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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 7431 matches for " Lorenzo Lo Muzio "
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Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome)
Lorenzo Lo Muzio
Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1750-1172-3-32
Abstract: The estimated prevalence varies from 1/57,000 to 1/256,000, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1.Main clinical manifestations include multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws, hyperkeratosis of palms and soles, skeletal abnormalities, intracranial ectopic calcifications, and facial dysmorphism (macrocephaly, cleft lip/palate and severe eye anomalies). Intellectual deficit is present in up to 5% of cases. BCCs (varying clinically from flesh-colored papules to ulcerating plaques and in diameter from 1 to 10 mm) are most commonly located on the face, back and chest. The number of BBCs varies from a few to several thousand. Recurrent jaw cysts occur in 90% of patients. Skeletal abnormalities (affecting the shape of the ribs, vertebral column bones, and the skull) are frequent. Ocular, genitourinary and cardiovascular disorders may occur. About 5–10% of NBCCS patients develop the brain malignancy medulloblastoma, which may be a potential cause of early death.NBCCS is caused by mutations in the PTCH1 gene and is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with complete penetrance and variable expressivity.Clinical diagnosis relies on specific criteria. Gene mutation analysis confirms the diagnosis. Genetic counseling is mandatory. Antenatal diagnosis is feasible by means of ultrasound scans and analysis of DNA extracted from fetal cells (obtained by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling). Main differential diagnoses include Bazex syndrome, trichoepithelioma papulosum multiplex and Torre's syndrome (Muir-Torre's syndrome).Management requires a multidisciplinary approach. Keratocysts are treated by surgical removal. Surgery for BBCs is indicated when the number of lesions is limited; other treatments include laser ablation, photodynamic therapy and topical chemotherapy. Radiotherapy should be avoided. Vitamin A analogs may play a preventive role against development of new BCCs.Life expectancy in NBCCS is not significantly altered but morb
Multiple Masses on the Tongue of a Patient with Generalized Mucocutaneous Lesions
Luca Pastore ,Maria Luisa Fiorella,Raffaele Fiorella,Lorenzo Lo Muzio
PLOS Medicine , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0050212
The role of human papillomavirus in the pathogenesis of head & neck squamous cell carcinoma: an overview
Giuseppe Pannone, Angela Santoro, Silvana Papagerakis, Lorenzo Lo Muzio, Gaetano De Rosa, Pantaleo Bufo
Infectious Agents and Cancer , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1750-9378-6-4
Abstract: Comparing findings reported in the recent literature, the data of this state of the art about HPV might add useful informations concerning oropharyngeal carcinogenesis. Moreover, our review would be useful in order to define novel perspectives of treatment choice for Head & Neck cancer patients, by combining well known chemotherapeutical drugs with new molecular "target" therapy.HNC is the eighth most common cause of cancer death worldwide. Its incidence varies widely among different regions. In North America and the EU, HNC accounts for 3% to 4% of all cancer diagnoses. Conversely, in Southeast Asia and Africa, HNC accounts for approximately 8% to 10% of all cancers [1]. In EU for 1998 EUCAN reports 42.109 cases of oral and pharynx cancer with 15.744 deaths for men and 11.447 cases with 4.434 deaths for women for a total of 53.556 cases with 20.178 deaths [2]. Up to now OPSCCs represent one of the major health issues, with over 200.000 new cases reported worldwide annually [3]. Although certain subsets of HNC have fallen in parallel with the reduction in smoking, rates of OPSCCs, particularly tongue and tonsillar cancers, have risen steadily by 2.1% and 3.9% among men and women respectively, aged 20-44 years from 1973 to 2001 [4,5]. Though improvements in screening and early diagnosis have dramatically reduced the incidence of these neoplasms in recent years, the 5-year-disease-free survival is still poor, despite the great scientific and financial efforts [6]. The AJCC has accurately defined the primitive anatomic sites of the OSCC: buccal mucosa (2-10%, but in South-East of Asia 40%, for the diffuse habit to chew betel nuts), lip (4-40%, particularly in the lower lip of old patients affected from chronic actinic cheilitis); alveolar ridge (2-18%, including upper and lower gum); retro molar trigonous (2-6%); hard palate (3-6%); floor of the mouth (25%); the ventral two thirds of the tongue (50%, recently raising among young people under 45 years); oropharynx (25%)
P-cadherin expression and survival rate in oral squamous cell carcinoma:an immunohistochemical study
