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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 383 matches for " Lothar "
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Mouse models for breast cancer
Lothar Hennighausen
Breast Cancer Research , 1999, DOI: 10.1186/bcr20
Abstract: Experiments conducted by Philip Leder and coworkers 15 years ago represent a milestone in breast cancer research [2]. They fused the long terminal repeat (LTR) of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) to the human c-myc proto-oncogene and incorporated this hybrid gene into mice. These transgenic mice expressed the human myc protein in their mammary glands, which resulted in the development of breast tumors [2]. This landmark paper helped to establish an entirely new research arena poised to identify genetic pathways that control breast cancer. After decades of research on tissue culture cells, both federal and private funding agencies saw the opportunity to extend investigations into settings that more closely resembled the human condition. Fifteen years after the study by Leder and coworkers, research by Deng (a former student of Leder) and coworkers set another milestone towards this goal. These investigators succeeded in inactivating the breast cancer gene Brca1 specifically in mammary epithelial cells of mice, and they demonstrated that mammary tumors coincided with genome instability [3]. The distinct lesson learned from these studies was that the wrongful expression of an oncogene and the inactivation of a tumor suppressor gene in mice can cause cancer, just like in humans. However, the myc and Brca1 mice differ in two fundamental aspects from the human situation. In the myc mice oncogene activity occurs as early as puberty, whereas in humans genetic changes leading to cancer may occur later in life. The appearance of tumors in Brca1 conditional mice depends on the loss of both alleles, whereas in humans only one BRCA1 allele is altered (for discussion, see [4]).Understanding genetic pathways was considered to be, and still remains the prerequisite for the development of molecular and pharmacological agents to treat and prevent cancer. Over the past 15 years almost 100 mouse models have been generated that permit the investigation of defined aspects of tumorige
Inhibition of homologous recombination repair with Pentoxifylline targets G2 cells generated by radiotherapy and induces major enhancements of the toxicity of cisplatin and melphalan given after irradiation
Lothar Bohm
Radiation Oncology , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1748-717x-1-12
Abstract: The methylxanthine drug Pentoxifylline (TRENTAL, Sanofi-Aventis) is clinically well established for the treatment of cerebral ischemia and a variety of other vasoocclusive disorders such as intermittent claudication. [14,50]. Systemically the drug operates by enhancing the flexibility of blood cell membranes and reducing blood viscosity. The positive influence of Pentoxifylline on the microcirculation and peripheral oxygenation has led to applications in experimental radiotherapy showing small but consistent improvements of the radiotoxicity. Injection of PFX followed by irradiation 45 minutes later produces a 1.1–1.5 fold enhancement of tumour growth delay and this is associated with a marked reduction of tumour anoxia.[10,23,25-27,41,42,47,52].Apart from the systemic effects there is now a long list of published data indicating that Pentoxifylline (and the related drug caffeine) influences the radiobiological responses of tumour cells in an oxygen independent manner. Given to tumour cell cultures before irradiation at the subtoxic dose of 2 mM, Pentoxifylline effectively enhances radiotoxicity measured by clonogenic cell survival by factors of 1.2–2.0 [3,4,9,45-47].In the following I summarize our own [54] and other new in vitro data which explore the effects of this interesting drug on the damage responses of tumour cells. It is shown that Pentoxifylline emerges as an effective repair inhibitor and that this new mechanistic understanding shows great promise for application in tumour therapy.The determination of the drug toxicity enhancement factors for Melphalan, Daunorubicin and Cisplatin are based on chemosensitivity measurements using the crystal violet assay. G2/M block abrogation and measurment of cell survival under conditions of G2 block abrogation and drug addition involved control experiments measuring cell survival for irradiation alone, Pentoxifylline alone, Pentoxifylline plus irradiation, Pentoxifylline plus drug at 5 % toxicity and cytostatic drug a
E-Books – den Wandel professionell gestalten / E-books – managing the change professionally
Nunnenmacher, Lothar
GMS Medizin-Bibliothek-Information , 2010,
Abstract: Even acknowledging the considerable reservations of some users – we have to recognize the overall trend towards the use of e-books. The situation resembles the transition from print to electronic journals about ten years ago. Two trends are converging here: On the one hand, there is a strongly growing offer of scientific monographic literature in electronic format, and on the other hand, there has been significant progress in the technological possibilities for the reception of e-books, in particular regarding display technologies. The transition from print to electronic books provides a multiplicity of new challenges to the libraries, not least because of the overwhelming quantity of current and potential titles. For example, the ETH-Bibliothek has doubled the number of e-books in the catalogue in each year in the past few years. In 2008, for the first time more electronic than print monographs were purchased and catalogued. For the selection of e-books, the ETH-Bibliothek has defined extensive criteria. To include the individual titles of larger e-book packages into the catalogue, metadata were imported in a complex semi-automated procedure. There is only one catalogue record for printed and digital forms of the same title, so that users can immediately see, whether they can borrow the book in print form or access it directly online. A key feature for optimal benefits within the cataloguing network is the linking via a link resolver. For a stable compilation of the usage of electronic resources, the calculation of yearly usage on the basis of the median is described. Of course, many developments concerning the relatively new media type e-book are under way, and many questions are therefore still open. They range from acquisition models and the selection and processing of titles to possible restrictions on the use and the integration of freely available sources to the use of e-books in interlibrary loan and archiving.
