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Quaternary history and contemporary patterns in a currently expanding species
Carole Kerdelhué, Lorenzo Zane, Mauro Simonato, Paola Salvato, Jér?me Rousselet, Alain Roques, Andrea Battisti
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-9-220
Abstract: We identified three main clades that were spatially structured. In most of Europe, the genetic diversity pattern was typical for species that experienced marked glaciation cycles. Except in refugia, European populations were characterized by the occurrence of one main haplotype and by a strong reduction in genetic diversity, which is expected in regions that were rapidly re-colonized when climatic conditions improved. In contrast, all other sub-clades around the Mediterranean Basin occurred in limited parts of the range and were strongly structured in space, as is expected in regions in which the impact of glaciations was limited. In such places, genetic diversity was retained in most populations, and almost all haplotypes were endemic. This pattern was extreme on remote Mediterranean islands (Crete, Cyprus, Corsica) where highly differentiated, endemic haplotypes were found. Recent introductions were typified by the existence of closely-related haplotypes in geographically distant populations, which is difficult to detect in most of Europe because of a lack of overall genetic structure.In regions that were not prone to marked glaciations, recent moth introductions/expansions could be detected due to the existence of a strong spatial genetic structure. In contrast, in regions that experienced the most intense Quaternary climatic oscillations, the natural populations are not genetically structured, and contemporary patterns of population expansion remain undetected.Past climate changes have had dramatic impact on the geographic distribution, demography, and thus the evolution of species. The contemporary distribution of genetic diversity cannot be understood without studying how organisms responded to climate over geological times. Many terrestrial species are today responding to the contemporary global warming [1], and their future response will at least partially depend on their previous reactions to climatic oscillations. The 'genetic legacy of the Quaternary ice
No evidence of increased risk of soft tissue sarcomas in the neighborhood of a steel foundry in Verona
Benedetti,Marta; Cristini,Giovanni; Gallo,Stefano; Tessari,Roberta; Simonato,Lorenzo; Comba,Pietro;
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità , 2010, DOI: 10.4415/ANN_10_04_03
Abstract: the aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible association between occurrence of soft tissue sarcomas in verona (italy) and residence near a steel foundry, whose emissions of dioxin-like compounds may be relevant. exposure to total suspended particulate (tsp) emitted from the plant as estimated by adms-urban dispersion model was used as an indirect index of exposure to dioxin-like compounds. verona municipality was divided in six subareas according to the decreasing levels of estimated tsp exposure, and soft tissue sarcomas cases were mapped according to residence at time of diagnosis. standardized incidence ratios were computed. no statistically significant departures between observed and expected cases were detected as illustrated by trend-test results.
Hierarchical Regression for Multiple Comparisons in a Case-Control Study of Occupational Risks for Lung Cancer
Marine Corbin, Lorenzo Richiardi, Roel Vermeulen, Hans Kromhout, Franco Merletti, Susan Peters, Lorenzo Simonato, Kyle Steenland, Neil Pearce, Milena Maule
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038944
Abstract: Background Occupational studies often involve multiple comparisons and therefore suffer from false positive findings. Semi-Bayes adjustment methods have sometimes been used to address this issue. Hierarchical regression is a more general approach, including Semi-Bayes adjustment as a special case, that aims at improving the validity of standard maximum-likelihood estimates in the presence of multiple comparisons by incorporating similarities between the exposures of interest in a second-stage model. Methodology/Principal Findings We re-analysed data from an occupational case-control study of lung cancer, applying hierarchical regression. In the second-stage model, we included the exposure to three known lung carcinogens (asbestos, chromium and silica) for each occupation, under the assumption that occupations entailing similar carcinogenic exposures are associated with similar risks of lung cancer. Hierarchical regression estimates had smaller confidence intervals than maximum-likelihood estimates. The shrinkage toward the null was stronger for extreme, less stable estimates (e.g., “specialised farmers”: maximum-likelihood OR: 3.44, 95%CI 0.90–13.17; hierarchical regression OR: 1.53, 95%CI 0.63–3.68). Unlike Semi-Bayes adjustment toward the global mean, hierarchical regression did not shrink all the ORs towards the null (e.g., “Metal smelting, converting and refining furnacemen”: maximum-likelihood OR: 1.07, Semi-Bayes OR: 1.06, hierarchical regression OR: 1.26). Conclusions/Significance Hierarchical regression could be a valuable tool in occupational studies in which disease risk is estimated for a large amount of occupations when we have information available on the key carcinogenic exposures involved in each occupation. With the constant progress in exposure assessment methods in occupational settings and the availability of Job Exposure Matrices, it should become easier to apply this approach.
