separate one class from another one. Because of pairwise classifiers just train for discrimination between two classes, decision boundaries of them are simpler and more effective than those of multiclass classifiers.The main idea behind the proposed method is to focus classifier in the erroneous spaces of problem and use of pairwise classification concept instead of multiclass classification concept. Indeed although usage of pairwise classification concept instead of multiclass classification concept is not new, we propose a new pairwise classifier ensemble with a very lower order. In this paper, first the most confused classes are determined and then some ensembles of classifiers are created. The classifiers of each of these ensembles jointly work using majority weighting votes. The results of these ensembles are combined to decide the final vote in a weighted manner. Finally the outputs of these ensembles are heuristically aggregated. The proposed framework is evaluated on a very large scale Persian digit handwritten dataset and the experimental results show the effectiveness of the algorithm.
Refinement of total 12-lead QRS voltage criteria for diagnosing left ventricular hypertrophy  [PDF]
Deepti Kumar, Rishi Bajaj, Lovely Chhabra, David H. Spodick
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2013.32030

Objective: We sought to test the hypothesis that the total QRS voltage without either set of the limb leads (I, II, III) or (R, L, F) may be a better indicator of LVH as compared to the total QRS voltage. Background: The total 12 lead QRS voltage has been a validated electrocardiographic criterion for left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), with an upper limit of175 mm. However, there is some redundancy in this measurement as the output of the limb leads is repeated because leads I, II, III, and R, L, F use the same three electrodes. Methods: 43 unselected, consecutive echocardiograms were examined for evidence of LVH by wall thickness. Electrocardiogram (ECG) of these patients within a week of the echocardiogram were then examined for the total 12 leads QRS voltage, minus I, II, III and total minus R, L, F voltages. ECG findings were then compared with corresponding echocardiographic dimensions. Results: A total QRS voltage of123 mmon ECG yielded a sensitivity of 73% and specificity of 67% for diagnosing LVH with 95% CI = 0.59 - 0.89, p = 0.007. Total minus (R, L and F) value of110 mmon ECG appears to give the best sensitivity (73%), specificity (72%), and accuracy (64% negative predictive value and 82% positive predictive value) for LVH. Conclusion: It appears that total QRS voltage minus either set of the limb leads, especially the total minus R, L and F is a better criterion, with110 mmbeing the best specific, sensitive and accurate index for diagnosing LVH.

The Current Status of Stem Cell Regeneration in Intra Oral Applications—A Systematic Review  [PDF]
Abbasi Kanwal, Jovita D’souza, Lovely Muthiah, S. Srividya
Open Journal of Stomatology (OJST) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojst.2017.74015
Abstract: Aim: 1) To review the literature of various applications of stem cell regeneration in dentistry from 2010 to 2016. 2) To review these studies and to summarize the current status of stem cell regeneration in intra oral applications. 3) To present the available successful data with regard to stem cell regeneration in dentistry and to highlight the future trends. Materials and Methods: Search Protocol: A systematic search was made in the PubMed database with the key words gingiva, papillary reconstruction, periodontal ligament, dental pulp, salivary gland, enamel re-mineralization, dentin, cementum, bone, whole tooth, cleft palate, regeneration and stem cells. All articles from 2010 to 2016, relevant to the topic were included. After the search a total of 1826 articles were obtained which were screened and categorized by three independent reviewers as review papers, in vitro, animal and human studies, pertaining to stem cell regeneration in intra oral applications. On the basis of the extracted data and outcome measures, conclusions were drawn. Results: Maximum number of animal studies has been done to regenerate periodontal tissues, bone, dentin and pulp tissues. Few human studies have been done till date. Although clinically, researchers have been able to regenerate periodontal-like tissue, bone and pulp-like tissue, they still haven’t been able to regenerate tissues that completely resemble tissues in their natural form. Conclusion: The future of stem cell therapy in dental applications looks promising. The predictability and efficacy of outcomes, as well as safety concerns of stem cell therapy is yet to be fully established. Ongoing research and development of newer scaffolds, understanding various signaling molecules and their cues, understanding gene expression and proteomics of stem cells are the future directions that will take us a step forward to achieving successful regeneration.
Effect of BDNF and Adipose Derived Stem Cells Transplantation on Cognitive Deficit in Alzheimer Model of Rats  [PDF]
Parvin Babaei, Bahram Soltani Tehrani
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2013.31015

In this study, the potential for recovery mediated by co-treatment of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and adipose tissue derived stem cells (ASCs) on functional recovery after Ibotenic acid (Ibo) lesion of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) was examined. Ibotenic acid was injected bilaterally into the NBM of experimental rats, then the animals received treatments as follows: ASCs (500 × 103), BDNF (5 ug/ul) and a combination of BDNF and ASCs. Two months after the treatment, cognitive recovery was assessed by the Morris water-maze. These results showed that ASCs transplantation may have therapeutic value in disease and conditions that result in memory loss, and co-treatment with BDNF doesn’t offer more efficacious cognitive function.

A Study on Strength Characteristics of Ordinary Portland cement Due to Storage
International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology , 2013,
Abstract: Cement produced in factory reaches the site after some days or months. Properties of cement may change due to aging. In this paper, an attempt is made to quantify the variation in strength characteristics due to storage.
Effect of Different Parameters on Removal and Quality of Soybean Lecithin
Parvin Eshratabadi
Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: With regard to study the effective factors on removal and quality of lecithin extracted from soybean oil and the residual amount of phosphatids in degummed oil, this study was arranged. Crude oil recovered from soybean which had been processed by conventional solvent extraction and reached to a phosphorus content of 454 ppm, was used for this purpose. Treatment were carried out under different concentrations of phosphoric acid (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 2) and different percents of water ( 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 3, 4) at different temperatures (25, 50, 60, 75, 90 C) and with different stirring times (5,10, 20, 40, 60 min). The highest phosphatid recovery was obtained with 3% (v v 1) water at 75 C with stirring time of 20 min. Phosphoric acid adding decreased the phosphatid residue in degummed oil but the quality of lecithin was reduced. However addition of phosphoric acid lower than 0.05% (v v 1) at 60 C resulted the same recovery efficiency without important effect on quality of lecithin.
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