Von der Bibliothek zum Lernzentrum - Ver nderungen in der Medizinischen Bibliothek der Charité
Nunnenmacher, Lothar
GMS Medizin-Bibliothek-Information , 2005,
Abstract: Nowadays it has become quite natural for the doctors and scientists of the Charité to use the services of the Medical Library at their desktops. Therefore the library as a physical location can be adopted to better suit the needs of the students. This means, first of all, more space for the textbook and reference collections as well as more seats for reading and learning. However, learning media will also develop towards digital forms in the coming years. Beyond the supply of media the challenge for the library will therefore increasingly consist in offering environments and services for the different forms of learning.
To arrange the window - the creation of an integrated local view on information diversity / Das Fenster zur Information gestalten - die Schaffung einer integrierten lokalen Sicht auf die Vielfalt von Informationsressourcen
Nunnenmacher, Lothar
GMS Medizin-Bibliothek-Information , 2006,
Abstract: The way our patrons search and use information resources has already changed substantially, but the shift to new technologies is not yet completed. Currently new information is mostly coming via "the screen", at least in the STM disciplines (science, technology, medicine). The challenge for libraries nowadays is, to arrange the window towards the bulk of available information according to the needs of different users. Several measures of integration are needed to achieve this aim: * Instead of supplying the information physically, we now have to provide quick access to different information systems, as far as possible integrated, and to enhance these systems with local enrichments (e.g. availability, local views or filters). * Beyond journal articles and books we have to integrate other media like photos, videos, or even scientific data. Moreover, the scientific and scholarly information is going to change the media format from paper to electronics, which we should take into consideration in our efforts. * We have to appreciate that library services are just a small contribution to the whole environment of learning, teaching or research at university. People should be served according to their needs with all resources in an integrated way instead of splitting them up into small partitions based on organisational units. To arrange the window means to integrate the necessary resources in a way that as much information as possible is included, but guidance and filtering tools avoid information overload. Based on a model to group information hierarchically a draft for an integrated “Search Centre” is presented.