Lorenzo Lo Muzio, Giuseppina Campisi, Antonio Farina, Corrado Rubini, Giuseppe Pannone, Rosario Serpico, Gregorio Laino, Alfredo De Lillo, Francesco Carinci
BMC Cancer , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-5-63
Abstract: In a retrospective study, a cohort of 67 OSCC patients was investigated for P-cad expression and its cellular localization by immunohistochemistry; some respective healthy margins of resection were similarly investigated as standard controls. After grouping for P-cad expression, OSCCs were statistically analyzed for the variables age, gender, histological grading (G), TNM, Staging, and overall survival rate. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed.37 cases (55.2%) of OSCC showed membranous/cytoplasmic positivity for P-cad, whereas 30 (44.8 %) were negative. Although with some differences in membranous vs cytoplasmic localization of P-cad in OSCC with different G, no statistical association was found between P-cad expression and any variables considered at baseline. In terms of prognostic significance, P-cad non expression was found to have an independent association with poorer overall survival rate than P-cad expressing group (P = 0.056); moreover, among P-cad +ve patients the best prognosis was for those OSCC with membranous (P < 0.0001) than those with cytoplasmic P-cad expression.On the basis of these results, it is possible to suggest P-cad as an early marker of poor prognosis. The abnormal or lack of P-cad expression could constitute an hallmark of aggressive biological behavior in OSCCInvasive OSCC, in spite of improved therapeutic procedures, actually show a generally poor prognosis since its local aggressiveness and metastases. In particular, the incidence of lymph node metastases has been found to be significantly associated with several factors; among these, not only macroscopic parameters, such as clinical stage, localization and thickness of primary tumours [1-10], but also microscopic-molecular parameters from differentiation of tumoral cells up to their skill for adherence [11-14]. Recently, many investigations have been performed in this latter direction, until to know that intercellular adhesiveness is mediated by a family of glycoprotei
Changes in pharyngeal aerobic microflora in oral breathers after palatal rapid expansion
Angela Cazzolla, Giuseppina Campisi, Grazia Lacaita, Marco Cuccia, Antonio Ripa, Nunzio Testa, Domenico Ciavarella, Lorenzo Lo Muzio
BMC Oral Health , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-6-2
Abstract: In an open clinical trial, we studied 50 oral breathers, aged 8 to 14 years and suffering from both maxillary constriction and posterior cross-bite. At baseline, patients were examined by a single otorhinolaryngologist (ENT), confirming nasal obstruction in all subjects by posterior rhino-manometric test. Patients were evaluated three times by oropharyngeal swabs:1) at baseline (T = 0); 2) after palatal spreading out (T = 1); and 3) at the end of RPE treatment (T = 2). With regard to the microbiological aspect, the most common and potentially pathogenic oral microrganisms (i.e. Streptococcus pyogenes, Diplococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus spp, Branhamella catarrhalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans) were specifically detected in proper culture plates, isolated colonies were identified by means of biochemical tests and counted by calibrated loop. The data were analyzed by means of the following tests: Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test and Wilcoxon's test.After the use of RME there was a statistically significant decrease of Staphylococcus aureus stock at CFU/mLat T1(P = 0.0005; Z = -3,455 by Wilcoxon Rank test) and T2 (P < 0.0001; Z = -4,512 by Wilcoxon Rank test) vs T0. No significant changes were found for the other examined microrganisms.Our data suggest that RPE therapy in oral breathers may strongly reduce the pathogenic aerobic and facultatively anaerobic microflora in the oral pharynx after a normalization of the upper airways function, and may reduce the risk of respiratory infections.Aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria are prevalent among the bacterial populations of the human body, particularly on mucous membrane surfaces. In the oral cavity these bacteria are found on the tooth surface (above all in subgingival plaque), in the saliva, on the tongue surface and in the tonsillar crypts. [1]Genera commonly found in the oral cavity are Actinomyces, Arachnia, Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Eubacterium, Fusobacterium, Lacto
Prognostic value analysis of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor in oral squamous cell carcinoma: an immunohistochemical study
Roberta Bacchiocchi, Corrado Rubini, Elisa Pierpaoli, Giulia Borghetti, Pasquale Procacci, Pier Nocini, Andrea Santarelli, Romina Rocchetti, Domenico Ciavarella, Lorenzo Lo Muzio, Francesca Fazioli
BMC Cancer , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-8-220
