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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 221155 matches for " Louise C Masse "
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Parent-child relationship of directly measured physical activity
Bernard F Fuemmeler, Cheryl B Anderson, Louise C Masse
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-8-17
Abstract: Accelerometers were used to assess physical activity and sedentary time in 45 fathers, 45 mothers and their children (23 boys, 22 girls, mean age 9.9 years) over the course of 4 days (Thursday - Sunday). Participants were instructed to wear accelerometers for 24 hours per day. Data from accelerometers were aggregated into waking hours on weekdays and weekends (6:00 am to midnight) and weekday after-school hours (3:00 - 7:00 pm).Across the 4 days, the mean minutes per day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) for fathers was 30.0 (s.d. = 17.3), for mothers was 30.1 (s.d. = 20.1) and for children was 145.47 (s.d. = 51.64). Mothers' and fathers' minutes of MVPA and minutes of sedentary time were positively correlated with child physical activity and sedentary time (all ps < .05, with the exception of mothers' and children's sedentary time on weekdays from 6 am to 12 am). Multivariate linear regression analyses resulted in significant effects between parents and children for MVPA across all time segments. For sedentary activity, significant associations were observed only between father and child on the weekend. Sedentary activity of parents and children were not related for other time segments. Models examining the associations of one or two parents with high levels of MVPA or sedentary time indicated a dose response increase in child activity relative to parent.Greater parental MVPA was associated with increased child MVPA. In addition, having two parents with higher levels of MVPA was associated with greater levels of activity in children. Sedentary time in children was not as strongly correlated with that of their parents. Findings lend support to the notion that to increase childhood activity levels it may be fruitful to improve physical activity among parents.The high rates of obesity among children in the U.S., and globally, are a significant public health concern [1,2]. Although the causes for obesity in society are multifactorial, minimal physical ac
Will web-based research suffice when collecting U.S. school district policies? The case of physical education and school-based nutrition policies
Jamie F Chriqui, Michael Tynan, Tanya Agurs-Collins, Louise C Masse
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-5-64
Abstract: Sixty local school districts representing six states were selected for conducting the district policy research, with larger, urban school districts over-sampled to facilitate collection of policies from districts representing a larger proportion of the public school population in each study state. The six states within which the pilot districts were located were chosen based on the variability in their physical education and school-based nutrition policy and geographic and demographic diversity. Web research and a mail canvass of the study districts was conducted between January and May 2006 to obtain all relevant policies. An additional field collection effort was conducted in a sample of districts located in three study states to test the extent to which field collection would yield additional information.Policies were obtained from 40 (67%) of the 60 districts, with policies retrieved via both Web and mail canvass methods in 16 (27%) of the districts, and were confirmed to not exist in 10 (17%) of the districts. Policies were more likely to be retrieved from larger, urban districts, whereas the smallest districts had no policies available on the Web. In no instances were exactly the same policies retrieved from the two sources. Physical education policies were slightly more prevalent than nutrition policies.Collection of U.S. local school district policies requires a multi-pronged approach. Web research and mail canvasses will likely yield different types of policy information. Given the variance in district-level Web site presence, researchers and others interested in obtaining district physical education and nutrition-related policies should consider supplementing Web research with more direct methods.Childhood obesity is a global problem, which until recently, predominantly affected developed countries. However, obesity is now on the rise in less developed countries as well.[1] In the U.S., childhood obesity is a significant and increasing problem with recent
Constructing indices representing supportiveness of the physical environment for walking using the Rasch measurement model
Gavin R McCormack, Louise C Masse, Max Bulsara, Terri J Pikora, Billie Giles-Corti
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-3-44
