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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 209346 matches for " Loren L. Armstrong "
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Admixture Mapping and Subsequent Fine-Mapping Suggests a Biologically Relevant and Novel Association on Chromosome 11 for Type 2 Diabetes in African Americans
Janina M. Jeff, Loren L. Armstrong, Marylyn D. Ritchie, Joshua C. Denny, Abel N. Kho, Melissa A. Basford, Wendy A. Wolf, Jennifer A. Pacheco, Rongling Li, Rex L. Chisholm, Dan M. Roden, M. Geoffrey Hayes, Dana C. Crawford
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086931
Abstract: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex metabolic disease that disproportionately affects African Americans. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several loci that contribute to T2D in European Americans, but few studies have been performed in admixed populations. We first performed a GWAS of 1,563 African Americans from the Vanderbilt Genome-Electronic Records Project and Northwestern University NUgene Project as part of the electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) network. We successfully replicate an association in TCF7L2, previously identified by GWAS in this African American dataset. We were unable to identify novel associations at p<5.0×10?8 by GWAS. Using admixture mapping as an alternative method for discovery, we performed a genome-wide admixture scan that suggests multiple candidate genes associated with T2D. One finding, TCIRG1, is a T-cell immune regulator expressed in the pancreas and liver that has not been previously implicated for T2D. We performed subsequent fine-mapping to further assess the association between TCIRG1 and T2D in >5,000 African Americans. We identified 13 independent associations between TCIRG1, CHKA, and ALDH3B1 genes on chromosome 11 and T2D. Our results suggest a novel region on chromosome 11 identified by admixture mapping is associated with T2D in African Americans.
Cave breakdown by vadose weathering.
Osborne R. Armstrong L.
International Journal of Speleology , 2002,
Abstract: Vadose weathering is a significant mechanism for initiating breakdown in caves. Vadose weathering of ore bodies, mineral veins, palaeokarst deposits, non-carbonate keystones and impure, altered or fractured bedrock, which is intersected by caves, will frequently result in breakdown. Breakdown is an active, ongoing process. Breakdown occurs throughout the vadose zone, and is not restricted to large diameter passages, or to cave ceilings. The surfaces of disarticulated blocks are commonly coated, rather than having fresh broken faces, and blocks continue to disintegrate after separating from the bedrock. Not only gypsum, but also hydromagnesite and aragonite are responsible for crystal wedging. It is impossible to study or identify potential breakdown foci by surface surveys alone, in-cave observation and mapping are essential.
Partitions, Compartments and Portals: Cave Development in internally impounded karst masses.
Osborne R. Armstrong L.
International Journal of Speleology , 2005,
Abstract: Dykes and other vertical bodies can act as aquicludes within bodies of karst rock. These partitions separate isolated bodies of solublerock called compartments. Speleogenetically each compartment will behave as a small impounded-karst until the partition becomesbreached. Breaches through partitions, portals, allow water, air and biota including humans to pass between sections of caves thatwere originally isolated.
The Effects of Birth Order and Birth Interval on the Phenotypic Expression of Autism Spectrum Disorder
Loren A. Martin, Narges L. Horriat
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051049
Abstract: A rise in the prevalence of diagnosed cases of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been reported in several studies in recent years. While this rise in ASD prevalence is at least partially related to increased awareness and broadened diagnostic criteria, the role of environmental factors cannot be ruled out, especially considering that the cause of most cases of ASD remains unknown. The study of families with multiple affected children can provide clues about ASD etiology. While the majority of research on ASD multiplex families has focused on identifying genetic anomalies that may underlie the disorder, the study of symptom severity across ASD birth order may provide evidence for environmental factors in ASD. We compared social and cognitive measures of behavior between over 300 first and second affected siblings within multiplex autism families obtained from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange dataset. Measures included nonverbal IQ assessed with the Ravens Colored Progressive Matrices, verbal IQ assessed with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, and autism severity assessed with the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), an instrument established as a quantitative measure of autism. The results indicated that females were more severely impacted by ASD than males, especially first affected siblings. When first and second affected siblings were compared, significant declines in nonverbal and verbal IQ scores were observed. In addition, SRS results demonstrated a significant increase in autism severity between first and second affected siblings consistent with an overall decline in function as indicated by the IQ data. These results remained significant after controlling for the age and sex of the siblings. Surprisingly, the SRS scores were found to only be significant when the age difference between siblings was less than 2 years. These results suggest that some cases of ASD are influenced by a dosage effect involving unknown epigenetic, environmental, and/or immunological factors.