Physicians' experiences with end-of-life decision-making: Survey in 6 European countries and Australia
Rurik L?fmark, Tore Nilstun, Colleen Cartwright, Susanne Fischer, Agnes van der Heide, Freddy Mortier, Michael Norup, Lorenzo Simonato, Bregje D Onwuteaka-Philipsen, the EURELD Consortium
BMC Medicine , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1741-7015-6-4
Abstract: An anonymous questionnaire was sent to 16,486 physicians from specialities in which death is common: Australia, Belgium, Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden and Switzerland.The response rate differed between countries (39–68%). The experience of foregoing life-sustaining treatment ranged between 37% and 86%: intensifying the alleviation of pain or other symptoms while taking into account possible hastening of death between 57% and 95%, and experience with deep sedation until death between 12% and 46%. Receiving a request for hastening death differed between 34% and 71%, and intentionally hastening death on the explicit request of a patient between 1% and 56%.There are differences between countries in experiences with ELDs, in willingness to perform ELDs and in receiving requests for euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide. Foregoing treatment and intensifying alleviation of pain and symptoms are practiced and accepted by most physicians in all countries. Physicians with training in palliative care are more inclined to perform ELDs, as are those who attend to higher numbers of terminal patients. Thus, this seems not to be only a matter of opportunity, but also a matter of attitude.Postponing death is not always a self-evident goal of medicine. Other goals have also to guide medical decision-making at the end of life, such as improving the quality of life of patients and their families through the prevention and relief of suffering, even if this might hasten death [1]. End-of-life decisions (ELDs) include decisions about withholding or withdrawing potentially life-prolonging treatment and about alleviation of pain or other symptoms with a possible life-shortening effect. In some countries it is also permissible to make decisions about euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide (EAS), defined as the administration, prescription or supply of drugs to end life at the patient's explicit request.ELDs occur throughout the world, albeit at different rates for different ac
Urinary and sexual outcomes in long-term (5+ years) prostate cancer disease free survivors after radical prostatectomy
Mauro Gacci, Alchiede Simonato, Lorenzo Masieri, John L Gore, Michele Lanciotti, Annalisa Mantella, Mario Rossetti, Sergio Serni, Virginia Varca, Andrea Romagnoli, Carlo Ambruosi, Fabio Venzano, Marco Esposito, Tomaso Montanaro, Giorgio Carmignani, Marco Carini
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-7-94
Abstract: 367 patients treated with RP for clinically localized pCa, without biochemical failure (PSA ≤ 0.2 ng/mL) at the follow up ≥ 5 years were recruited.Urinary (UF) and Sexual Function (SF), Urinary (UB) and Sexual Bother (SB) were assessed by using UCLA-PCI questionnaire. UF, UB, SF and SB were analyzed according to: treatment timing (age at time of RP, FUp duration, age at time of FUp), tumor characteristics (preoperative PSA, TNM stage, pathological Gleason score), nerve sparing (NS) procedure, and hormonal treatment (HT).We calculated the differences between 93 NS-RP without HT (group A) and 274 non-NS-RP or NS-RP with HT (group B). We evaluated the correlation between function and bother in group A according to follow-up duration.Time since prostatectomy had a negative effect on SF and a positive effect SB (both p < 0.001). Elderly men at follow up experienced worse UF and SF (p = 0.02 and p < 0.001) and better SB (p < 0.001).Higher stage PCa negatively affected UB, SF, and SB (all: p ≤ 0.05). NS was associated with better UB, SF and SB (all: p ≤ 0.05); conversely, HT was associated with worse UF, SF and SB (all: p ≤ 0.05).More than 8 years after prostatectomy SF of group A and B were similar. Group A subjects (NS-RP without HT) demonstrated worsening SF, but improved SB, suggesting dissociation of the correlation between SF and SB over time.Older age at follow up and higher pathological stage were associated with worse QoL outcomes after RP. The direct correlation between UF and age at follow up, with no correlation between UF and age at time of RP suggests that other issues (i.e: vascular or neurogenic disorders), subsequent to RP, are determinant on urinary incontinence. After NS-RP without HT the correlation between SF and SB is maintained for 7 years, after which function and bother appear to have divergent trajectories.Prostate cancer and its treatments are costly and significantly impact quantity and quality of life; moreover, most prostate cancer survivors r
Cogni??o, afeto e desenvolvimento humano: a emo??o de viver e a raz?o de existir
Loos, Helga;Sant'Ana, René Simonato;
Educar em Revista , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-40602007000200011
Abstract: this article consists of an incentive towards reflection, providing elements of philosophy and psychology to contribute to a more critic and productive view of scientific activity, as well as recall the amplitude of life. it suggests a position supported primarily by the connections between different phenomena, instead of a fragmented and individualist opinion. it also addresses questions related to the attitude - as a way of living -, ethic, desire, knowledge, affection, and consciousness. the authors explore vygotsky's monist view towards human construction and expression - which is inspired by authors like espinosa - and according to which the psychological processes are created based on interdependent social, cognitive, affective, and behavioral aspects. it presents a perspective beyond the traditional dualism of emotion and reason, granting a more integrated and dynamic comprehension of individuals. as such, this text calls for a search of reason and emotion of living in the human existence dimension.