Abstract: A set of items were derived representing two conceptual physical environmental constructs: 1) functional/safety, and; 2) aesthetics. Ad hoc criteria based on point-biserial and Rasch-based fit statistics were used to examine the construct validity and internal reliability of the two constructs.The Rasch-based fit statistics assisted in identifying 12 items that belonged to the functional/safety construct and 4 items that belonged to the aesthetic construct. The reliability of the two constructs were low to moderate (functional/safety rβ = 0.19 and aesthetics rβ = 0.35).Given the vast number of built environmental attributes, a means of developing summary indices is essential. Future studies should assess the reliability and validity of indices that summarize physical environmental characteristics conducive to walking before testing them in predictive models of physical activity. More research examining procedures for measuring the built environment and techniques for analyzing environmental data are needed to guide future research in this area.In the past decade, understanding the impact of the physical environment on physical activity has become a topic of increasing interest. Recent reviews have highlighted characteristics of the physical environment associated with physical activity behaviors [1-3]. To date measures of the physical environment have generally included self-reported perceptions, objectively measured audit data or Geographical Information Systems (GIS) data[1,2].Environmental attributes of the physical environment do not necessarily affect physical activity behavior in isolation; however, aggregates of these environmental attributes (i.e., sprawl index, neighborhood walkability index, functionality index, safety index, aesthetics index) have been developed and found to predict physical activity behavior [4-6]. A recent review of audit instruments used to assess the supportiveness of the environment for physical activity found that few studies had ev
Comparing the content of participation instruments using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health
Vanessa K Noonan, Jacek A Kopec, Luc Noreau, Joel Singer, Anna Chan, Louise C Masse, Marcel F Dvorak
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-7-93
Abstract: A systematic literature search was conducted to identify instruments that assess participation according to the ICF. Instruments were considered to assess participation and were included if the domains contain content from a minimum of three ICF chapters ranging from Chapter 3 Communication to Chapter 9 Community, social and civic life in the activities and participation component. The instrument content was examined by first identifying the meaningful concepts in each question and then linking these concepts to ICF categories. The content analysis included reporting the 1) ICF chapters (domains) covered in the activities and participation component, 2) relevance of the meaningful concepts to the activities and participation component and 3) context in which the activities and participation component categories are evaluated.Eight instruments were included: Impact on Participation and Autonomy, Keele Assessment of Participation, Participation Survey/Mobility, Participation Measure-Post Acute Care, Participation Objective Participation Subjective, Participation Scale (P-Scale), Rating of Perceived Participation and World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS II). 1351 meaningful concepts were identified in the eight instruments. There are differences among the instruments regarding how participation is operationalized. All the instruments cover six to eight of the nine chapters in the activities and participation component. The P-Scale and WHODAS II have questions which do not contain any meaningful concepts related to the activities and participation component. Differences were also observed in how other ICF components (body functions, environmental factors) and health are operationalized in the instruments.Linking the meaningful concepts in the participation instruments to the ICF classification provided an objective and comprehensive method for analyzing the content. The content analysis revealed differences in how the concept of participat
The Centre for Healthy Weights—Shapedown BC: A Family-Centered, Multidisciplinary Program that Reduces Weight Gain in Obese Children over the Short-Term
Constadina Panagiotopoulos,Rebecca Ronsley,Mohammed Al-Dubayee,Rollin Brant,Boris Kuzeljevic,Erin Rurak,Arlene Cristall,Glynis Marks,Penny Sneddon,Mary Hinchliffe,Jean-Pierre Chanoine,Louise C. Masse
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph8124662
Abstract: The objective was to conduct a program evaluation of the Centre for Healthy Weights—Shapedown BC (CHW-SB), a family-centered, multidisciplinary program for obese children, by assessing the change in weight trajectories from program intake to completion. Secondary outcomes included changes in clinical, biochemical and psychological parameters, and in physical activity (PA) levels. The CHW-SB program was evaluated over 10 weeks. Data collection included anthropometric, metabolic, PA and psychological measures. Longitudinal mixed effects regression was performed to evaluate weight change from Phase 1 (before program on waitlist) to Phase 2 (during program). 238 children < 18 years of age were referred to the program of which 119 were eligible for participation. There was a significant decrease in weight trajectory in children following program entry. Participants experienced an average .89% monthly increase before program entry, compared to a .37% monthly decline afterwards, a drop of 1.26% ( p < 0.0001, 95%CI 1.08 to 1.44). zBMI (2.26 ± 0.33 to 2.20 ± 0.36, p < 0.001), waist circumference (99 ± 15.7 to 97 ± 16 cm, p < 0.0001) and fasting insulin (137 ± 94.8 to 121 ± 83.4 pmol/L, < 0.001) also decreased in participants who attended the final visit. Significant improvements were seen in all measures of PA, self-concept, and anxiety. CHW-SB, a government-funded program, is the first obesity-treatment program to be evaluated in Canada. While short-term evaluation revealed significant improvements in adiposity, PA, and psychological measures, the lack of full follow-up is a limitation in interpreting the clinical effectiveness of this program, as drop-out may be associated with lack of success in meeting program goals. These data also emphasize the need for ongoing evaluation to assess the long-term implications of this unique program and ultimately optimize utilization of governmental resources.