Predictors of hospitalization and institutionalization in Medicaid patient populations with Alzheimer’s Disease  [PDF]
Adrienne M. Gilligan, Daniel C. Malone, Terri L. Warholak, Edward P. Armstrong
Advances in Alzheimer's Disease (AAD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aad.2013.23011
Abstract: Objectives: Determine predictors of hospitalization and institutionalization in Medicaid populations with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Methods: Data were obtained from the Centers for Medicareand Medicaid Services (CMS). Individuals enrolled in Florida,New Jersey, and New York Medicaid programs on January 1, 2004, remained in that program for 1 year and exposed to an AD medication were included. AD diagnosis was based on the ICD-9-CM code 331.0. Outcomes of interest were hospitalization and institutionalization. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to test for the association between outcomes of interest and demographics, resource utilization factors, and type of AD pharmacotherapy exposure. Results: A total of 65,442 individuals qualified for the study. Age was positively and significantly associated with hospitalization (p < 0.001) and institutionalization (p < 0.001). Exposure tomemantine was significantly associated with less chance of hospitalization (OR = 0.88; 99% CI: 0.77 - 0.99). Non-Hispanic Blacks were significantly (p < 0.001) more likely to be hospitalized than Non-Hispanic Whites (OR = 1.60; 99% CI: 1.41 - 1.81). Compared to Non-Hispanic Whites, Non-Hispanic Blacks (OR = 0.73; 99% CI: 0.60 - 0.88), Hispanics (OR = 0.36; 99% CI: 0.27 - 0.47), and Non-Hispanic Others (OR = 0.42; 99% CI: 0.21 - 0.82) were significantly less likely to be institutionalized. Individuals prescribed donepezil (OR = 1.29, 99% CI, 1.08 - 1.54) and galantamine (OR = 1.46, 99% CI: 1.19 - 1.79) were significantly more likely to have an institutionalization claim (p < 0.001 for both medications). Residents of New York were significantly morelikely to be hospitalized than Florida residents (OR = 1.30; 99% CI: 1.17 - 1.44), where as New Jersey residents were significantly less likely to be hospitalized (OR = 0.75; 99% CI: 0.66 - 0.85). Finally, compared toFloridaresidents, residents of New Jerseywere significantly more likely to be institutionalized (OR = 4.61; 99% CI: 3.98 - 5.33). Conclusion: Demographics, state of residence and pharmacotherapy exposure weresignificant predictors of health care service utilization. Further pharmacoeconomic studies in AD medication therapy are warranted.
Transitions to Nematic states in homogeneous suspensions of high aspect ratio magnetic rods
A. Gopinath,L. Mahadevan,R. C. Armstrong
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1063/1.2167811
Abstract: Isotropic-Nematic and Nematic-Nematic transitions from a homogeneous base state of a suspension of high aspect ratio, rod-like magnetic particles are studied for both Maier-Saupe and the Onsager excluded volume potentials. A combination of classical linear stability and asymptotic analyses provides insight into possible nematic states emanating from both the isotropic and nematic non-polarized equilibrium states. Local analytical results close to critical points in conjunction with global numerical results (Bhandar, 2002) yields a unified picture of the bifurcation diagram and provides a convenient base state to study effects of external orienting fields.