Review: Bettina Fritzsche (2003). Pop-Fans. Studie einer M dchenkultur Review: Bettina Fritzsche (2003). Pop-Fans. Studie einer M dchenkultur [Pop-Fans: Study of a Girl Culture] Rese a: Bettina Fritzsche (2003). Pop-Fans. Studie einer M dchenkultur [Fans del Pop: Estudio de una cultura de chicas]
Lothar Mikos
Forum : Qualitative Social Research , 2006,
Abstract: Im Zentrum der Studie steht die Untersuchung der Fans von Boygroups und Girlgroups als einer M dchenkultur. Mit Hilfe der rekonstruktiven Methodologie und der dokumentarischen Methode wurden Einzelf lle daraufhin untersucht, die Fanpraktiken als kulturelle Praktiken zu deuten, die eine Auseinandersetzung mit den normativen Anforderungen an Kinder und Jugendliche darstellen. Im Zentrum steht die geschlechtsspezifische Sozialisation anhand von medialen symbolischen Ressourcen. Die Studie kann zeigen, dass den M dchen in der Fankultur ein Freiraum zur Aushandlung von normativen Anforderungen und zur Auseinandersetzung mit dem eigenen Geschlecht, der eigenen Sexualit t und dem eigenen K rper geboten wird, der er erm glicht, Anpassung und Eigensinn zu erproben. Fanaktivit ten tragen so zur Selbsterm chtigung von M dchen bei. Die Studie liefert einen wichtigen Beitrag zur Erforschung einer spezifischen M dchenkultur und zeigt in ausgezeichneter Weise, wie Medienrepr sentationen als symbolisches Material in allt gliche kulturelle Praktiken eingebaut werden. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0603187 This study focuses on the "girl culture" created by fans of boy groups and girl groups. The central case study is used to examine fan practices as cultural practices using reconstructive and documentary methodologies, and to assess the normative demands placed on young people. The study centers on the question of gender socialization by mediated symbolic resources, and shows that fan culture is a self-determined space in which girls can negotiate normative demands and engage with questions of gender, sexuality and the body, testing conformity and obstinacy. Fan activities are presented as part of the self-empowerment of girls. The study makes an important contribution to the research of a specific girl culture. It shows in a brilliant way how media representations are used as symbolic material in everyday cultural practices. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0603187 Este estudio se centra en la "cultura de chicas" que crean las fans de grupos de chicas y chicos. Se usa el estudio de caso central para examinar las prácticas de las fans en tanto que prácticas culturales, empleando metodologías reconstructivas y documentales, y para valorar las demandas normativas sobre la gente joven. El estudio se centra en el tema de la socialización de género a través de recursos mediados simbólicamente y muestra que la cultura de las fans constituye un espacio auto-determinado en el que las chicas pueden negociar las demandas normativas y tratar los asuntos del género, la sexualidad y el cuerpo, poni
Claus von Holt (1925–2009)
Lothar Bohm
South African Journal of Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4102/sajs.v105i5/6.80
International astronomer Phil Charles meets the ire of the National Research Foundation
Lothar Bohm
South African Journal of Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4102/sajs.v106i3/4.168
The Clean Privacy Ecosystem of the Future Internet
Lothar Fritsch
Future Internet , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/fi5010034
Abstract: This article speculates on the future of privacy and electronic identities on the Internet. Based on a short review of security models and the development of privacy-enhancing technology, privacy and electronic identities will be discussed as parts of a larger context—an ecosystem of personal information and electronic identities. The article argues for an ecosystem view of personal information and electronic identities, as both personal information and identity information are basic required input for many applications. Therefore, for both application owners and users, a functioning ecosystem of personal information and electronic identification is important. For the future of the Internet, high-quality information and controlled circulation of such information is therefore argued as decisive for the value of future Internet applications.
Schamachi/ amax in 1683/1684 – Engelbert Kaempfer’s Intercultural Contacts
Lothar Weiss
Khazar Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: The traveller Engelbert Kaempfer, a Christian German in Swedish diplomatic service, here in Schamachi, comes into real contact with a Muslim culture for the first time. As an academically educated physician he makes profitable use of his profession, as with Nawi Jusbascy, probably a born Azerbaijani, Mohammed Hossein and probably Martiros, perhaps Hafi Saburjan, too. As a Christian living in Schamachi within the Armenian quarter he meets other Christians, the Priest Arakhel, the already mentioned Martiros and maybe Hafi Saburjan. Besides the Armenian priest Arakhel he meets a cleric of another religion, Maheb Aali, the Muslim Molla, probably a born Azerbaijani and having lived there in Schamachi. As a diplomat he makes good contacts with diplomats of other nations, like Mohammed Hossein, a Persian and envoy to Poland, and esspecially with his friend Christophorov, the Greek in Russian service. And there are contacts with a military background, too, with the already-mentioned captain Nawi, and with . if correctly identified . the ghulam Ali Kuli Chan, possibly a born Georgian and all his life in Persian service, as commander-in-chief under two Shahs, one of the most powerful men in Persia and now, 1684, governor of the province of Shirvan.On the one hand all these Schamachi contacts were surely a good start for Kaempfer.s later cultural experiences and his attempts to understand foreign cultures, such as India, Siam and Japan. On the other hand this shows above else that, during those days, Schamachi was a meeting point between great empires and an important place of intercultural contacts at the European-Asian border.
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