Safety Evaluation of Stacked Genetically Modified Corn Event (MON89034 × MON88017) Using Zebrafish as an Animal Model  [PDF]
Ahmed M. Rayan, Fikru Nigussie, Louise C. Abbott
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2015.614134
Abstract: This study assessed the effect of feeding stacked genetically modified (GM) corn event (MON89034 × MON88017) on embryonic development, adult tissue histology and assessed the possibility of transgenic DNA transfer, using zebrafish as an animal model. Adult zebrafish were separated into male and female groups. After 3 weeks of feeding with experimental diets, males and females were paired once a week and fertilized embryos were collected, then the male and female fish were re-turned to their sex-specific groups. This fertilization and embryo collection process were repeated 3 times. Embryonic morphological measurements were obtained on developing embryos up to 96 hours after fertilization, and then the embryos were fixed in 4% phosphate-buffered paraformal-dehyde for morphologic assessment. At the end of the feeding study, various adult zebrafish tissues were histologically examined for abnormalities. Both zebrafish tissues and embryos were analyzed for presence of plant specific genes and transgenic sequences. No changes or abnormalities were observed in embryonic morphology nor in any of the tissues examined histologically. In addition, no plant DNA reference genes or transgenic DNA were found in any of the analyzed samples. These results demonstrate that the safety and nutrition of MON89034 × MON88017 corn are similar to non-GM corn.
The role of sexually transmitted infections in male circumcision effectiveness against HIV – insights from clinical trial simulation
Kamal Desai, Marie-Claude Boily, Geoff P Garnett, Beno?t R Masse, Stephen Moses, Robert C Bailey
Emerging Themes in Epidemiology , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1742-7622-3-19
Abstract: Focusing on the MC trial in Kisumu, we used a stochastic prevention trial simulator (1) to determine whether statistical analyses can validly estimate efficacy, (2) to determine whether MC efficacy against STI alone can produce large effectiveness against HIV and (3) to estimate the fraction of all HIV infections prevented that are attributable to efficacy against STI when both efficacies combine.Valid estimation of separate efficacies against HIV and STI as well as MC effectiveness is feasible with available STI and HIV trial data, under Kisumu trial conditions. Under our parameter assumptions, high overall effectiveness of MC against HIV was observed only with a high MC efficacy against HIV and was not possible on the basis of MC efficacy against STI alone. The fraction of all HIV infections prevented which were attributable to MC efficacy against STI was small, except when efficacy of MC specifically against HIV was very low. In the three MC trials which reported between 48% and 61% effectiveness (combining STI and HIV efficacies), the fraction of HIV infections prevented in circumcised males which were attributable to STI was unlikely to be more than 10% to 20%.Estimation of efficacy, attributable fraction and effectiveness leads to improved understanding of trial results, gives trial results greater external validity and is essential to determine the broader public health impact of circumcision to men and women.The role of male circumcision (MC) in protecting against HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa has been controversial since the beginning of the HIV epidemic. This is because evidence derived from observational studies is prone to bias due to confounding risk factors and because MC as a HIV prevention strategy can be seen as unethical [1-3]. There is mounting epidemiological evidence and plausible biological explanation to indicate that MC can protect against HIV both directly and indirectly [4-11]. Risk due to abrasions suffered by foreskin in uncircumcis
Effect of the Continuum Removal in Predicting Soil Organic Carbon with Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) in the Senegal Sahelian Soils  [PDF]
Macoumba Loum, Mateugue Diack, Ndeye Yacine Badiane Ndour, Dominique Masse
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2016.69014
Abstract: Spectroscopy plays a major role in the access of the analytical parameters of the soil. It tends to substitute the conventional laboratory analysis because hyperspectral data were least expensive and easier to obtain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the continuum removal (CR) in the validation of the accurate prediction model of the soil properties with Vis-NIR spectroscopy data. Few studies using Vis-NIR reflectance spectroscopy have well focused the calculation of the CR method; its effect in the calibration of the accurate models was also not well emphasized. In this study, we used the remote sensing software ENVI 4.7 to compute the CR function where the value of the continuum for each sample and for each spectral wavelength was obtained by dividing the reflectance values of the full spectrum (FS) with those of the continuum curve (CC). The partial least square regression (PLSR) model was applied in the spectral data from the soil of the Senegal Sahelian region. It was calibrated with both data from the full spectrum (FS) and those obtained after the application of the continuum removal. With the application of the CR, ultraviolet wavelengths (350 - 429 nm) and those of near infrared (2491 - 2500 nm) were removed from the explanatory variables of PLSR model. With the FS, all wavelengths between 350 and 2500 nm were taken into account in predicting soil properties. Our findings show a positive effect of the application of CR in the estimation of soil organic carbon. In calibration, the R2 increased up to 10% with the continuum removal in the model of 12 components (CP). In terms of validation, it’s the 15-component model which is the most accurate with the same range in calibration between the FS and the CR. The lowest RMSE ranged from 0.04 with the FS to 0.03 with the application of the CR in calibration and validation. These results show that the interest of this study as soil organic carbon is recognized as a key indicator of fertility of the soil in Sahelian-African regions. For future studies, it’s important to apply the model of neural networks to better evaluate the effect of continuum removal in predicting soil properties from the spectral data and other methods of preprocessing like the multiplicative scatter correction (msc).