Abstract: In a retrospective study, a cohort of 189 OSCC patients was investigated for uPAR expression and its cellular localization by immunohistochemistry. As standard controls, 8 normal oral mucosal tissues free of malignancy, obtained from patients with no evidence or history of oral cavity tumours, were similarly investigated. After grouping for uPAR expression, OSCCs were statistically analyzed for the variables age, gender, histological grading (G), tumour size, recurrence, TNM staging and overall survival rate.In our immunohistochemical study, 74 cases (39.1%) of OSCC showed a mostly cytoplasmic positivity for uPAR, whereas 115 were negative. uPAR expression correlated with tumour differentiation grade and prognosis: percentage of positive cases was the greatest in G3 (70.4%) and patients positives for uPAR expression had an expectation of life lower than those for uPAR negatives.The results obtained in this study suggest a role of uPAR as a potential biomarker useful to identify higher risk subgroups of OSCC patients.Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common cancers, with a world incidence of more than 350 000 new cases per year [1]. In spite of improved therapeutic procedures, the mortality rate for this neoplasia has not changed appreciably in the Western world for over 20 years: the 5-year overall survival does not exceed 55% which is mainly caused by locally aggressive tumour phenotypes. At the moment, the most important prognostic factor for OSCC is efficacy of surgical treatment which consists in "complete" excision of the primary lesions and includes intra-operative histopathological examination of peri-tumoral tissues to confirm the presence of tumour-free excision margins. Nevertheless, within 24 months, up to 50% of the cases have relapse and/or metastasis, the possible explanations being inappropriate histopathological evaluation or the presence of "occult" cells that are undetectable by means of the currently used diagnostic procedures
Update on gingival overgrowth by cyclosporine A in renal transplants
Ciavarella,Domenico; Guiglia,Rosario; Campisi,Giuseppina; Cosola,Michele Di; Liberto,Chiara Di; Sabatucci,Antonio; Escudero,Nayra; Bascones,Antonio; Lo Muzio,Lorenzo;
Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal (Internet) , 2007,
Abstract: severe gingival overgrowth is one of the most frequent side effects in renal transplant patients associated with assumption of cyclosporine a. several associations with age, sex, dosage, duration of therapy or interval since transplantation have been hypothesized. the introduction of alternative immunosuppressant drugs have been suggested to permit better long-term transplant outcomes and a decrease in incidence of gingival overgrowth. the aim of the present paper is to summarize current knowledge regarding aetiology, pathogenesis and management of gingival overgrowth induced by cyclosporine a.
MMP-10/Stromelysin-2 Promotes Invasion of Head and Neck Cancer
Elsayed Mohamed Deraz, Yasusei Kudo, Maki Yoshida, Mariko Obayashi, Takaaki Tsunematsu, Hirotaka Tani, Samadarani B. S. M. Siriwardena, Mohammad Reza Kiekhaee, Guangying Qi, Shinji Iizuka, Ikuko Ogawa, Giuseppina Campisi, Lorenzo Lo Muzio, Yoshimitsu Abiko, Akira Kikuchi, Takashi Takata
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025438
Abstract: Background Periostin, IFN-induced transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1) and Wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 5B (Wnt-5b) were previously identified as the invasion promoted genes of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) by comparing the gene expression profiles between parent and a highly invasive clone. We have previously reported that Periostin and IFITM1 promoted the invasion of HNSCC cells. Here we demonstrated that Wnt-5b overexpression promoted the invasion of HNSCC cells. Moreover, stromelysin-2 (matrix metalloproteinase-10; MMP-10) was identified as a common up-regulated gene among Periostin, IFITM1 and Wnt-5b overexpressing HNSCC cells by using microarray data sets. In this study, we investigated the roles of MMP-10 in the invasion of HNSCC. Methods and Findings We examined the expression of MMP-10 in HNSCC cases by immunohistochemistry. High expression of MMP-10 was frequently observed and was significantly correlated with the invasiveness and metastasis in HNSCC cases. Next, we examined the roles of MMP-10 in the invasion of HNSCC cells in vitro. Ectopic overexpression of MMP-10 promoted the invasion of HNSCC cells, and knockdown of MMP-10 suppressed the invasion of HNSCC cells. Moreover, MMP-10 knockdown suppressed Periostin and Wnt-5b-promoted invasion. Interestingly, MMP-10 overexpression induced the decreased p38 activity and MMP-10 knockdown induced the increased p38 activity. In addition, treatment with a p38 inhibitor SB203580 in HNSCC cells inhibited the invasion. Conclusions These results suggest that MMP-10 plays an important role in the invasion and metastasis of HNSCC, and that invasion driven by MMP-10 is partially associated with p38 MAPK inhibition. We suggest that MMP-10 can be used as a marker for prediction of metastasis in HNSCC.