Apresenta o
Helga Loos,René Simonato Sant'Ana
Educar em Revista , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/s0104-40602010000100002
Is it plausible to expect a close encounter of the Earth with a yet undiscovered astronomical object in the next few years?  [PDF]
Lorenzo Iorio
Natural Science (NS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2010.211146
Abstract: We analytically and numerically investigate the possibility that a still undiscovered body X, moving along an unbound hyperbolic path from outside the solar system, may penetrate its inner regions in the next few years posing a threat to the Earth. By conservatively using as initial position of X the lower bounds on the present‐day distance of X dynamically inferred from the gravitational perturbations induced by it on the orbital motions of the planets of the solar system, both the analyses show that, in order to reach the Earth’s orbit in the next 2 yr, X should move at a highly unrealistic speed , whatever its mass is. For example, by assuming for it a solar ( M ) or brown dwarf mass ( ), now at not less than kau (1 kau=1000 astronomical units), v would be of the order of and of the speed of light c, respectively. By assuming larger present‐day distances for X, on the basis of the lacking of direct observational evidences of electromagnetic origin for it, its speed would be even higher. Instead, the fastest solitary massive objects known so far, like hypervelocity stars (HVSs) and supernova remnants (SRs), travel at , having acquired so huge velocities in some of the most violent astrophysical phenomena like interactions with supermassive galactic black holes and supernova explosions. It turns out that the orbit of the Earth would not be macroscopically altered by a close (0.2 au) passage of such an ultrafast body X in the next 2 yr. On the contrary, our planet would be hurled into the space if a Sun‐sized body X would encounter it by moving at . On the other hand, this would imply that such a X should be now at just 20-30 au, contrary to all direct observational and indirect dynamical evidences.
On Some Critical Issues of the LAGEOS-Based Tests of the Lense-Thirring Effect  [PDF]
Lorenzo Iorio
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2011.24029
Abstract: We summarize some critical issues pertaining the tests of the general relativistic Lense-Thirring effect performed by I. Ciufolini and coworkers in the gravitational field of the Earth with the geodetic satellites LAGEOS and LAGEOS II tracked with the Satellite Laser Ranging technique.
On Possible A-Priori “Imprinting” of General Relativity Itself on the Performed Lense-Thirring Tests with LAGEOS Satellites  [PDF]
Lorenzo Iorio
Communications and Network (CN) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/cn.2010.21003
Abstract: The impact of possible a-priori “imprinting” effects of general relativity itself on recent attempts to measure the general relativistic Lense-Thirring effect with the LAGEOS satellites orbiting the Earth and the terrestrial geopotential models from the dedicated mission GRACE is investigated. It is analytically shown that general relativity, not explicitly solved for in the GRACE-based models, may “imprint” their even zonal harmonic coeffi-cients of low degrees at a non-negligible level, given the present-day accuracy in recovering them. This trans-lates into a bias of the LAGEOS-based relativistic tests as large as the Lense-Thirring effect itself. Further analyses should include general relativity itself in the GRACE data processing by explicitly solving for it.
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