“Body bags ready”: Print media coverage of avian influenza in Australia  [PDF]
Sandra C. Jones, Louise Waters, Fiona Byrne, Don Iverson, Max Sutherland, Julian Gold, Chris Puplick
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.430142
Abstract: In 2006 the avian influenza A (H5N1) virus received considerable media coverage in Australia, as it did in many other countries. It is often argued that the media sensationalizes health crises, and experts cautioned about the risk of panic as a result of fear of avian influenza. The purpose of the present study was to systematically analyze Australian print media coverage of avian influenza in 2006 and to examine whether this coverage served the purpose of informing, rather than alarming, the general public. For the period January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2006, 20 Australian newspaper titles were monitored for coverage of avian influenza. The identified articles were analyzed using aspects of protection motivation theory for theoretical direction to determine whether there were any consistent themes or perspectives in the coverage. A total of 850 articles were identified for analysis. Concerning vulnerability, 46% of articles reported the incidence of human cases, with 24% noting that avian influenza was a potential threat to Australia. The most common severity theme was “deadly” with over 50% of mentions, followed by “pandemic” with 35%. Only 11% of articles referred to any form of self-protection. We found that a considerable proportion of the articles reporting on avian influenza were framed in a way that had the potential to incite fear and panic amongst the public; the intensity of media coverage reduced over time; and, of particular concern, that there was little media coverage that focused on protective or preventative issues. Whether an influenza pandemic eventuates or not, it is prudent for governments and health authorities to continually develop appropriate resources and strategies to prepare the health system and the general public to respond to current, and future, infectious disease risks.
Efficient Second Strand Cleavage during Holliday Junction Resolution by RuvC Requires Both Increased Junction Flexibility and an Exposed 5′ Phosphate
Fekret Osman, Louise Gaskell, Matthew C. Whitby
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0005347
Abstract: Background Holliday junction (HJ) resolution is a critical step during homologous recombination. In Escherichia coli this job is performed by a member of the RNase H/Integrase superfamily called RuvC, whereas in Schizosaccharomyces pombe it has been attributed to the XPF family member Mus81-Eme1. HJ resolution is achieved through the sequential cleavage of two strands of like polarity at or close to the junction crossover point. RuvC functions as a dimer, whereas Mus81-Eme1 is thought to function as a dimer of heterodimers. However, in both cases the multimer contains two catalytic sites, which act independently and sequentially during the resolution reaction. To ensure that both strands are cleaved before the nuclease dissociates from the junction, the rate of second strand cleavage is greatly enhanced compared to that of the first. The enhancement of second strand cleavage has been attributed to the increased flexibility of the nicked HJ, which would facilitate rapid engagement of the second active site and scissile bond. Here we have investigated whether other properties of the nicked HJ are important for enhancing second strand cleavage. Principal Findings A comparison of the efficiency of cleavage of nicked HJs with and without a 5′ phosphate at the nick site shows that a 5′ phosphate is required for most of the enhancement of second strand cleavage by RuvC. In contrast Mus81-Eme1 cleaves nicked HJs with and without a 5′ phosphate with equal efficiency, albeit there are differences in cleavage site selection. Conclusions Our data show that efficient HJ resolution by RuvC depends on the 5′ phosphate revealed by incision of the first strand. This is a hitherto unappreciated factor in promoting accelerated second strand cleavage. However, a 5′ phosphate is not a universal requirement since efficient cleavage by Mus81-Eme1 appears to depend solely on the increased junction flexibility that is developed by the first incision.
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