Evaluation of a combined triple method to detect causative HPV in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas: p16 Immunohistochemistry, Consensus PCR HPV-DNA, and In Situ Hybridization
Giuseppe Pannone, Vito Rodolico, Angela Santoro, Lorenzo Lo Muzio, Renato Franco, Gerardo Botti, Gabriella Aquino, Maria Pedicillo, Simona Cagiano, Giuseppina Campisi, Corrado Rubini, Silvana Papagerakis, Gaetano De Rosa, Maria Tornesello, Franco M Buonaguro, Stefania Staibano, Pantaleo Bufo
Infectious Agents and Cancer , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1750-9378-7-4
Abstract: All the HN-SCCs confirmed HPV positive by PCR and/or ISH were also p16 positive by IHC, with the latter showing a very high level of sensitivity as single test (100% in both OSCC and OPSCC) but lower specificity level (74% in OSCC and 93% in OPSCC).Concordance analysis between ISH and Consensus PCR showed a faint agreement in OPSCC (κ = 0.38) and a moderate agreement in OSCC (κ = 0.44). Furthermore, the addition of double positive score (ISHpositive and Consensus PCR positive) increased significantly the specificity of HR-HPV detection on formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) samples (100% in OSCC and 78.5% in OPSCC), but reduced the sensitivity (33% in OSCC and 60% in OPSCC). The significant reduction of sensitivity by the double method was compensated by a very high sensitivity of p16-IHC detection in the triple approach.Although HR-HPVs detection is of utmost importance in clinical settings for the Head and Neck Cancer patients, there is no consensus on which to consider the 'golden standard' among the numerous detection methods available either as single test or combinations. Until recently, quantitative E6 RNA PCR has been considered the 'golden standard' since it was demonstrated to have very high accuracy level and very high statistical significance associated with prognostic parameters. In contrast, quantitative E6 DNA PCR has proven to have very high level of accuracy but lesser prognostic association with clinical outcome than the HPV E6 oncoprotein RNA PCR. However, although it is theoretically possible to perform quantitative PCR detection methods also on FFPE samples, they reach the maximum of accuracy on fresh frozen tissue. Furthermore, worldwide diagnostic laboratories have not all the same ability to analyze simultaneously both FFPE and fresh tissues with these quantitative molecular detection methods. Therefore, in the current clinical practice a p16-IHC test is considered as sufficient for HPV diagnostic in accordance with the recently published
RNA-Mediated Gene Silencing of Nicotinamide N-Methyltransferase Is Associated with Decreased Tumorigenicity in Human Oral Carcinoma Cells
Valentina Pozzi, Davide Sartini, Stefano Morganti, Rachela Giuliante, Giulia Di Ruscio, Andrea Santarelli, Romina Rocchetti, Corrado Rubini, Marco Tomasetti, Giovanni Giannatempo, Fiorenza Orlando, Mauro Provinciali, Lorenzo Lo Muzio, Monica Emanuelli
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071272
Abstract: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common type of oral cancer. Despite progress in the treatment of OSCC, overall survival has not improved substantially in the last three decades. Therefore, identification of reliable biomarkers becomes essential to develop effective anti-cancer therapy. In this study, we focused on the enzyme Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT), which plays a fundamental role in the biotransformation of many xenobiotics. Although several tumors have been associated with abnormal NNMT expression, its role in cancer cell metabolism remains largely unknown. In this report, 7 human oral cancer cell lines were examined for NNMT expression by Real-Time PCR, Western blot and HPLC-based catalytic assay. Subsequently, we evaluated the in vitro effect of shRNA-mediated silencing of NNMT on cell proliferation. In vivo tumorigenicity of oral cancer cells with stable knockdown of NNMT was assayed by using xenograft models. High expression levels of NNMT were found in PE/CA PJ-15 cells, in keeping with the results of Western blot and catalytic activity assay. PE/CA PJ-15 cell line was stably transfected with shRNA plasmids against NNMT and analyzed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-dipheny?ltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and soft agar Assays. Transfected and control cells were injected into athymic mice in order to evaluate the effect of NNMT silencing on tumor growth. NNMT downregulation resulted in decreased cell proliferation and colony formation ability on soft agar. In athymic mice, NNMT silencing induced a marked reduction in tumour volume. Our results show that the downregulation of NNMT expression in human oral carcinoma cells significantly inhibits cell growth in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. All these experimental data seem to suggest that NNMT plays a critical role in the proliferation and tumorigenic capacity of oral cancer cells, and its inhibition could represent a potential molecular approach to the treatment of oral carcinoma.
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