Prospective Associations between Religiousness/Spirituality and Depression and Mediating Effects of Forgiveness in a Nationally Representative Sample of United States Adults
Loren L. Toussaint,Justin C. Marschall,David R. Williams
Depression Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/267820
Abstract: The present investigation examines the prospective associations of religiousness/spirituality with depression and the extent to which various dimensions of forgiveness act as mediating mechanisms of these associations. Data are from a nationally representative sample of United States adults who were first interviewed in 1998 and reinterviewed six months later. Measures of religiousness/spirituality, forgiveness, and various sociodemographics were collected. Depression was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview administered by trained interviewers. Results showed that religiousness/spirituality, forgiveness of oneself and others, and feeling forgiven by God were associated, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally, with depressive status. After controlling for initial depressive status, only forgiveness of oneself and others remained statistically significant predictors of depression. Path analyses revealed that religiousness/spirituality conveyed protective effects, prospectively, on depression by way of an indirect path through forgiveness of others but not forgiveness of oneself. Hence, forgiveness of others acts as a mechanism of the salutary effect of religiousness/spirituality, but forgiveness of oneself is an independent predictor. Conclusions regarding the continued development of this type of research and for the treatment of clients with depression are offered. 1. Introduction The present study examines the associations of religiousness/spirituality with depression in a nationally representative sample of United States adults. A parallel aim is to investigate the extent to which various dimensions of forgiveness may act as mechanisms of the connection between religiousness/spirituality and depression. Though research on religiousness/spirituality and its connections to depression and broader mental health has proliferated for several decades, only a small fraction of this research has utilized longitudinal designs and population-based samples. The present study aims to address this void in the literature and contribute to our understanding in this area. In the Handbook of Religion and Health, Koenig et al. [1] define religion as “an organized system of beliefs, practices, rituals, and symbols” (page 18) intended to encourage a close relationship with God or higher power/truth/reality and to help individuals understand their connection to others living in a community. Spirituality is defined as the search for understanding and meaning in life that may or may not be related to religious rituals and community [1]. Koenig
Effective Population Size, Gene Flow, and Species Status in a Narrow Endemic Sunflower, Helianthus neglectus, Compared to Its Widespread Sister Species, H. petiolaris
Andrew R. Raduski,Loren H. Rieseberg,Jared L. Strasburg
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/ijms11020492
Abstract: Species delimitation has long been a difficult and controversial process, and different operational criteria often lead to different results. In particular, investigators using phenotypic vs. molecular data to delineate species may recognize different boundaries, especially if morphologically or ecologically differentiated populations have only recently diverged. Here we examine the genetic relationship between the widespread sunflower species Helianthus petiolaris and its narrowly distributed sand dune endemic sister species H. neglectus using sequence data from nine nuclear loci. The two species were initially described as distinct based on a number of minor morphological differences, somewhat different ecological tolerances, and at least one chromosomal rearrangement distinguishing them; but detailed molecular data has not been available until now. We find that, consistent with previous work, H. petiolaris is exceptionally genetically diverse. Surprisingly, H. neglectus harbors very similar levels of genetic diversity (average diversity across loci is actually slightly higher in H. neglectus). It is extremely unlikely that such a geographically restricted species could maintain these levels of genetic variation in isolation. In addition, the two species show very little evidence of any genetic divergence, and estimates of interspecific gene flow are comparable to gene flow estimates among regions within H. petiolaris. These results indicate that H. petiolaris and H. neglectus likely do not represent two distinct, isolated gene pools; H. neglectus is probably more accurately thought of as a geographically restricted, morphologically and ecologically distinct subspecies of H. petiolaris rather than a separate species.
X-ray Shadowing Experiments Toward Infrared Dark Clouds
Loren D. Anderson,Steve L. Snowden,Thomas M. Bania
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/721/2/1319
Abstract: We searched for X-ray shadowing toward two infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) using the MOS detectors on XMM-Newton to learn about the Galactic distribution of X-ray emitting plasma. IRDCs make ideal X-ray shadowing targets of 3/4 kev photons due to their high column densities, relatively large angular sizes, and known kinematic distances. Here we focus on two clouds near 30 deg. Galactic longitude at distances of 2 and 5 kpc from the Sun. We derive the foreground and background column densities of molecular and atomic gas in the direction of the clouds. We find that the 3/4 kev emission must be distributed throughout the Galactic disk. It is therefore linked to the structure of the cooler material of the ISM, and to the birth of stars.
Forgiveness education in fibromyalgia: A qualitative inquiry  [PDF]
Loren L. Toussaint, Ann Vincent, Mary O. Whipple, Samantha J. McAllister, Dawn M. Finnie, Julie C. Hathaway, Terry H. Oh, Kevin C. Fleming, Kristin S. Vickers Douglas
Pain Studies and Treatment (PST) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/pst.2014.21003
Abstract:

The purpose of this qualitative study was to assess perspectives on the acceptability and the potential applicability of a forgiveness education in patients with fibromyalgia. The concept and tools of forgiveness were presented to thirteen women (age: 40 - 54 years) with a previous diagnosis of fibromyalgia. Subjects participated in 1 of 2 focus groups following a 90-minute education session in which forgiveness was presented as an emotion-focused coping strategy to deal with interpersonal stressors. Qualitative assessment of focus group discussions reveals 3 themes: 1) forgiveness is healthy and reduces pain, 2) forgiveness is within a patient’s personal control, and 3) forgiveness education is similar to other types of patient education and is well received. Our results suggest that forgiveness education is acceptable and feasible in patients with fibromyalgia. This justifies further exploration of forgiveness as an emotion-focused self- management strategy to decrease psychological distress.

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